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definition + historical significance
Terms in this set (16)
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption. Their arguments included: it was a class-based document, it would erode fundamental liberties; and it would erode the power of the states.
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators.
This principle of government states that political power rests with the people. This power may be expressed through voting and participation in government.
A basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights (natural rights) that government cannot take away.
Declaration of Independence
The document of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) stating the grievances of the American colonies against the British monarch and proclaming the independence of the colonies from Great Britain. The primary author was Thomas Jefferson.
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention (introduced by William Paterson) that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
James Madison introduced this plan which called for a national government that had unrestricted rights of legislation and taxation, the right to veto any state law, and use military force against the states. It also specified a bicameral legislature and representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
An uprising by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by a Revolutionary War captain against Boston creditors. It began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.
Conflicts on slavery emerged during the Philadelphia convention. Southern states argued for counting slaves in determining their representation in the House of Representatives, though they resisted counting them for apportionment of taxation. Only Massachusetts had outlawed slavery at this time, but many northern states argued against counting slaves for representation. The agreement resulted in representation and taxation to be based on the "number of free persons," plus a percentage of "all other persons."
A law making body made of two houses. Example: the U.S. Congress.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
Power shared by the state and federal government, such as the power to tax.
Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution. Article I, Section 8, for instance, cites the powers of Congress to coin money, regulate its value and impose taxes.
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of votes is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
A form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states.
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