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189 terms

Mexican Folk Music - Midterm

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Beat
The regular pulse of music which may be dictated by the rise or fall of the hand or baton of the conductor, by a metronome, or by the accents in music.
Rhythm
The subdivision of space of time into a defined, repeated pattern. Rhythm is the controlled movement of music in time. It may be define as the division of music into regular metric portions; the regular pulsation of music.
Meter
Measure of time; arrangement of poetical feet; the grouping of beats into regular patters. The organization of rhythmic patterns in a composition in such a way that a regular, repeating pulse of beats may continue throughout the composition.
Sesquilatera
The syncopated rhythm or mixed meter mostly associated with dances and the Son. This rhythm was adopted from the Spanish Flamenco. This syncopation shifts emphasis from a two to three beat pattern within a 6 or 12 beat measure. Sesquilátera means six that alters.
Idiophone
A category for an instrument that produces sound by the vibration of the body of the entire instrument. These instruments were more commonly found in the indigenous peoples in Mexico before the arrival of the conquistadors.
Some indigenous videophones are: ayacachtli (gourd rattles), ayotl (turtle shell), cacalachtli (rattle of clay vessel with seeds inside), chicahuaztli (a long pole representing a ray from the sun, filled with seeds and played like a rattle during rituals), chililitli (copper disks struck with mallets), coyolli (metal bells, or cocoon rattles - often strapped to the legs of dances), omichicauaztli (a rasp made from a deer bone), teponaztli (log drum, some with appended gourd resonators called tecomapiloa), and tetzilacatl (metal gongs).
Membranophone
A category for an instrument that produces sounds by the vibration of a tightly drawn skin or membrane. These instruments were commonly found in the indigenous peoples in Mexico before the arrival of the conquistadors. The Africans that arrived during the trans-Atlantic slave trade during the later second millennium brought these instruments to New Spain and became adopted by some regions and composers.
Some indigenous Membranophones include: the huehuetl (single-headed drum with carved wooden base) and variants thereof, such as the panhuetl.
Chordophone
A category for an instrument that produces sound by the vibration of a string or cord. These instruments were typically nonexistent before the coming of the conquistadors in the 16th century. They brought over many different chordophones that became incorporated into many different regional styles of music.
Aerophone
A category for an instrument tat produces sound by the vibration of a reed or air by pressure. These instruments were constructed and played by the indigenous people of Mexico, and also by the conquistadors in the 16th century. The indigenous peoples used many different aerophones that were carefully and ornately designed in order to represent a certain animal through the tone and look of the instrument.
Some indigenous aerophones include: the chichitli (whistle flutes), cocolocti (buzzing, reed flute), huilacapitztli (ocarinas and vessel flutes), tlapitzalli (clay duct flutes, may have multiple chambers or pipes), and tepuzquiquiztli (copper or gourd trumpets)
Scale
A series of notes in ascending or descending order that presents the pitches of a key or mode, beginning and ending on the tonic of that key or mode. The degrees of a scale have specific names shown below and act of the unique 12 notes of the chromatic scale can be the tonic note of a scale.
Tonality
The principal of organization of composition around a tonic based upon a major or minor scale.
Harmony
The combination of notes sounded simultaneously to produce chords. Usually, this term is used to describe consonance, however, it can be used to describe dissonance.
Timbre
The quality of sound; that component of a tone that causes different instruments to sound different from each other while they are both playing the same note.
Hernán Cortes
In the sixteenth century, the Aztecs fell victim to the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortes and his invading forces in 1519. The process of racial mixture resulted in the establishment of the new ethnicity of Mexican people is traced Hernán Cortes's arrival in the Yucatan in 1519. Hernán knew of Moctezuma's claim to him vein the Toltec deity and did nothing to dissuade him. He took advantage of existing tensions amon native populations subject to Aztecan rule.
Moctezuma
The reigning Aztec monarch of the time perceived Cortes as the embodiment of the Toltec diety Quetzalcoatl, the feather-serpent god destined to usher in a new era. Impressed by Cortes, he greeted him with gifts and house Cortes in Axayacatl. He was later lured by Cortes and held hostage which secured the conversion of many Aztecs to Christianity.
Cuauhtemoc
In 1524, Cortes executed Cuauhtemoc, the last of the Aztecan rulers, thus confirming Spanish dominion over Mexico. With the defeat of Cuauhtemoc, Spain established Mexico city as a principal seat of the Vice-Royal Kingdom in North America.
Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl was an Olmec who influenced surrounding and subsequent cultures, including Zapotec and Mixtec people who still live today in the state of Oaxaca, and the Maya from the south, who traded with Toltecs, another group that built great temples. The Legend of the Suns is a Nahuatl document recorded in 1558 which read that Quetzalcoatl journeyed to the underworld to gather bones from the Lord of Death, known as Michtlantecuhtli, to create humans.
Aztecs
Despite the wide range of indigenous peoples, the Aztecs who identified themselves as "Mexica," stand out historically and in the modern imagination. They moved south from Aztlán in the twelfth century. The Aztecs spoke Nahuatl, which became the lingua franca for many Mexican groups. The Aztec dominated fellow native groups, conquering the powerful ancient city of Tula and all central Mexico. In the sixteenth century, they fell victim to the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortes and his invading forces.
Nahuatl
Nahuatl was the language of the Aztecs. It later became the langua franca for many Mexican groups. It used two basic tones, one high, and one low, to distinguish meanings in words. This linguistic structure is emulated in the log drum or teponatzli.
Mexicas
This was what the Aztec people considered themselves out of all the indigenous peoples.
Tenochtitlán
Tenochtitlán is the capital city of the Aztec empire up until the sixteenth century, which is situated near to what now exists Mexico City. Despite the wide range of indigenous peoples, the Aztecs who identified themselves as "Mexica," stand out historically and in the modern imagination. They moved south from Aztlán in the twelfth century. The Aztecs spoke Nahuatl, which became the lingua franca for many Mexican groups.
Malinche (Malintzin)
IN the battle of Centla in Tabasco, Cortes received Malintzin, a Nahua woman and one of twenty slaves given to him by vanquished Tabascan natives. Malintzin became the mistress of Cortes and the mother of his son Marin, considered the first mestizo Mexican. She is known by various names including Doña Marian, La Malinche and Malinalli. She knew the workings of the Aztec state and could speak both Nahuatl and Maya; she became an invaluable aid to the Cortes. She is honored as the mother of a new race but as as a traitor to her people. Her legacy is found recently in the Concheros dances.
Huehuetl
The huehuetal or footed drum, is one of the most important instruments heard at Tenochtitlán and elsewhere in Meso-America. It was used by the native peoples in many contexts including the war and religious ceremonies. This instrument is a indigenous membranophone. The huehuetal is a large drum carved from a hallowed tree trunk with a stretched animal skin on top. It is identified as a deity unable to become human so he came to the earth as an instrument to help people communicate. it can produce two tones, one by playing in the center of the drum head, and the other by striking near the rim.
Teponatzli
The tepontzli, or log drum, is a sculpted slit-drum from a hallowed log, beaten with rubber tipped wooden mallets called olmaitl. During temple ritual ceremonies the teponatzli was placed on a stand resembling a throne, and for dances it was set upon a x-shaped stand to boost its resonance. This instrument produces two pitches. This instrument also parallels the structure of the Nahua language which also uses tow basic tones, to distinguish meaning in words.
Mestizaje
The value of mixture: racial, social and above all musical has long been celebrated in Mexico. The concept of Mestizaje, the Spanish term for mixture used in reference to racial blending, sat ands as the satient example of selective integration and the core of Mexican identity.
Mestizo
Mestizo Mexican culture is not homogenous. Institutional efforts of the middle and upperflass in Mexico as well as commercial and popular media have created a shared mainstream culture thatfrequenlty contrasts with indigenous cultures, beginning with sacred sites of musical cultivation. Instead of serving temples, cathedrals or concert halls, traditional indigenous music is associated with modest altars, local churches, homes, outdoor ramadas.
Vice Royalty of New Spain
After the defeat of Cuauhtemoc, Spain established Mexico City as a principal seat of the Vice-Royal Kingdom. Americans often refer to the period before independence as the colonial period but the distinction between a colony and a vice kingdom is important. This Vice-Royalty saw themselves as an extension of the Spanish court of Madrid, and Cortez and his men sought to recreate its splendors in New Spain. This imperial rule was link to religious order.
