Chapter 7 Test Preparation
Primary Sensory Cortex
Input mainly from thalamic relay nuclei.
Secondary Sensory Cortex
Input mainly from the primary and secondary cortex of the same region.
Association Sensory Cortex
Input from several sensory systems, usually from secondary cortex systems.
Specificity and complexity increase with each level of perception.
Detecting the stimulus.
Understanding the stimulus.
Distinct functional areas within the hierarchy.
Simultaneous analysis of signals along different pathways.
Hierarchical, Functionally Homogenous, Serial
Similar processing across a single level of the hierarchy.
Signal is processed in a ascending order from receptor to association cortex.
Hierarchical, Functional Segregation and Parallel Processing
Three components, exteroceptive, proprioceptive, and interoceptive.
Stimuli from outside the body, i.e. touching the body.
Position of the body, input from muscle tension and tendon strain.
Internal body conditions, i.e. temperature and blood pressure.
3 components, touch (mechanical stimuli), temperature (thermal stimuli), pain (nociceptive stimuli). Specialized receptors to each stimuli.
Cutaneous Receptors (Touch)
Four receptors distinguished by receptive field size and speed of response. Can detect slow surface movement or pressure and fast vibrations.
Free Nerve Ending
Part of the cutaneous system, this receptor detects temperature and pain.
Part of the cutaneous system these are encapsulated, found in dermis, receptors for discriminative (light touch).
Part of the cutaneous system these are large, round and onion like receptors that respond to deep pressure and vibration.
Cutaneous system: detect gradual skin indentation.
Cutaneous receptor: detects gradual skin stretching.
The identification of objects by touch.
Dynamic and Static Qualities
This differentiation allows for full appreciation of objects in out physical world, as well as helps us understand that cutaneous receptors respond more to change than to constant contact.
An area of the body that is innervated by the left AND right dorsal roots of a given segment of the spinal cord.
2 Major Paths of Signal Transfer
The dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system and the anterolateral system.
Dorsal-column medial-lemniscus System
Fine discriminitive touch, proprioception, vibration, carries information to contralateral post central gyrus, crosses in the medulla. Decussates to contralateral hemisphere.
Tends to carry information about pain and temperature. Synapse upon entering the spinal cord.
Conditions that occur from damage to the sensory cortex.
Failure to recognize part of one's own body.
Failure to recognize one's own symptoms.
Tendency to ignore one half of one's environment.
Has no cortical representation, however the anterior cingulate gyrus does seem to be connected to the emotional components of pain.
Descending Pain Control
Allows for the suppression of pain.
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Mediates the emotional component of pain.
Orbital Frontal Cortex
The cognitive evaluation of pain and emotion.
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