Study of Language

linguistic performance
the way that they produce and comprehend language
linguistic competence
hidden knowledge of language
interference in chain of communication
distribution of speech sounds
studies of the rules for forming admissible words
interpreting meaning
consists of the collection of all the words that you know
language system
descriptive grammar
the rules that someone has deduced based on observing speakers linguistic performance
mental grammar
all the rules that an individual speaker uses to produce and comprehend utterances
representation of language in a physical meduim differnt from sound
reasons that speech is more basic than writing
1. archeological evidence, 2. writing does not exist everywhere, 3. writing must be taught, 4. neurolinguistics evidence, 5, writing can be edited, 6. more stable
prescriptive grammar
socially correct grammar
mode of communication
the menas by which these messages are transmitte and reieved
property requiring that all signals in a communication system have a meaning for function
pragmatic function
must serve some useful function
ability of individuals to both transmit and recieve messages
cultural transmission
aspects of language that we can aquire only through communicatiove interaction with other users of the system
linguistic sign
form + meaning = linguistic sign
the meaning is not in anyway predictable from the form, nor is the form dictated by the meaning
sound symbolism
certain sounds occur in words not by virtue of being directly imitative of some sound but by being evocative of a particular meaning
abilty of language to communicate about things, actions, and ideas that are not present in space or time where the speakers are
languages capacity for novel messages to be built out of discrete units
formal languages
formal logic used to write mathematical proofs and various computer languages
natural languages
those languages that have evolved naturally in a speech community, a child can acquire it
constructed languages
has been invented by a human that may or not imitate all the properties of a natural language
mode of communication
artificially constructed system for representing a natural language, no structure of its own but borrows it structure form the natural language that it represents
ways to study forming speech sounds
x-ray, palatography, sound spectrograph, impressionistic phonetic transcription
one sound
discrete units of the speech stream and can be further subdivided into the categories consonants and vowel
apply to entire strings of consonants and vowels (stress, tone, intonations)
unit of speech
vocalic part of a syllable
final consonants in a syllable
consonants before the vowel in a syllable
running or continuous speech
phrases and sentences that we speak in
motion or position of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other part of the vocal tract in the production of a speech sound
segmantal features
voicing, place, and manner of articulation
contians the vocal folds and glottis
vocal tract
above the larynx which is composed if the oral and nasal cavities
subglottal system
part of the respiratory system located below the larynx
blowing out
airstream mechanism
how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered
picture of the acoustic signal
some speech sounds are longer than others
pattern of pitch movements across a stretch of speech such as a sentence
pitch accents
involve a change in fundamental frequency in the middle of an utterance
edge tones
occurs at the end of a phrase
property of entire syllables, stressed syllables are more prominent and are louder and longer
5 key parameters of signed languages
place of articulation, movement, hand shape, hand orientation, non-manual markers
fundamental elements
phonotactic restraints
restrictions on possible combinations of sounds
sound substitution
sounds that exist in a language a speaker knows are used to replace sounds that do not exist in that language when pronoucing the words if a forgien language
puff of air
a class of speech sounds that seem to be of the same sound
corresponds to an actual phonetic segment produced by a speaker
a phone is the set of phonetic environments in which it occurs
contrastive distribution
a case in which the 2 sounds occur in the same phonetic environment and using one rather than another changes the meaning of the word
minimal pair
a pair of words whose pronunciations differ by one sound and that have different meaning
a differnec between 2 or more phonetic forms that you might otherwise expect to be related
complementary distribution
never be a minimal pair, found in different environments
free variation
does not make a difference in meaning
overlapping distribution
can occur in the same environment
natural class
group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property to exclusion of all other sounds in that language
high, hissing quality [s, $, t$, z, 3, d3]
obstruction of the airflow, stops, fricatives, afficates
segments produced with a relatively open passage for the air flow, nasals, glides, and vowels
causing a sound to become more like another sound
two close sounds become more unlike each other
cause a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word
eliminates a sound that was present at the phonemic level
change the order of sounds
makes sounds stronger
cause sounds to become weaker
implicational law
the presence of the less common sound implies that the more common sound will also be used in the language
whata word sounds like when it is spoken
lexical categories
parts of speech
closed lexical categories
rarely gain new words, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions
takes one word and performs one or more operations on it and it becomes another word, usually of a different lexical category
different grammatical forms of a word, does not change lexical category
free morphemes
can be used as a word all by itself
bound roots
some sort of meaning, but cannot stand alone
content morpheme
more concrete meaning than function morphemes
function morpheme
has grammatically relevant information
putting 2 or more independent words together
process of forming new words by repeating them
process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words of morphological distinctions
a root will have one or more inflected forms unrelated to the word
internal variation
within a language there are single ways of expressing the same thing
study of the relationship between language varieties and social structure as well as the interrealtionships among different language varieties
systematic phonological variation
speech comunity
group of people speaking the same dialect
extralinguistic feathures
region, socioeconomic status, age and gender and ethnicity
dialect continuum
a large number of continuous dialects are closely related when next to each other, but those who are far are mutually unintelligible
speech styles
systematic variations in speech based inn factors such as topic, setting, and adressee
levels of speech formality
style shifting
automatically shifting from one speech style to another
perscriptive standard
standard by which we make judgements of right and wrong
overt prestige
dialect used by the offical and media
covert prestige
trying to fit in with a group
boundries of areas where a particular lingustic form is used
double modal
indicate that a plan has a high degree of tentativeness, used in the South