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the rules that someone has deduced based on observing speakers linguistic performance
reasons that speech is more basic than writing
1. archeological evidence, 2. writing does not exist everywhere, 3. writing must be taught, 4. neurolinguistics evidence, 5, writing can be edited, 6. more stable
property requiring that all signals in a communication system have a meaning for function
aspects of language that we can aquire only through communicatiove interaction with other users of the system
the meaning is not in anyway predictable from the form, nor is the form dictated by the meaning
certain sounds occur in words not by virtue of being directly imitative of some sound but by being evocative of a particular meaning
abilty of language to communicate about things, actions, and ideas that are not present in space or time where the speakers are
those languages that have evolved naturally in a speech community, a child can acquire it
has been invented by a human that may or not imitate all the properties of a natural language
artificially constructed system for representing a natural language, no structure of its own but borrows it structure form the natural language that it represents
ways to study forming speech sounds
x-ray, palatography, sound spectrograph, impressionistic phonetic transcription
discrete units of the speech stream and can be further subdivided into the categories consonants and vowel
motion or position of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other part of the vocal tract in the production of a speech sound
property of entire syllables, stressed syllables are more prominent and are louder and longer
5 key parameters of signed languages
place of articulation, movement, hand shape, hand orientation, non-manual markers
sounds that exist in a language a speaker knows are used to replace sounds that do not exist in that language when pronoucing the words if a forgien language
a case in which the 2 sounds occur in the same phonetic environment and using one rather than another changes the meaning of the word
a pair of words whose pronunciations differ by one sound and that have different meaning
a differnec between 2 or more phonetic forms that you might otherwise expect to be related
group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property to exclusion of all other sounds in that language
segments produced with a relatively open passage for the air flow, nasals, glides, and vowels
cause a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word
the presence of the less common sound implies that the more common sound will also be used in the language
takes one word and performs one or more operations on it and it becomes another word, usually of a different lexical category
process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words of morphological distinctions
study of the relationship between language varieties and social structure as well as the interrealtionships among different language varieties
a large number of continuous dialects are closely related when next to each other, but those who are far are mutually unintelligible
systematic variations in speech based inn factors such as topic, setting, and adressee
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