Gaspar Fernades
Gaspar Fernandes, 1566-1629, was a Portuguese-born composer who served as chapel master (Maestro de Capilla) in the Cathedrals of Guatemala (1599-1609) and in Puebla, Mexico (1609-1659). While in Guatemala, he compiled a collection of important music of the era, including his own compositions, known as El Cancionero de Gaspar Ferndandes. While in Puebla, he taught and conducted singers of African and Indian ancestry in his choir and he concentrated on creating music, primarily villancicos for the matins services, that integrated African and Indigenous languages and traditions with European modles. His position emphasizes European contributions to Mexican culture, sympathy of missionaries and composer for ciollos and indigenous, and exchange between Mexico and other Latin nations.
Villancico
The Villancico was one of the most important genres of music that developed in vice-regal Mexico. It was imported from Europe. It was the result of ongoing exchange of musical styles and customs across social strata. It emerged as a poetic secular song. They are art music with popular appeal. Villancicoas were sung in Spnish and other native languages which appealed to lower classes. It also incorporated popular melodies and dance rhythms. It literally means "rustic song." Differences between Mexican and European Villancico is the presences of the short plays known as Juegos. The most renowned poet of Mexican Villancicos was Sor Juana De La Cuz. Her poems were set by Mexican composers including Manuel Sumaya. It has come to represent Christmas
Peninsulares
Spaniards known as Peninsulares, born on the Iberian Peninsula, held most authority. This was one class and racial distinction during the vice-royal era. People of indigenous ancestry were rarely given positions of authority over peninsulares and residents of mixed race.
Coplas
The Coplas are paired lines of verses that form the body of a Villancico. The refrains of the song are called Estribillos. Each line of verse customarily features eight or six syllables. These lengthy narrative of coplas are typical of Jácaras.
Son
Son is a regionally distinct dance-song. It is a joyful music that people play in order to mark different occasions. Thomas Stanford dates the common use of the term in Spain in 1671, but he traces the practice of son in Spanish theater back to the 1500s. The first documented use of the term surfaces in 1766 in a set of verses from Veracruz. In the late 18th century, the presence of popular theater and musical dramas: Zarzuela, and the Tonadilla Escenica, influenced the rural folk and became adopted and transformed into the son. Also the intermedios or entremeses influenced these later dance dramas which were performed in-between acts.
The defining characteristics of Son are: Strophic form (repeating melody with each verse), compass of 6/8 or 3/4 characterized by sesquilatera patterns, poetic verse which features classic lines of text as well as improvised verse, women and love themes in the text, and double entendres.
Choreography of sones features a foot-stomping dance called Zapateado. The dancers's movement simulate courtship and are performed on a raised wooden platform (tarima, Mariache, or Huapango)
Zapateado
The Zapateado in the Son tradition is the foot-stomping dance. The zapateado simulates courtship rituals and are customarily performed on a raised wooden platform known as a tarima, mariache, or huapango depending on the region. The sound of the dancers feet in the Zapateado contributes tot he overarching quality of the music and the steps highlight the shifting rhythmic accents in the music.
Despedida
The despedida is the ending of featured in the Son Jarocho. One example is found in the Son Jarocho tune Siquisiri.
Tamboreada
Tamboreada is a percussive technique that is used in Son Calenteño. It involves one musician rapping with his hands on the soundboard of the harp while the harpist plays the strings. This is also referred to as arpa cacheteada.
Carlos Chavez
The Mexican composer Carlos Chávez saw the arts as a critical tool for building a new nation. He served as director of Mexico's National Symphony and the National Conservatory of Music. He also saw the ancient Aztecs as the fountain of a unique Mexican identity. He is known for incorporating Indian instruments into his compositions. During the 1910s, Carlos was a part of the El Renaciemiento Azteca, or Aztec Renaissance, which was a the attraction to Aztec practices by political and intellectual leaders.
Maximilian
In 1861 when the French landed in Veracruz, two years after the french finally succeeded in taking the city of Puebla and then moving into Mexico City in 1863. Shortly thereafter Napoleon III installed the Austrian archduke, Maximilian of Hapsburg as the Emperor of Mexico, he retained the position until Benito Juárez's guerrilla troops forced him to surrender in 1866. This temporary rule by Maximilian shaped fashion and culture in the cities and extended to racial blending in villages. The wife to Maximilian was Empress Carlota of Belgium who inspired the song "Adiós Mama Carlota when she made her last trip to Europe in 1866.
Waltz
An extremely popular ballroom dance of the 19th century in triple meter. The waltz is performed in a slow or fast triple meter known as a Viennese Waltz. This triple meter that is found in the waltz is also an aspect of the Sandunga.
Manuel Ponce
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Mariachi
Mariachi was formed from two forms of the Son: Son Jalisciense and Son Abajeño. These two sones produced the original Mariachis: Mariachi Coculense, Mariachi Tapatio, and Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlán. Mariachi typically features the Guitarrón (acoustic bass guitar), the Vihuela (Mexican vihuela, as opposed to the Spanish Vihuela) which is a small guitar with five strings. The vihuela and guitarron both have vaulted backs. The Requinto guitar was later adopted in Modern Mariachis.
Mariachi Coculense
Related to the Mariachi Tapatio through the founder Cirilo Marmolejo's nephew Francisco Marmolejo. They were the first Mariachi to perform in Mexico City and at the Chicago World's Fair.
Mariachi Tapatio
A Son Jalisciense band which contributed to the Son Abajeño style through their famous performance of La Negra. The word Tapatio refers to Guadalajara, the capital of Jalisco and the home of the group's founder Francisco Marmolejo. The group was founded after Marmolejo began his career performing vihuela with his uncle Cirilo Marmolejo, the founder of Mariachi Coculense. The enjoyed being hosted by Eusebio Acosta Velzco at fiestas for the city and in his home. Tapatío was the first mariachis to include trumpet, and we can hear Jesús Salazar playing it in "La Negar." Other instruments include two violins, two vihuelas, and one guitarrón. This early mariachi did not feature guitars.
Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlán
The group of Mariachi Vargas formed in 1898 and represented standard Mariachi format in the region. Gaspar Vargas played Guitarra de Golpe, Manuel Mendoza on harp, Refugio Hernandez and Lino Quintero on violin and lead vocals. The group later added another violin. Mariachi Vargas originally wore simple clothing. But in 1931 they were a uniform inspired by typical Indian dress of loose fitting pants and shirt made of white cotton and a red sash at the waist in the United States. After Mariachi Vargas won a competition in Guadalajara they were invited to perform at the inauguration of President Lázlo Cárdenas. They were given the position of official musicians for the Mexico city police.
Jarabes
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Huapango
Huapango dance is the dance that animates the music of the Son Huasteco. With the Huapango, the emphasis lies in on dance. Apart from the introduction, both the music and verse are improvised. The most common ensemble is the trio of musicians who sing and play the Huapanguera, the Jarana Huasteca, and violin. The word Huapango is a term related to Fandango meaning dance party. It also refers to the wooden platform used by dancers. It features three traits: a distinct rhythm, a focus on ornate violin playing as the lead melodic instrument, and the use of falsetto to adorn the melodies
Cancion Ranchera
Cancion Ranchera is a genre of Mariachi, that was popularized by film and radio of the 1930s. In film the rural-life was idealized by Urbanites through ranchera. It typically involves a triple meter or fast duple meter. It also involves the lyrical emphasis on the idealized rural life-style. It also features the Guitarron providing the downbeat and base note of the chord and the vihuela provides the rhythmic accompaniment.
Vincent T. Mendoza
Vincent T. Mendoza (1894-1964),the founder of the Folklore Society of Mexico, was one of the first to systematically investigate Mexican folk culture. Also a prolific author of dozens of books and articles. He worked with wife Virginia Rodriquez Rivera, trained folklorist, to document the full scope of Mexican folk and popular music. He identified popular music as "fashionable" music and noted the historical and ongoing practice in Mexico of local communities taking fashionable music and creating local variants, resulting in musical expression that we might label folk.
