76 terms

Ch. 8 Test Review Questions

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Were woman allowed the right to be educated during the medieval times in Europe?
no, but men thought that a woman's position was mainly at home, to take care of children, cook, and clean. They were pretty sexist.
Why was education needed more and more in Europe during medieval times?
Economic and political conditions kept improving..
The first ever Universities were mainly for what, In Europe?
To train the clergy.
What is scholasticism?
In medieval Europe the school of thought that used logic and reason to support Christian belief.
Who was Thomas Aquinas?
The famous scholastic that concluded that faith and reason exist in harmony. He brought together Christian faith and Greek Philosophy.
What is Vernacular?
The everyday languages of ordinary people such as French, Germany, and Italian.
Who was Dante Alighieri?
An Italian poet, who wrote a poem about going to hell, and purgatory and the after life.
Who was Geoffrey Chaucer?
The writer of Canterbury Tales.
What is flying buttresses?
stone supports that sit outside of the church.
What is illumination
The artistic decoration of books and manuscripts.
Who did the Anglo-Saxons conquer?
The old Roman colony of Britain
England was constantly under attack in the beginning by who?
The Vikings
Who was the Anglo- Saxon King?
King Edward
What 2 men fought over the throne once King Edward died?
William and Harold
Who won the battle Of Hastings for the throne after king Edward perished?
What is common law?
A legal system based on custom and court rulings.
What is the domesday book?
Collected information on all citizens of the kingdom.
Who created the Jury system?
King Henry II
Why was Thomas Becket murdered?
He opposed the authority of the king, and his attempt to take reign over the clergy men of the church. He was murdered by 4 knights.
Who did King John go into war with, and why?
Pope innocent III because John opposed the man that was appointed to be archbishop of Canterbury.
What is Interdict?
papal order
What is another word for Noblemen?
Why was the Magna Carta signed?
To give barrons certain rights, and townspeople and noblemen the right to a legal judgment in court with peers (jury)
What is Due Process Of Law?
The right to be tried in court, that no man may be placed in jail without being charged with a specific crime.
England eventually split into two separate houses, what were they?
House of the Lords- clergy noblemen, and house of the commons- knights, the middle class.
What is a Prime Minister?
An England Government power, like an official
What is secularism?
The view that human activities and decisions especially political ones, should be unbiased by religious influence.
What was the Roman Decline?
Time period after the collapse of the Roman Empire.
What was Saxony?
A state of Charlemagne's old empire.
Who was the first king of Germany?
Duke Otto 1st of Saxony
Who was crowned the Holy Roman Emperor for his accomplishments toward the church?
Duke Otto 1st of Saxony
Who was crowned the next Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Germany after Otto?
Henry IV
Who was Gregory VII, and what did he do?
The Pope of the church, wanted to seperate the church, from secular rulers, he executed Henry VII from the church, and was forced to leave because of Henry VII.
What is the concordant of Worms?
church was given power to elect bishops and monarchs were able to give the fiefs.
What Nobles were much more independent then France and England?
Who threatened to interdict the entire kingdom because he tried to appoint an archbishop of Canterbury without his permission?
King John of England
Who ex-communicated King John and threatened to interdict France because Phillip wanted unlawfully end his marriage?
King Phillip II of France
What happened in the Holy war?
With the Help of France, Pope Innocent launched a crusade against the people of southern France because they rejected the catholic beliefs and rituals.
How did the Crusades change life in Europe and beyond?
Focus question, answer in your own way.
What is considered to be the Holy land?
Islam spread to where?
All over Spain and India
What had prospered for centuries but finally fell to invaders in Central Asia?
The Byzantine Empire
Why was it weird for pope Alexius I ask Pope Urban II for help against the Muslim Turks?
They were Rivals.
What happened during the first crusade?
It was the only crusade that Christians came close to achieving there goals. The Christians captured Jerusalem.
What happened during the second crusade?
It was smaller than the first, , it was a battle back and forth to conquer Jerusalem. The Muslims get Jerusalem back with there leader Saladin.
What happened in the Third Crusade?
Europeans tried to retake Jerusalem, and they failed. Christians negotiated with Saladin to be able to visit Jerusalem. So Saladin allowed pilgrims.
What happened during the Fourth Crusade?
The Europeans started fighting against themselves, while the Christians fought the Muslims overran Jerusalem. It was the last crusade in the middle east Muslims captured Jerusalem and slaughtered the Muslims within.
