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Attention--> Interest-->Desire--> Action

Levels of Persuasion

C= cognitive/rational

How is advertising success measured?

Sales, brand choice, market share, elasticity

3 key intermediate advertising effects

Experience, affect, and cognition.

*The omission of one can lead to the overestimation of the effect of the others

Short term elasticities are...

...small and decrease during the product life cycle

What frequency is sufficient for advertising an established brand?

1-3 reminders per purchase cycle

Is the concept of a space of intermediate effects supported?

Yes, but a hierarchy (sequence) is not.

Cognitive bias interferes with...

... affect measurement

2 tasks of media planning

message creation
message dissemination

Media planning is...

the process of selecting media time and space to disseminate advertising messages in order to accomplish marketing objectives

brand contact

any planned and unplanned form of exposure to and interaction with a product or service

planned brand contact

tv and radio commercials, product sampling

unplanned brand contact

word of mouth, can be more influential and less suspicious than planned brand contact

4 steps to media planning

1: set media objectives in light of marketing and ad. objectives
2: develop media strategy
3: design tactics for realizing strategy
4: evaluate the plan's effectiveness

target audience

people whom the media plans to influence through brand contact, can be primary or secondary


gender, age, etc.


personality traits

generational cohorts

baby boomers, gen x, gen y

vehicle distribution

# of copies a magazine has... eg. coverage

vehicle exposure

# of those exposed to vehicle

advertising recall

cognitive effect of advertising

advertising persuasion

emotional effect of advertising

leads & sales

behavioral effects


sets objective total # of people exposed to media plan

1: percentage 50= 50%
2: measures audience acc. over time
3: doesn't double count

Gross Rating Points (GRP)

if 42% of US TV households are watching, a commercial running once has a GRP of 42, twice, 84, etc.



84/56=1.5, viewers had 1.5 opportunities to watch an ad

frequency distribution

how many exposures different people experience, how many people will see the ad once, twice, etc.

Sales is:

identifying and satisfying customer needs profitably. Profitable for you, profitable for them

What 3 people do advertisers work for?

*The employer, the advertiser, the consumer


Top of mind awareness

Expectations of sales staff

-develop new business
-maximize revenue
-retain current business

SMART goals

Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely

The Sales Cycle:

Prospecting, qualifying, needs analysis, presentation, answering objections, closing, relationship management


The balance of finding prospects while managing relationships and making presentations


Who is the decision maker, is this organization capable of paying?

Needs Analysis:

Build trust, gather information


well-planned statement, pique interest, connect w/their interests... recap challenges addressed and state the purpose of the call

Answering objections

the time to address concerns or fears

Phour phactors of phailure

the product itself, the medium, the schedule, the copy/creative


seal the deal!

Types of media research

audience measurement
media effects: violence, gender & ethnic stereotyping, advertising and influence, children's issues

quantitative ratings/research

numbers by demographic, psychographic, social purchase patterns, Values and Lifestyles studies (VALS)

standard error

the amount of error that may be attributed to sampling, expressed as a percentage... < or >

confidence level

typically .05, which means that 95 times out of 100, the true "rating" for the total population will fall within the margin of standard error


November, Feb, May, and July for 4 weeks


Nielsen- a week's worth of viewing by household, Arbitron- continuous measurement (44 weeks)


personal people meters

Desired outcomes for TV & Radio

TV: audience flow (show loyalty) and news supremacy. Radio: total audience (cume) and time spent listening (AQH)


Metro survey area (home city and closest counties)


designated market area (Nielsen) or ADI (ARB) area of dominant influence


Nielsen Survey Index (outside DMA) for total reach


% of total population tuned to a specific station during a specific day part


Homes/persons using TV


persons using radio


reported as persons, shares, ratings (avg 1/4 hour)


total # of different people who watch TV or listen to radio in a given amount of time


time spent listening


cost of schedule divided by GRPs, cost per point


cost divided by persons or households reached x1000

Gross impressions

(spots x AQH) disregards duplication


spots x rating points

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