Sandunga
It is considered to have originated in the isthmus of Tehuantepec in the State of Oaxaca. According to Henrietta Yurchenco, the melody of "Sandunga" can be traced to a tune from a popular musical theater work of the type known as "Tonadilla," performed at the National Theatre in Mexico City in 1850 by the theatrical company of Maria Cañete. This capture the imagination of a Oaxacan military leader named Maximo Ramon Ortiz, who composed his own lyrics to the tune when he arrived home from battle to find his dear mother had died. It has become a reference for a graceful Tehuantepec woman, or for a celebration. It is also a category of son (dance song). Some suggest that the word is a Nehuatl variation of the Spanish word Fandango. "Sandunga" became the unofficial anthem of the isthmus of Tehuantepec, and a signature Mexican folk song performed at weddings, fiestas and funerals often by wind bands or on marimba. Some of the characteristic features of the Sandunga are minor key, and triple meter.
La Plaza - Evaristo Aguilar
Compose in Huejutla, Hidalgo and Axtla de Terrazas, San Luis Potosi. These songs express his love for the Huastecan region of Mexico which he grew up. This song uses free meter as well as a six-eight meter. This song tests the definitions of what music is. It is a folk song due to its regionality, and less popular musical elements.
Miguel Bernal Jimenez
Miguel Bernal Jimenez (1910-1956) is a classically-trained Mexican art music composer who compose a classical piano rendition of the Oaxacan folk tune Sandunga composed by Oaxacan military leader Maximo Ramon Ortiz who on his return from battle received news of his dead mother.
Macuilxochitzin
A princess poet-singer who lived in the middle of the 15th century. She is described by ancient historian, Ixtililsochitl of Texcoco, as wise and as competent as the king and with more knowledge of his rule, her poetry was most adventurous. She was born in 1435 of the fifth day of the flower month, hence her name meaning Five Flower, as the the daughter of a powerful advisor to Aztec Kings. She lived her life in the splendor of the court at Tenochtitlan. Her song, Macuilxochitzin icuic (Song of Macuilxóchitl) , continues by documenting the victory of her people, the Aztec leader over the fierce Otomi people, including a verse celebrating the women who aided in the victory.
Cuicatl
Cuicatl is the inseparable combination of song and poetry, or also known as flowery speech. Pictographs of musicians in ancient documents and stone etchings indicate song by depicting the spiral speech glyph decorated with flowers. Professional musicians, known as cuicapiztles, constituted an elite segment of society. Young boys and girls received training beginning at age 12 in special schools called cuicacallis (song houses)
Cuicapiztles
The Cuicapizles were professional musicians theat were designated to perform cuicatl. The cuicaptiztles constituted an elite segment of society. Young boys and girls received training beginning at age 12 in special schools called cuicacallis (song houses). The songs and dances of the cuicapiztles were used to connect the Aztec people to the gods, serving the most important ritual functions of Aztec society. These people trained for hours in order to learn everything by heart. It a mistake was made, it could've costed a land, foot or life, since it would've enraged the gods. They were also expected to compose new songs to mark days of the calendar, and for theatrical performances and contests. Although the was much responsibility, these poet-singers were honored as great warriors and nobleman. You were also exempt from paying taxes
Cuicacallis
Song houses for the Cuicapiztles. These were houses established for the elite segment of society where boys and girls at age 12 would attend these special schools to learn the Cuicatl tradition.
Huilacapitztli
The huilacapitztli is an aerophone. These clay flutes, whistles and ocarinas were crafted in the shape of animals and spirit beings. They were designed to produce sounds resembling the cries and calls of those animals. These sounds provided a bridge for communicating between humans and animals. Many native people believed that songs were taught to humans by animals who also represented powerful divine spirits as well as the voices of deceased human ancestors. Such instruments could be played by trained celebrants during religious and civic rituals, as well as by commoners in practical circumstances such as hunting. This instrument shows that native people valued timbre more than pitch. Its sound was meant to be evocative rather than beautiful.
Cuicatlamatilztli
In the Nahua language, cuicatlamatilztli meaned art song. This art song that the Nahua spoke of was meant the to represent an extension of art through playing instruments. This implies a different meaning of music that what Europeans meant. This was essentially singing with instruments, rather than thinking of instruments as accompanying song.
Folkloristas
The folklorists is an ensemble dedicated to performing a full range of Mexican and Latin American music and exploring links between ancient and contemporary practices. The founder, José Ávila, was inspired by recent archaeological and ethnographic findings, as well as by an early opportunity to play archaic instruments. The folklorists became famous during the 1970s during a decade when popular musicians turned to folk music to advocate for social and civil rights and political reform. Their efforts aligned in many ways with the folk rock movement. In latin america, folk-rock musicians launched their own new song movement known as Nueva Canción, or Nueva Trova.
Raiz Viva
This instrumental piece was compose in 1977 by José Ávila, the founder and director of Los Folkloristas. It represents his reconstruction of ancient Aztecan music. It is meant to remind you of Pre-Cortesian rituals and uses more than 40 different instruments including the hueheutl, huilacapitzli, and tlapitzalli.
Legend of the Suns
Legend of the Suns, a Nahuatl document recorded in 1558, we read that Quetzalcoatl journeyed to the underworld to gather bones from the Lord of Death, known as Mictlantecuhtli, to create humans. Mictlantechuhtli gave Quetzalcoatl a conch shell and said, "sound this shell and take four turns round my circle and I'll assist you." But there were no finger holes to control the sound, so he summoned the worms to bore holes and the bees fly into the sacred shell and made it sound. Upon hearing it, Mictlantechuhtli, said, go ahead take the bones. Thus the birth of a new people, the ancestors of modern Mexicans, began from the sounding of the conch, the sacred Atetecolli (conch shell instrument), and sounds made possible by animals.
Teponazcuicatl
Teponazcuicatl is the 44th song in set B from the codex Cantares Mesicanos, compiled between 1550-1580 in Mexico City. This music example is a musical reconstruction by Christover Moroney from the San Antonio Vocal Ensemble, known as SAVE.
Atetecolli
The atetecolli is an aerophone that played the song of Quetzalcoatl. It was said to be a conch shell with burrowed holes from worms that was use by Quetzalcoatl to sound the shell against the Lord of Death. The ancient Nahua believed that song embodied divine breath, a view evident in the conch myth as well as in their pictographs.
Culture
The culture of America is very strongly related to the Mexican culture. But Mexico is not simply a border country to the United States but a gateway to Latin America. Mexican music has a long history of interaction and exchange with music throughout Latin America where we find shared legacies, formats, and contemporary concerns, despite important cultural distinctions. The study of Mexican music offers a productive and positive avenue to deepen understanding of a culture while also developing an appreciation for the role of music in society and the generalizable power of human creative genius.
Integration
The process of margin people, perspective and resources is one that Mexico shares with many nations and cultures. Individuals and groups divided by ethnicity, social class, occupation, economic status, gender or age are often united through music, even when that same music once served as a marker of exclusion or difference.
Migration
Migration is a process that has affected Mexican culure in much broader ways that most Americans recognize. U.S. residents tend to focus on migration of Mexicans into the United States and certainly the back and forth travel that characterizes Mexican-US migration has shaped culture on both sides of the Rio Grande. Less recognized is the scope of foreign immigration into Mexico. Cosmopolitan aspirations stimulated internal migration from the provinces to the cities, as well Mexican travel abroad. Poverty is a strong contributor to migrate and immigration, thus Mexicao has 30,000 migrants of Mixtec Ancestry
Immigration
The nation did not always welcome immigration without discrimination, and Mexican laws to limit foreign immigration initiated after 1920 are but one example of concurrent resistance to a multicultural society. Nonetheless, integration proceeded, even it it constituents were submerged in official narratives of Mexicanidad (Mexicannes).
Essentialization
Critics argue that to "essentialize" is to oversimplify and thereby reduce the complexity that complicates real life operations. Readers will be required to think reflexively about the processes of simplification, those necessary fro their own understanding, but also those that reflect social policies and creative expression.
Indigenous
Although many areas of academia have focused on the history of mexico after Mexican independence and the revolution in 1910, the books attempts to link the indigenous culture with the present culture and society.
Performity
Music is an important tool for reflection, celebration, and often, for creating and sharing idealized visions of the world. Song, dance and musical occasions can be important settings for uniting people and ideas. Think about the ways music brings together people of different generations, for example. Important aspects of performance of social engagement are both "performance in daily life" and the so-called "extra-daily performance."
CECAM
One of the most famous schools for advance instruction in music and indigenous culture that sits high among the cloud-tipped mountains of Oaxaca. SOme of the finest conductors and wind players performing today in Mexico, acquired their foundational training in Oaxacan youth band programs.