How did the Crusades Impact Europe?
Economics became stronger,
Who became the King Of England On Christmas day?
William the Conqueror
What is a parliament?
The legislature of England, and later Great Britain.
Who was Louis IX and what were his accomplishments?
He became the king of France. He was very religious, and persecuted Jews, and anyone who didn't follow church teachings. He led the French knights in two crusades, and he was declared a saint once he died. He helped to improve the French government.
What is the Holy Roman Empire?
Empire of west central Europe from 962 to 1806 , comprising present-day Germany and neighboring lands.
Who was Otto I and what were his accomplishments?
He ruled France, and The Holy Roman Empire. He was in charge of Saxony. He was the Holy Roman Emperor, he killed everyone who opposed the pope or church in Italy.
Who was Gregory VII
He was the pope when conflicts with monarchs and the church erupted, while King Henry IV was in reign.
Who was Frederick Barbarossa and what were his accomplishments?
He was the ruler of The Holy Roman Empire, and tried to take control of northern Italian cities, but failed to the pope. His generations also failed against popes.
Who was Pope Innocent III and what were his accomplishments?
He was head of the church, and claimed to be more powerful then all others but God. He clashed with all of the powerful rulers of his day, but he usually won. The pope's approval was needed for everything. He strengthened papal power, and changed the way church officials were elected.
What is the Crusades?
Wars which began in 1096. Christians battled Muslims for control of lands in the Middle East.
What effects did the Crusades have on Monarchs and the church?
They helped to increase power of the Monarchs. They won new rights to collect taxes in support for the crusades. It also brought a new level of papal power.
Did The Crusades end the Rivalry between the Byzantine Churches, and The Roman Churches?
no, the pope of The Roman Empire wanted it to, but The Byzantine Empire's resentment against the West hardened as a result of the fourth crusade.
What is The Reconquista?
the campaigns by European Christians to drive the Muslims from Spain in the 1400s.
What is inquisition?
A church court set up to try people accused of Heresy.
What disease killed one in three people, and was by far the worst epidemic then any war in history?
Black Death
What animal carried the disease known as black death?
Fleas carried by rates.
How did Black death effect the economy?
Inflation was a major factor, and production declined.
How did Black death effect the Roman Church?
The church split because it was unable to provide the strong leadership needed for desperate times. Papacy was later returned by Pope Martin V
Describe the Hundred Years War, and who won?
It was between France and England. It was basically a power struggle war because they were both greedy to obtain each others land. England won the war.
What helped England win the Hundred Years War?
The longbow
Who was Joan of Arc and what were her accomplishments?
Joan Of Arc was a 17-year-old peasant woman who fought for France in the hundred years war, she said that God sent her to save France, and led them to many victories but was burned to death for being tried for witchcraft by the English, but was known after her death as being a martyr.
What is a schism?
permanent division in a church.
Who was Edward ! and what were his accomplishments?
He was an English King. He furthered and improved the parliament, and told them to approve money for the wars in France. He also created the "modeled parliament."
Who was Hugh Capet, and what were his accomplishments?
He was the count of Paris. He created a bureaucracy, and established order, increased prestige, and gained the backing of the new middle class. He also passed the heir to his family for 300 years.
Who was Phillip II and what were his accomplishments?
He was a wise ruler of France. He paid the middle class to serve as government officials instead of nobles. He granted charters to many new towns and introduced a new national tax law. He began to take over Southern France and was considered the most powerful ruler of Europe before he passed.
Who was Pope Boniface VIII and what were his experiences/accomplishments?
He was a Pope in France that forbade King Phillip IV to tax the clergy without his consent and was threatened, and denied by King Phillip. The King ordered him to be killed, and shortly after he left, and a new pope was introduced into France.
Who was Phillip IV and what were his accomplishments?
He was the king of France. He tried to collect new taxes from the clergy and ran into some issues with the Pope, but won the argument, and a new pope was introduced. He also extended royal power.
Who was Ferdinand and Isabella and what were there accomplishments?
They were Christians from Spain that fought the Muslims for Granada, and won. They imposed unity over there diverse people. They helped to set up a Church court and tried people for heresy, and many who refused to the church teachings they taught were burned.
Who was Richard I and what were his accomplishments?
He was the king of England and led some crusades. He had great prestige.