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linguistic performance

the way that they produce and comprehend language

linguistic competence

hidden knowledge of language


interference in chain of communication


distribution of speech sounds


studies of the rules for forming admissible words


interpreting meaning


consists of the collection of all the words that you know


language system

descriptive grammar

the rules that someone has deduced based on observing speakers linguistic performance

mental grammar

all the rules that an individual speaker uses to produce and comprehend utterances


representation of language in a physical meduim differnt from sound

reasons that speech is more basic than writing

1. archeological evidence, 2. writing does not exist everywhere, 3. writing must be taught, 4. neurolinguistics evidence, 5, writing can be edited, 6. more stable

prescriptive grammar

socially correct grammar

mode of communication

the menas by which these messages are transmitte and reieved


property requiring that all signals in a communication system have a meaning for function

pragmatic function

must serve some useful function


ability of individuals to both transmit and recieve messages

cultural transmission

aspects of language that we can aquire only through communicatiove interaction with other users of the system

linguistic sign

form + meaning = linguistic sign


the meaning is not in anyway predictable from the form, nor is the form dictated by the meaning

sound symbolism

certain sounds occur in words not by virtue of being directly imitative of some sound but by being evocative of a particular meaning


abilty of language to communicate about things, actions, and ideas that are not present in space or time where the speakers are


languages capacity for novel messages to be built out of discrete units

formal languages

formal logic used to write mathematical proofs and various computer languages

natural languages

those languages that have evolved naturally in a speech community, a child can acquire it

constructed languages

has been invented by a human that may or not imitate all the properties of a natural language


mode of communication


artificially constructed system for representing a natural language, no structure of its own but borrows it structure form the natural language that it represents

ways to study forming speech sounds

x-ray, palatography, sound spectrograph, impressionistic phonetic transcription


one sound


discrete units of the speech stream and can be further subdivided into the categories consonants and vowel


apply to entire strings of consonants and vowels (stress, tone, intonations)


unit of speech


vocalic part of a syllable


final consonants in a syllable


consonants before the vowel in a syllable

running or continuous speech

phrases and sentences that we speak in


motion or position of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other part of the vocal tract in the production of a speech sound

segmantal features

voicing, place, and manner of articulation


contians the vocal folds and glottis

vocal tract

above the larynx which is composed if the oral and nasal cavities

subglottal system

part of the respiratory system located below the larynx




blowing out

airstream mechanism

how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered


picture of the acoustic signal


some speech sounds are longer than others


pattern of pitch movements across a stretch of speech such as a sentence

pitch accents

involve a change in fundamental frequency in the middle of an utterance

edge tones

occurs at the end of a phrase


property of entire syllables, stressed syllables are more prominent and are louder and longer

5 key parameters of signed languages

place of articulation, movement, hand shape, hand orientation, non-manual markers


fundamental elements

phonotactic restraints

restrictions on possible combinations of sounds

sound substitution

sounds that exist in a language a speaker knows are used to replace sounds that do not exist in that language when pronoucing the words if a forgien language


puff of air


a class of speech sounds that seem to be of the same sound


corresponds to an actual phonetic segment produced by a speaker


a phone is the set of phonetic environments in which it occurs

contrastive distribution

a case in which the 2 sounds occur in the same phonetic environment and using one rather than another changes the meaning of the word

minimal pair

a pair of words whose pronunciations differ by one sound and that have different meaning


a differnec between 2 or more phonetic forms that you might otherwise expect to be related

complementary distribution

never be a minimal pair, found in different environments

free variation

does not make a difference in meaning

overlapping distribution

can occur in the same environment

natural class

group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property to exclusion of all other sounds in that language


high, hissing quality [s, $, t$, z, 3, d3]


obstruction of the airflow, stops, fricatives, afficates


segments produced with a relatively open passage for the air flow, nasals, glides, and vowels


causing a sound to become more like another sound


two close sounds become more unlike each other


cause a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word


eliminates a sound that was present at the phonemic level


change the order of sounds


makes sounds stronger


cause sounds to become weaker

implicational law

the presence of the less common sound implies that the more common sound will also be used in the language


whata word sounds like when it is spoken

lexical categories

parts of speech

closed lexical categories

rarely gain new words, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions




takes one word and performs one or more operations on it and it becomes another word, usually of a different lexical category


different grammatical forms of a word, does not change lexical category

free morphemes

can be used as a word all by itself

bound roots

some sort of meaning, but cannot stand alone

content morpheme

more concrete meaning than function morphemes

function morpheme

has grammatically relevant information


putting 2 or more independent words together


process of forming new words by repeating them


process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words of morphological distinctions


a root will have one or more inflected forms unrelated to the word

internal variation

within a language there are single ways of expressing the same thing


study of the relationship between language varieties and social structure as well as the interrealtionships among different language varieties


systematic phonological variation

speech comunity

group of people speaking the same dialect

extralinguistic feathures

region, socioeconomic status, age and gender and ethnicity

dialect continuum

a large number of continuous dialects are closely related when next to each other, but those who are far are mutually unintelligible

speech styles

systematic variations in speech based inn factors such as topic, setting, and adressee


levels of speech formality

style shifting

automatically shifting from one speech style to another

perscriptive standard

standard by which we make judgements of right and wrong

overt prestige

dialect used by the offical and media

covert prestige

trying to fit in with a group


boundries of areas where a particular lingustic form is used

double modal

indicate that a plan has a high degree of tentativeness, used in the South

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