Danzón
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Las Neridas
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Ambient Sound
In the song "La Plaza" by Evaristo Aguilar, he includes the ambient sounds of market places in Huejutla, Hidalgo, and Axtla. These sections of ambient sounds represent music. Although not classically considered music, Evaristo Aguilar invites the listener to understand musical qualities of the verbal interactions.
Composition
A composition is any work or musical production.
Folk Music
Folk music may be understood as music that customarily circulates via oral tradition, by word of mouth rather than through notation. Conventionally viewed as music performed by rural or impoverished people, it may be viewed as the common property of a community, rather than the product of a single author. In many instances, folk musicians have adopted and adapted music form outside the community including formally composed or classical works.
Lila Downs
Lila Downs is a popular Mexican-American jazz singer. In the song "Sandunga," she employs many different vocal techniques and tools such as volume, crescendos, decrescendos, minor chords, in order to express a certain emotion in the song.
Prelude
One example of a prelude is in Lila Downs jazz performance of Sandunga. This performance begins with a free meter section before reaching a steady beat and steady accompaniment. This is a composition that is intended to introduce a larger composition or set of compositions.
Free Meter
In Lila Downs performance of Sandunga, she begins with a prelude that proceeds in free meter. This free meter has no steady accented beat.
Triple Meter
In Lila Downs as well as many other Mexican and Latin compositions, there features a regular pattern of beats that fall in measures of three beats, with the first strong and the next two. This meter is what you hear in a waltz and many other dances. This triple meter is distinguishable from the duple meter which is more associated with indigenous musics.
Duple Meter
Duple meter is feature in African or indigenous musics. It typically features a more steady and consistent beat accentuation. The measure in duple meter is divided into groups of 2, 4 and sometimes 8.
Volume
Volume is the loudness of a sound, which can be altered by a performer in order to emphasize or added tension and drama to a performance.
Crescendos
Crescendos are the steady or quick increasing of volume in piece. This also can be used in order to emphasize tension, drama, power, or dynamics.
Decrescendos
Decrescendos are the steady or quick decreasing of volume in a musical piece. This also can be used in order to emphasize tension, drama, power, or dynamics.
High Note
A high note is a note which has a sharper and piercing quality to it. It is often said to be placed in what is called an upper register. These notes can be utilized in order to emphasize certain emotions or ideas, since it has a more piercing sound.
Register
Register is a division of range within an instrument or a singing voice. Usually registers are defined by a changing in the quality of the sound between a lower range and a higher range.
Minor Chord
Minor chord is a musical chords which is denote by three notes in the minor scale. Typically, the chord features musical intervals of 3 and 4 half steps.
Key
A key is a specific scale or series of notes defining a particular tonality. Keys maybe defined as major or minor and are named after there tonic or keynote.
Melody
A succession of tones comprised of mode, rhythm and pitches so arranged as to achieve musical shape.
Structure
In this case, structure refers to the underlying pattern of musical phrases. One particular type of structure is called Strophic.
Strophic
Strophic songs, like "Sandunga" use one basic melody repeated for each verse, thus strophic form is often called verse-form.
Pitch
The specific quality of a sound that makes it a recognizable tone.
Maximo Ramon Ortiz
Maximo Ramon Ortiz was the leader of the Oaxacan military. He is known for creating the lyrics the popular Oaxacan folk-tune, Sandunga. He was known to have created the lyrics to the piece after he had returned from battle to find his mother dead.
Concheros
These are performers of the Danza Azteca and Danza Mexica. They typically wear replicas of the feather head-dresses and body ornaments treasured by the ancient Aztecs and play indigenous instruments. There are three types of conchero groups, the Danzas de Promesa (religious vowed), political dancers, and theatrical dancers. The conch era tradition began with the mergence of Christian and native dance traditions. It is said to have been built on the foundations of the dramas known as Moros y Cristianos. These dances reenacted tales of good versus evil. They were also considered to be a type of warrior. The name comes from a little guitar-like instrument, the guitar conchera or concha.
Concha
The concha is a native adaptation of the Spanish guitar called the guitar conchera since it was originally made from an armadillo shell. The concha has five double course strings tuned as paired octaves. It was an essential instrument used by religious brotherhoods, known as cofradias, who supported an early merger of native and Catholic customs manifested by the concheros. While newer urban and more radical Danza Mexica groups eschew this instrument as representing unwanted Hispanic influence.
Danza Azteca
The Mexica or Aztec dancers are less bound by affiliation with a closed religious community and most participants are modern Mexicans. the newer urban and more radical Danza Mexica groups eschew this instrument as representing unwanted Hispanic influence.
Danza Mexica
The Mexica or Aztec dancers are less bound by affiliation with a closed religious community and most participants are modern Mexicans. The newer urban and more radical Danza Mexica groups eschew this instrument as representing unwanted Hispanic influence.
SAVE
SAVE is the San Antonio Vocal Ensemble. They aim to promote cultural recognition of indigenous heritage, but also of the shared perspectives across contemporary borders along the US Mexican border. This aspect is unlike the Folkloristas, who do not seem to attempt to express relations between American and Mexican traditions and perspectives.
Bernard Sahagun
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Xochipilli
Xochipilli was written by Carlos Chávez in 1940 for four wind players and six percussionists. This is Chávez's most systematic effort to evoke pre-cortesian music. The word Xochipilli means "Flower Prince" in Nahuatl and was the name of the Aztec god of art, games, beauty, dance, flowers and song. Carlos Chávez was deeply inspired by the musical traditions of the Aztecs. He divides the piece into three sections. The first and last expressing the sacred festivals and the teocalli (temple) through the use of percussion and rhythmic patterns and the middle section representing the poetic and melodic traditions of the cuicapiztle.
Criollos
Ciollos or Creoles were native born descendants of Spaniard, who were next in social status to the Peninsulares, followed by various stations of mestizo descendants of Spanish-Iberian intermarriage.
Romance
According to Bernal Diaz de Castillo, the romance, the ballad song and ancestor to the modern corrido, was one of the most popular song type enjoyed by the Spanish conquistador Cortez and his men. The romance "Delgadina is one of the oldest and most widely circulated of these old poetic songs. It tales the subject of love, power and treachery in aristocratic quarters. These toes are sung in strict poetic and musical form of thirty-two syllable stanzas.
Estribillos
Found in Villancicos, the Estribillos is a refrain that comes at the beginning and the end of a Villancico. It is accompanied by a lengthy narrative of coplas verses.
Maestro de Capilla
The position of Maestro de Capillo or Chapel Master was taken up by very influential composers Gaspar Fernades, and Juan Gutierrez de Padilla. This positions was very influential in blending European and Mexican musical traditions.
Oaxacan Bandas Vienta
Oaxacan Wind Bands arose in the 20th century but are linked back to the 16th century and the music teachings of the Chapel schools and the Capillas. This is a honored chapel tradition of educating the local populace and in many communities, particularly int he state of Oaxaca, civic band became the centerpiece for indigenous advancement, employment and municipal leadership. One of the oldest wind instruments introduced by the spaniards to Native Mexican s was the Chirimia. The wind band is a step in formal education for many native children and youth in Oaxaca, home of the Zapotec and Mixtec Indians. They play for OUTDOOR events such as baptisms, weddings, and funerals.
Jácara (Xácara)
Jacara was a burlesque song and dance genre from the elite Madrid theatre tradition. It features lengthy narrative coplas, sesquilatera, and hemiola patterns. The Christmas story were usually found ideal for the Jácara. This Jácara dance form involved in the Church and theaters later influenced Mexican dance and theatre traditions.
Matachines
These pantomine dances exemplify the integration of the indigenous and European traditions with the Auto Sacramentales and Moros y Christianos. These dances enact a king's victory over evil. The king often symbolizes Moctezuma. There also features La Malinche (cortes's interpreter), el abuelo (Wisdom of the elders), and the toro (the unruly bull). Each part of the play is accompanied by violin and guitar. They accompany many festivals in Mexico honoring saints days and holy festivals such as fiesta of the Holy Cross and the Celebration of the Virgin of Guadalupe. They have been noted to have had a role in Tamaulipas.
Chirimia
This was the first and oldest wind instrument introduced by the Spaniards to Native Mexicans. This instrument is still used in some indigenous pueblos, while in European-inspred bands and orchestra it has been replaced by the oboe.
