Measurement of Intelligence during infancy
Focus on behavioral attainments, which can help identify developmental delays or advances but are not strongly related to measures of adult intelligence.
Introduced Developmental Quotient. (1946) System of overall development score that relates to performance in 4 domains. Motor skills, Language use, Adaptive behaviors, and personal social behavior.
Nancy Bayley (Bayley scales of infant development)
Developed in 1993. Evaluated and infants development from 2 to 42 months. Focuses on 2 areas (Mental and Motor skills)
(Bayley scales of infant development) - Mental
Senses, perception, memory, learning, problem solving, and language.
Jean Piaget's Stage theory
Described how children's ways of thinking develop as they interacted with the world around them.
Infants and young children understand the world much differently than adults do, and as they play and explore, their mind learns how to think in ways that better fit with reality.
Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational. (30% of people never reach formal operational stage.)
Birth-2yrs. The level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses. First 2yrs of life, infants know the world by touching, tasting, smelling, looking, and listening. "Knowing" to very young children amounts to what their senses tell them. Differentiates self from objects. Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally.
2-7 yrs. The level of human development at which individuals first use language or other symbols. Learns to use language and represent objects by images of words. Thinking is still ego-centric, has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others. Classifies objects by a single feature; ex- groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of color. Lacks abstract concepts, cannot judge size, weight, or volume.
7-11 yrs. The level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings. Can think logically about objects and events. Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.
11yrs and up. The level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critical. Can think logical about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically.
Process by which people understand their experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and a way of thinking.
Changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.