37 terms

science chapter 16

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

kinetic theory
explanation of how particles in matter behave
thermal energy
total energy of a material's particles including kinetic -vibrations- and movement within and between the particles resulting from forces that act within or between particles
temperature
average kinetic energy of particles in the substance or how fast the particles are moving
melting point
temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy
heat of fusion
amount of energy required to change a substance from a solid phase to the liquid phase at its melting point
boiling point
temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
heat of vaporization
amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas
diffusion
The spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are uniformly distributed
plasma
matter consisting of positively and negatively charged particles
thermal expansion
an increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is increased
amorphous solids
plastics and gas
liquid crystals
another group of materials that do not change states in the usual manner
pressure
force exerted per unit area
buoyancy
ability of a fluid -liquid or gas-to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it
Daniel Bernoulli
studied properties of moving fluids such as water and air-does many experiences to test his theory
viscosity
resistance to flow by a fluid
pascal
the unit in which pressure is measuree
Boyle
P⬆️ V⬇️ (or reversed)
Charles
T⬆️ V⬆️ (or reversed)
Gay Lvssac
P⬆️ T⬆️ (or reversed)
solid
shape-definite
volume-definite
liquid
shape-indefinite
volume-definite
gas
shape-indefinite
volume-indefinite
liquid➡️solid
freeze
solid➡️liquid
melt
liquid➡️gas
condensation
gas➡liquid
evaporation
gas➡️solid
deposition
solid➡️gas
sublimation
what is a fluid
a liquid and a gas
absolute zero
lower than freezing, nothing can be colder
if the temperature remains constant what will happen to the pressure of a gas if you decrease the volume of the container that holds it?
The pressure goes up
if the volume of a container of gas remains constant what will happen to the pressure of a gas if you increase the temperature?
The pressure goes up
on the Kelvin scale what is the freezing point of water?
273
on the Kelvin scale what is the boiling point of water
373
what is the freezing point-Celsius
0°C
what is the boiling point of water-Celsius
100°C