Crescencio M. Garcia
This is the performer of the Delgadina. His rendition of the Romance tune, Delgadina, offers an easy pathway to view the relation of the conquistadors and the romance tunes in the early 16th century.
Juan Gutierrez de Padilla
Juan Guitierrez de Padilla (1590-1664) was one composer-teacher. Born in Malaga, Spain, he moved to Puebla, Mexico in 1622 and after several years as assistant and apprentice to Gaspar Fernandes at the Puebla Cathedral, he became the Maestro de Capilla. His duties included composing and directing music for all worship. He also compose music for the lively dance known as a Jácara. Over 700 of his compositions survive in manuscript form and his MIss Ego Flos Campi.
Manuel Sumaya
Manuel Sumaya (1658-1755) is the first native born composer to hold the prestigious position of chapel master (Maestro de Capillo) at Mexico City's Cathedral) He set many of Sor Juan De La Cruz's renowned poems to Villancico form. One of his most distinguish works is "Del Vago Eminente." In 1738 he moved to Oaxaca where he assumed the post of chapel master at the cathedral in that city. He is also renown for his first new world opera, Parténope. He not only influence Mexican traditions but also influence Europeans.
Mixes
Mixes refer to the class distinction that was established in the beginning of the vice-royal era of New Spain. The croillos and Mestizo groups were among the one who experienced the integration of European and Mexican traditions through the Capillas and the Oaxacan Wind bands.
Delgadina
Delgadina, performed by Cresencio M. Garcia, is a tale of selfish king who lusted after his own daughter. When she refuses to comply with his demands, he locks her up and allows her to die of thirst and hunger. This is evidence of the Iberian Machismo: the strong man, who asserted his superiority over others, particularly women. This is one of the oldest and most widely circulated romance. It tackles the subject of love, power, and treachery in aristocratic quarters and features strict 32 syllable stanzas.
Kyrie Eleison from the Missa Ego Flos Campi
The Kyrie is the first section of the Mass set for voices and orchestra. This is one of Juan Gutierrez De Padilla's most celebrated works.
Xicochi Xicochi Conetzintle
Xichochi is a simple Villancico by Gaspar Fernandes in the 16th-17th century. It is without the customary verse and refrain section found in longer, more complex examples. This form retains popularity with modern singers as a Christmas lullaby. Choral groups in Mexico, the U.S., and across Europe perform it. This version integrates ideas and lyrics in the Talxcalan dialer of Náhuatl with Spanish. This contains Antepenultimate syllable structures of Náhuatl spoken prosody, suggesting that Fernades was sensitive to native language and music characteristics.
A Negrito de Cucurumbe
This is another Villancico composed by Gaspar Fernandes illustrates the breadth of the composers style. This Black boy reference reminds us of the African population in New Spain. The percussion and rhythmic accompaniments emphasizes Fernandes sensitivity to lower class audiences and performers. This dialogue reflects the discrimination of Blacks in New Spain. These Villancicos about Black Mexicans were so popular that there was an entire category of them called Negritos. It also illustrates the Mexican Baroque story-telling technique which employed Coplas and Estribillos
Del Vago Eminente
Del Vago Eminente represents the work of one of Mexico's most distinguished early composers Manuel Sumaya. This version is performed by members of the Capilla Virreinal de la Nueva Espana featuring soloist Josue Efrain Piedra. It employs the musical technique of "word painting."
Juan Charrasqueado
Juan Charrasquedo is a musical example of the first and oldest wind instruments introduced by the Spaniards to native Mexicans: Chirimia. This music example illustrates the blending and integration of European music traditions to Native Mexican Music traditions.
Danza de Los Mixes
They is a Zapotec wind band from the region of Oaxaca
Matachines Dance Tune
This is a purely instrumental selection recorded in New Mexico, land that belonged to New Spain up until 1848 when it was ceded to the United States. This recording speaks to success of the syncretic blend that supported the survival of this tradition due to its presence in the U.S. even in 1990 when it was recorded after the loss of New Mexico.
Fiesta de la Santa Cruz
The Fiesta de la Santa Cruz in the mountains village of Palmillas in Tamaulipas has been documented to have been an event which as continued the tradition of the Matachine dances.
Son Istmeño
Son Istemeño or Son Oaxaqueña is from the southern coast of Oaxaca and parts of nearby Chiapas. "Sandunga" represents one of the most celebrated of songs from the tradition of Son Istemeño. The Marimba is another important medium for performance of Son Istmeño.
Son Jarocho
Son Jarocho is from Veracruz, form the southern regions of that gulf coast state, and the northern region of the state of Tabasco. From 1500 to 1900s, the port of Veracruz was one of Mexico's most important trade sites, providing important links to trade with the Caribean islands and passage to Spain and the rest of the world. It was also strong in African slave trade. As a result Son Jarocho reflects that African music tradition.In the 1940s, harpist Andrés Huesca adapted the Jarocho style of performance to attract new listeners on radio, film, and recording. Instead of sitting at a smaller arpa Jarocha, he used a larger version and stood while playing. He liked to dazzle his listeners with his technique. Son Jarocho lies in the instrumentation: one or two Harps, two guitar-like instruments the Jarana (thin-bodied instrument with 10strings, 8 as double courses and two as single strings. and the requite (4-5 stringed bass Jarana). Others Veracruz used a mall Mosquito (5string), and violin. But the iconic Jarocho does not include violin. It also features the rhythmic Jarocho Maniqueos and the pregonero, and coro. Jarochos also feature a welcome statement and a despedida.
Son Abajeño
Son Abajeño is associated with the lowlands and the Purepecha Indians of Michoacan, the Sierra Gorda of Queretaro, Guanajuato and San Luis Potosi
Son Calentaño
Son Calenteño is from the hot lands, or Tierra Caliente, of the state of Michoacan. There are two distinct traditions in this group: those from the northern region of the Balsas River and those traditions associated with the Tepalcaatepec region along the river's southern shores. In the northwest regain of Guerrero and its border of Michoacan, Son Calentaño is also called Son de Arpa Grande because many of the performing ensembles use a big harp. Calenteño harpist provide a foundation to the ensemble and do not take the same kind of solo melodic role enjoyed by jarocho harpists. The Guitarra de Golpe (literally percussive guitar) which supplies rhythmic strumming is feature in Son Calentaño. The Vihuela, and one or two violins. Tamboreado is also featured in the Son Calentaño.
The vocal lines are delivered by two male singers who improvise with nonsense syllables known as jaranear.
Son Guerrerense
The Son Guerrerense is from the state of Guerrero, also from the region known as the Tierra Caliente along the Balsas river, from Iguala, Chilpancingo and the Costa Grande of Michoacan. This son features two violins, guitars (one or two six stringed guitars) and a tamborito (a small double headed side drum). The repertory of sonorous guerrenses includes gusts which are slower sones with words and chilenas.
Tierra Caliente
The Tierra Caliente or the hot lands is the Michoacan state. The Tierra Caliente both encompasses Son Calenteño and the Son Guerrerense.
Gusto
Is son form which expresses the virtues of love.
Son Huasteco
The Son Huasteco originated in the region populated by Huastec speakers in the parts of the states of Hildago, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, and part of Queretaro.
Son Jalisciense
The Son Jalisciense is from the state of Jalisco. Historians have said that the Sones from Jalisco contributed directly to the modern mariachi and represented a mestizo and criollo tradition. Son Jalisceinse also bears some similarities with sones from the neighboring states of Zacatecas and Aguacalientes. These Soneros perform minutes, jarabes, jots, chotis valses and polkas.
Tarima
In the tradition of Son, the tarima or sometimes called Mariache, or Huapango depending on the region, is the raise wooden platform which the dancers perform the zapateado
Zapateo
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Polka
The polka was popular in Europe in the 1800s and its popularity spread to Mexico. Mexican composer began composing their own polkas and performed them in dance halls and parlors. The polka eventually became an important genre of Mariachi, particularly after the Mariachi Mexico of Pepe Villa. The rhythm of the Polk is a 1-2 1-2 pattern which is emphasized in the Guitarron playing on the 1 and the vihuela performing on the 2. The melody is usually entirely instrumental and the structure is typically a aabaccdcaba with each letter representing 16 bar phrases.
Bolero
The Bolero is an original Cuba song form that originated in the 1880s. It later spread to Mexico and initiated a wave of Mexican Bolero writers. Pepe Sanchez of Cuba is credited with making the Bolero. It began to be incorporated into Mariachi in 1949, with popularizers such as Pedro Infante and the Mariachi Vargas. This move took the suave and romantic singing of the Bolero and adapted it to the Mariachi.
José Guitierrez
José Gutierrez is a performer within the Los Hermanos Ochoa. They performed the famous "La Bamba" tune. They performed in the Son Jarocho style which is typical to the Huastecan region.
Andrés Huesca
Andrés Huesca was a harpist who adapted the jarocho style of performance to attract new listeners on radio, film, and recording. Instead of sitting at a smaller arp Jarocha, he used a larger version and stood while playing. He liked to play very fast and to dazzle his listeners with his technique. Huesca inspired other musicians, such as Lino Chavez who moved from Veracruz to Mexico city to play with a group of musicians who called themselves Los Costeños, to create an urban style of Jarocho still popular today.
Eric Hobsbawn
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La Petrona
Performed by Milo Cortes's Marimba Dance Band was recorded in Juchitán, in the state of Oaxaca in 1972 by Henrietta and Peter Yuchenco. This illustrates the strong prominence of the marimba in the Son Istemño of Oaxaca. The Son is divided into seven different sections. The first is dedicated to the Zapateado dance. Section 2 is dedicated to a slow waltz of a couple with a trumpet solo. Section 3 is the refrain to section 1. Then Section 4 repasts section 2 but with a saxophone. again it repeats but in the 6th section, the Marimba has a solo as the couple dances. It closes with 7 as the final Zapateado. The lyrics associated with La Petrona present it as a variate of "La Petenera"
La Petenera
La Petenera is one of several old song types that illustrate the long history of the son and its debt to Spanish poetic masters, as well as the connection to flamenco dance rhythms and theatrical inspired song. The word Petenera sometimes refers to the Palo (basic rhythm) of the flamenco. Its rhythm matches the Zarabanda and the Jácara. La Petenera, no matter the regions, typically involves a beautiful woman (siren or mermaid) that is very seductive. La Petenera is popular in the Huasteca, along the Coast Chica of Guerrero, and in the isthmus of Tehuantepec.
La Bamba
One of the most famous example of the son Jarocho is the song La Bamba. This recording is performed by Jose Gutierrez and Los Hermanos Ochoa. Since the Jarocho tradition prizes improvisation, the lyrics for La Bamba vary from performance to performance. However, all performances include some of the original lyrics, which describe the need for grace in dancing the bamba.
Siquisiri
Siquisiri is performed by Trio Jarocho Chalchiquican. It is an example of the Son. Jarocho: the 16 beat compas, maniqueos rhythm pattern, despedida, and pregonero/coro (caller/chorus)African vocal structure.
Son de las Naguas Blancas
Los Marineros de Apatzingán perform this Son Calentaño with the accompaniment of the tamboreada, violin, and the nonsense syllables called jaranear, visual, and two violins.
El Gusto Federal
El Gusto Federal is a traditional song that extols the bravery of the forces who fought in the battle to end the French intervention in 1866 thus differs from the gusts which celebrate virtues of love. The lyrics are attributed to General Vicente Riva Palacio or to Juan Bartolo. The Violinist in the recording is Juan Reynoso, a revered teacher.
El Miramar
El Miramar is one of the classic huapangos associated with Tamaulipas. They employ a shuffle step while the soneros are singing, but as it's instrumental they reverted to loud dance steps. In this example we have the ensemble trio of Violin, Huapanguera, and the Jarana Huasteca.
El Tren
El Tren is a popular example of a Son Abajeño played by Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitan. This recording was made in 1938. Tecalitán is a village in the souther part of the state of Jalisco in farming and ranching territory. The original members of Mariachi Vargas formed in 1898 and represented standard Mariciachi format in the region. Gaspar Vargas played guitar de golpe, Manuel Mendoza on harp, Refugio Hernandez and Lino Quintero on violin and lead vocals. This is a nineteenth century son composed after 1837 when the first railroad line was established in Mexico, linking Veracruz to Mexico City. In the performance the musicians combine forces to produce train sounds, particularly evident in the closing instrumental section where we hear clear shifts in metric accent.
La Negra
This son is a son Jalisciense which contributed to the abajeño style. This was performed by Mariachi Tapatíos. This is one of the earliest recorded versions of what is now the most performed of the sones Jaliscienses the range of instruments including the multiple violins, the Guitarron, multiple trumpets and the vihuelas require a strong development in performance and style. This shows the progression of the Mariachi into a professional and a more standard form of Mariachi.
El Rey
This is a performance by the Mariachi Los Amigos is a live performance of the famous Cancion Rachera El Rey. This was composed by the most prolific song writers José Alfredo JiménezThis performance features the typical Mariachi instrumentation of Vihuela, Guitarron, Trumpet, and two Violins and alternate between a triple meter during the chorus and a duple meter during the verse. The audience participation shows the national fervor of the Mariachi genre.
Jesusita en Chihuahua
This recording features a century old Mexican polka with its fast pace. and 1-2 patterns. It also sticks to the aabaccdcaba 12 bar form. Its also doesn't feature any vocals, it is simply instrumental.
Gema
This performance by the Mariachi Camperos de Nati Cano is a Bolero Mariachi which features strong harmonies and vocal emphasis. The song also features a steady danceable tempo that was popular in the urban nightclubs
Fandango
Fandangos were Andalusian dance styles that were performed on festive occasions across social and racial divides.
Mayapax
This music known as Mayapax, helped rally Mayan rebellion during the caste war of the Yucatan as the Spanish stubbled with the unequal status of many Indigenous nations. Music of the Mayapax was not purely Mayan nor was it overtly poetical. Mayas adopted European violin and the dance music of Anadalusian fandango. Other instruments of the Mayapax included iron bells, turtle-shell percussion, and harmonica.
Corrido
The corrido is a poetic and narrative ballad. It largely derives from the romances of the Spanish Conquistadors in the 16th century and the beginnings of the Vice-Royal era.
Dieciseis de Septiembre (September 16)
September 16 or Dieciseis de septiembre is the date in which priest father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1810 rang the bells of his parish church to summon his parishioners (mestizos and Indians) in the little town of Dolores Guanajuato. On this day he delivered his "Grito de Dolores" which was the call for independence, and ended the cry with "death to the gauchupines." The rebels marched to San Miguel, carrying the banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe. This day is celebrated with reenactments and the performing of the Himno Nacional
Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo is the priest who on the 16 of September, delivered the "Grito de Dolores" and rallied rebels to San Miguel carrying the banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe. His call for death to the Spaniards spurred initial revolt, and was more conservative of proposals. The revolt would lead to ultimately securing independence in 1821.
Augustin Iturbide
Augustí de Iturbide (1783-1824) was a military officer who developed his Plan de Iguala that secured both support from both liberals who favored complete independence and conservatives who hoped for a constitutional monarchy. This later secured independence in 1821. Iturbide turned the special military force that he had formed to help wrest Mexico from Spain towards shoring up his position, thus initiating what was to become an ongoing custom of self-serving military alliance with governance. Iturbide had himself named Emperor of Mexico and focused more on creating a splendid independent court than on solving domestic problems and after only ten months of rule, he was forced to abdicate the throne. His wife took keyboard lessons from Mexico's most celebrated composer of the era, José Mariano Elízaga, whom the Emperor honored with the appointment and title of Maestro de Capilla Imperial Mexicano.
Vicente Riva Palacio
Vicente Riva Palacio (1832-1896) was the one to pen the famous set of verses that became the popular song "Adiós, Mamá Carlota." He was also the general and leader of the republican resistance. He later circulated the verses in his loose-leaf journal "El Pito Real" in order to help muster support for Mexican liberals to take back the government from the French. The verses circulated quickly and were put to Sebastian Iradier's tune "La Paloma." When he arrived in Michoacán, he was greeted with his own song. It became a battle cry during the war that ensued.
José Mariano Elízaga
José Mariano Élizaga was the keyboard teacher of Augustin Iturbide's wife. He was honored by Iturbide so much that he was appointed the title of Maestro de Capillo Imperial Mexicano. He later went on to found the short-lived Philharmonic Society in 1825 and an Academy of Music In Valladolid in 1840. One of Elizagas compositions "Ultimas Variaciones" for keyboard was composed in the Viennese style of Haydn. It was compose in 1826 after the fall of Iturbide's empire, when Elízaga was then professor at the Conservatory in Morelia. His clear intention was to please noble female patrons. This is evident through his dedication to Dorotea Losada. He dedicated his life to establishing the musical foundation of his new country during its most fragile moments of independence.
Narcisco Serandell
Narcisco Serandell (1843-1910) was a medical student and musician who put himself through medical school by playing for dances and parties. He is the composer of the famous La Golondrina. It was a challenge that was made at a gathering of musical friends to create a lovely translation of the verses for La Golondrina by Niceto Zamacois, from French to Spanish made by poet Francisco Martínezde la Rosa. Embeded in Martínez's verse codes the message "to the object of my love." Serandell won the competition for the best musical setting of his clever poem. He was also a patriot who fought to restore the republic to Mexican rule and who was sentenced to exile by the French for his opposition. departure, he offered "La Golondrina" as his sentimental despedida.
Himno Nacional
The music of the Himno Nacional was composed by a Spanish Born band director, Jaime Nuño. The song was originally called "God of Freedom." The lyrics to the antem were composed by Fracisco González Bocanegro, a talented poet of the era whose fianceé reputedly forced him to reflect on patriotic themes in a locked room until he arrived at the verses that won Santa Anna's competition.
Ultimas variaciones
Ultimas variaciones was compose in 1826 by José Mariano Elízagas during the first years of independence. His variations was composed for keyboard after the Viennese composer Haydn. He also intended it to be played by noble female patrons through its dedication to Doroeta Losada. The structure is inspire by Haydn, in a variations form with an A theme and B trio.
Aires Fandango
The Aires Fandango is a type of Mayapax music during the Yucatan caste war in the 19th century. This music which was known to help rally Mayan rebellion was not purely mayan nor was it overtly political. The Mayapax took the European violin and dance music of the Andalusian fandango. In this recording we hear a bass drum called the Bombo, and a snare drum, known as Tarola accompanying the violin. The complex identity can be attributed to the intentionally raspy tone produced from the violin. This illustrates the integration of European Dance and violin into Maya culture in the wake of the Yucatan caste war.
March to Battle Across the Rio Grande
Paddy Maloney is the leader of the famous Irish Chieftains, stated to tell the story in song of the Irish who lived and fought for Mexico as the famous band known as the San Patricios (Saint Patrick's Battalion). In reality, the battalion lead by Patrick Riley was only about 60% Irish, with runaway American Slaves, Canadians and other ethnic minorities completing the ranks. The San Patrichios espoused strong religious sympathies with the Catholic Mexicans. This illustrates the prominence of Irish and European immigrants in the Mexican/Texan territory who sought land and agricultural and business opportunities.
Adiós, Mama Carlotta
The tune was composed by Vicente Riva Palacio from an event in 1865 when Carlota left form the Yucatan and stated that she "considered her the mother of all Mexicans." This was later penned by Vicente Riva Palacio who was the general and leader of the republican resistance. This was a parody of the patriotic poem "Adios, Oh Patria Mía" by Rodriguez Galván. In 1866 when she left at last, Riva Palacio circulated his verses in the El Pito Real. The song was put to the melody of La Paloma b Sebastian Iradier and when the general arrive in Michoacán to rally republican army, entire communities greeted him with the song. This became the battle cry during the war that ensued. In subsequent years, "adios, Mamá Carlota" continued to serve as an anthem to inspire liberal action. It was so popular that it makes an appearance in an classical Mexican Opera. Mexican composer Melisio Morales references the song in Anita. The reference illustrates the fluid exchange between strata of musical activity in Mexico.
La Golondrina
La Golodrina is a cancion Mexicana that stems from the period of French intervention. The music was composed in 1862 by medical student and musician Narcisco Serandell Sevilla. At a gathering of musical friends, a tertulia, he was challenged to create music for a lovely translation of the verses of La Golondrina by Niceto Zamacois, from French to Spanish by Francisco Martínez de la Rosa. Serandell won theompetition for the best musical setting of this clever poem. the sentiment "to the object of my love," offers love of country now Mexico rather than france. This performance is by a Croatian Mariachi
Zarzuela
The epitome of zarzuela is the Mexican Music drama entitled Chin Chun Chan. It is inspired by the Comedia, a dramatic form combining poetry and prose with musical interlude to provide public entertainment. The zarzuela originally served as spain's distinctive answer to Italian opera and the nation's signature form of lyric theater. The first work to bear the name "Zarzuala" was El Golfo de las Sirenas, penned by Calderón de la Barca. It originally was courtly entertainment which drew on classical text to please royal patrons. It eventually traveled to the Americas along with the conquistadors and was an important part of entertainment in New Spain. Up until 1890, zarzuealas were commonly composed by foreign-born composers.
Opera
The influence of Opera to the development of the Zarzuelas are very prominent. It was originally the Italian and French Operas during the 16th century that motivated the Spanish Zarzuela and later Mexican Zarzuela. But Opera by itself had a strong influence in the Porfirismo. the Teatro Renacimeiento had been constructed during the Porfirismo in order to supper the art of Opera. Melisio Morales was one the most distinguished of Mexican composers who sought to establish themselves in the world of Italian opera. Anita was an Italian opera dedicated to Porfirio Díaz and was intended to premier in 1910 but was prevented due to the revolution.
Orquesta Típica
In attempts to establish good international relations, Porfirio Díaz sought to quell lingering rebellion in the states along the US Mexican border. But another step he traveled to the United States to represent Mexico at the New Orleans World Fair. In New Orleans, he called on the group of musicians called the Orquesta Típica de Mexico. The recordings of this group were not only the first Mexican recordings on Edison, Victor and Columbia, which inspire international promotion but also recording booms. These orquesta integrated popular and regional styles into their repertory and maintained genteel and high-brow status. Miguel Lerdo de Tejada also promoted Porfirio Diaz in New York and was later the composer and director of the Orquesta Típica de México.
Cancióneros
These were printed and circulated song books which contained song sheets, or known as broadsides. These were extremely important in the circulating of music to homes during the Porfiriato. The popular songs of the time would be put into print and be used to promote art but also as a form of revenue.
Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Diaz assumed presidency of Mexico in 1876 and vowed to bring order, stability and modernity to the nation and music was one of the tools he used to accomplish these aims. In the preceding 55 years since Independence, the presidency had changed 75 times, but Díaz would lead the country for more than three decades, linking the 19th and 20th centuries in a period that came to be known as the Porfiriato. He promoted good international relations in Mexico with the Chinese with their silver resources and goods. He strengthen American-Mexican relations through the use of the Orquesta Típica de México, and he establish ideas of the countries modernity in Operas and Zarzuelas.
Luis G. Jordá
The composer to the most celebrated Zarzuela Chin Chun Chan was Luis Gonzaga Jordá (1869-1951). He was a Catalan musician, raised in Barcelona who moved to Mexico in 1890 and lived there until 1915 when he returned to Barcelona. He collaborated with prolific Mexican librettist Rafael Medina on several other dramatic works. These zarzuelas were typically written fairly frequently and timely.
Jose Elizondo
Jose Elizondo was the publisher of the comic drama Chin Chun Chan in 1904. It was originally conceived of as a Picaresque zarzuela, an operreta-like show with a combination of spoken and sung lines. The libretto was crafted with Rafael Medina with puns, local dialect, and colorful regional characters familiar to theater patrons of the day.
Carlos Curti
During the tumults of the Mexican Revolution, some Mexicans left to the United States and particularly New York in order to avoid the growing tension. Carlos Curti as well as Miguel Lerdo de Tejada both traveled to New York and directed the Orquesta Típica de México. Carlos Curtis also enlisted a group of students and teacher from the National Conservatory to establish the Orquesta Típica de Mexico so that the ensemble might represent Mexico at the 1884-85 New Orleans Cotton Exposition. The instrumentation reflected an eclectic mix of strings and winds that permitted numerous combinations. The musicians did not limit themselves to any single style of music or instrumental combination
Miguel Lerdo de Tejado
Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, best known for his song "Perjura," was the subsequent director of the Orquesta Típica de México after Carlos Curti. Under Lerdo de Tejada's direction, the Orquesta played for numerous world fairs: the 1901 Panamerican Expo in Buffalo, the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, and the 1934-35 World Fair in Chicago. IN 1928, Tejada began a circuit vaudeville performance in New York City with his own orchestra. He performed in the most celebrated venues, a Carnegie Hall in 1917 and with some of the era's most famous musicians, including Enrico Caruso.
Juventino Robles
Competing with the theaters were the circuits tents and coliseums. In 1888 the composer Juventino Rosas (1864-94) wrote a waltz that became an instant hit and has since come to represent fun fairs and circuses worldwide. Rosa's full name was José Juventino Policarpo Rosas Cadenas, and he started his career in Mexico City as a street Musician and dance bands. The character in Chin Chun Chan names Policarpo may be a veiled reference to Rosas. The circus served as a unification of all different cultures and races. This helped to unify the Country in the Porfiriato.
Melesio Morales
Melisio Morales (1839-1908) was one of the most distinguished of Mexican composers who sought to establish themselves in the world of Italian opera. He wrote his nationalistic Mexican opera Anita in the Italian style and language. He also dedicated it to Porfirio Diaz but it was neglected to be perform due to the rise in the Mexican Revolution. The story revolves around a young Mexican woman in love with a soldier during the 1867 battle for liberation from the French Intervention in the city of Puebla. This opera was later revived by Mexican Musicologist Karl Bellinghausen and was performed in July 2010 at the National Conservatory of Music.
Chin Chun Chan
Composed by Luis G. Jordá and published by Carlos Curti, this zarzuelas reached out to many different classes during the Porfiriato since it was rooted in puns, local dialect, and colorful regional characters familiar to theater patrons of the day. Chin Chun Chan is the epitome of the zarzuela, and while it is definitely Mexican in character, it represents the continuity of a musical dramatic genre rooted in the golden age literaly practice of Spain. Inspired by the comedia, a dramatic form combining poetry and prose with musical interludes to provide public entertainment made famous by authors such as Rueda, Lope de Vega and Cervantes, the zarzuela served as Spain's answer to Italian opera.
Monterrey Alegre
Performed by the Orquesta Mexicana Cavillo from San Antonio Texas in 1928, it offers an example of the orquesta tipica sound and an instrumental song in the pasadoble rhythm. It also employs a combination of strings, plucked and bowed, with wind instruments. This kind of instrumentation is similar to the Orquesta Tipica promoted during the Porficio Diaz Presidency.
Perjura
Compose by Miguel Lerdo de Tejado in 1900 and performed by Manuel Romero Malpica, Perjura illustrates the skillful blend of popular and classical styles. Operatic renditions like that of Manuel Romero Malpica and the song's later inclusion in a 1938 film by the name Perjura. This was a piece done during Miguel Lerdo de Tejada's direction of the Orquesta Tipica de Mexica. The song also features lyrics by Fernando Luna y Drusino set to the seductive rhythms of the danza by Miguel Lerdo de Tejada.
Sobre las Olas
Sobre las Olas was composed by Juventino Rosas in 1888 and became an instant hit to represent fun fairs and circuses worldwide. The song contributes to the assertions that circus also played an important role in the Porfiriato by uniting many different classes and races in the country.
Anita
Melisio Morales's Opera Anita was a very strong opera dedicated for Porfirio Diaz during his presidency, it was intended to be performed in 1910 but was offset by the revolution. The opera is done in the Italian style and language with few Spanish sung parts. This Opera illustrates the prominence of music the Porfiriato that was established in order to compete with other strong nations. It also shows a connection with the long tradition of theater in Mexican culture and Spanish culture.
Danza de Los Concheros
This piece is a recording by Los Folkloristas represents the third line of the concheros practice: theatrical expression. This is a staged danza prepared for viewers outside the circle of practitioners. We hear strong percussion instruments such as the huehuetl, teponatzli, and the coyolli or caccoon rattles of the concheros. Later we hear the presence of what seems to be the Concha.
Cora and Huichol
The Cora and Huichol people live in the mountains highlands of the state of Nayarit. These two groups are related linguistically and both farm and raise cattle. In recent years many Cora have migrated from the Cenral Mexican highlands to Northern Colorado.
Cora - Harvest Chant
This chant represents a repertory of chant performed for harvest ceremonies and is sung during the preparations for the feast day as well as during the festive dancing that follows the feast and continues throughout the night. The singer is a shaman, native priest, or spiritual leader who accompanies himself on the mitote.
Mitote
This is one of the rare examples of chordophones prior to pre-cortesian conquest. This instrument is used for rituals such as the Cora-Harvest Chant. This instrument is shaped like a hunting bow. The bow is set on a gourd resonator to amplify the sound produced by striking the string with two wooden sticks. The Seri and Apache adapted the musical bow developing ingenious one string fiddles with a body mad from agave stems.
Wiricuta - Huichol Fiddle Music
Mariano, Pablo, Rosenda and Agustin sing and play the raweri (fiddle), the kanari (guitar), and rattles. Recorded in 1996 by professor Ernesto Cani Lomelli from University of Guadelajara in Jalisco. This song is one of a set of songs belonging to what is commonly called the Peyote cycle. Wiricuta is a holy site in the northeastern desert of San Luis Potosi, viewed by the uichol as the center of creation where all the gods were born and where humans came into existence. The Huichol believe the world was created in five days and the number five carries deep significance to them.
Raweri
The Huichol raweri resembles more the Renaissance viol known as the rebec than the violin. It has four strings, two made of horsehair and two made of metal.
Yeome or Yaqui
These people live along the Yaqui river in Sonora. Their traditions illustrate how music and dance may connect a pueblo to their deities and to supernatural power. The Yaqui recall how during their early contact with European missionaries and settlers their ancestors called upon a team of angels to "sing the borders" of their land to help them preserve their territory. They have a reputation for being among the fiercest native peoples. Until 1930 the resisted Mexican rule. despite their long history of resistance, the Yaqui accepted Christianity early. Contemporary Yaqui musicians play Mariachi Norteño, and sing corridos.
Pascola Ceremony
This is the most distinctive Yaqui ritual dance, which alternates violin and harp music with the flute and drum that accompany the Deer Dance.
Deer Dance
The Deer Dance is connected to a complex of activity observed during Holy week and the Lenten period leading to it. Men wearing masks and dressed as Chapayecas or Pharisees rule the community during Lent, collecting alms to support the fiesta that begins on Holy Saturday. On Holy Saturday the pas cola deer and coyotes dance in a special arbor. The main dancer is the deer. His chest is bare and he wears a rebozo (shawl) as a wrap from the waist. Deer antlers hang from his waist and rallies made from butterfly cocoons filled with seeds encircle his ankles (tenevoim). He runs from the other dancers known as pas colas who eventually hunt him down and kill him. Two players play rasping sticks (hirukiam). The third singer plays a vaa'a kuvahe, (water drum). The water drum represents the heartbeat of the Little Brother Deer. and the rasping sticks represent his breathing.
"La Petenera" L'Arpeggiata
This song is performed by the Modern Ensemble L'Arpeggiata with soprano Raquel Andueza. This is a reconstruction of the son in the vice-regal era. It incorporates the psalterio, conretto (Baroque trumpet) and spanish castanets. the flavor of the performance confers the Andalusian origin of the poetic sentiment.
"La Petenera" (From Tixtla)
This is performed by Los Azuhauztles, who play guitar, vihuela, and cajon (wooden box). This example begins with a Járabe as an introduction. This Son from Tixtla in the state of Guerrero are performed to prompt energetic popular dancing. This prompts the local name "sones de la tarima." The Tixla region along the Costa Chica has a strong Afro-Mexican population. The African influence can be heard through the percussiveness of the guitars, vihuela, hap and sometimes a five-string bass guitar (bajo sexto). In this example the tarima is called Artesa and also serves as a percussion instrument. This also features a call and response, that is typical of African music.
"La Petenera" (from the Huasteca)
Trio Cantores de la Huasteca. This version is sung by Soneros from the Huastecan region. The instrumentation features violin, Huapanguera (large flat-backed guitar, with 5 courses of strings) and a Jarana (smaller 5string mate of the Huapanguera). The singers employ a technique of high-singing called falsetto distinct to the Huastecan style. In the Huasteca, Peteneras are considered a category of song, where the text typically refers to sailors, fisherman and coastal life troubled by enchanting sirens of the sea.