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Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue

Human Anatomy and Physiology Eighth Edition
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Axial Skeleton
80 bones
Axial Skeleton
made up of Skull, veterbral column, ribs, and hyoid bone
Appendicular Skeleton
126 bones
Appendicular skeleton
upper limbs, lower limbs, pectoral gid=rdle, pelvic girdle
Tuberosity
large rounded projections
Crest
narrow ridge of bone prominent
Line
narrow ridge of bone less bone prominent
Trochanter
large irregular projection
Tubercle
small rounded projection
Epicondyle
raised area bove a condyle
Spine
sharp slender projection
Head
expansion from a neck
Facet
nearly flat articulating surface
Condyle
rounded articular projection
Ramus
arm like projection
Meatus
canal
Sinus
cavity
Fossa
basin like depression
Groove
furrow
Fissure
slit in a bone
Foramen
hole
7 markings associated with muscle attachment
Tuberosity, Crest, line, Trochanter, Tubercle, Epicondyle, Spine
4 markings associated with forming joints
Head, Facet, Condyle, Ramus
6 passageways for blood vessels and nerves
Meatus, Sinus, Fossa, Groove, Fissure, Foramen
Three types of vertebrae
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Saccrum, and Coccyx
Cervical Vertebrae
7 vertebrae
Atlas
C1 responsible for up and down
Axis
C2 responsible for left and right movement
Saccrum
5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae
Pectoral Girdle
clavicle and scapula
Pelvic Girdle
3 bones fused together ilium, ischium, and pubis
Three types of skeletal cartilage
elastic, hyaline, and fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage
joint cartilage
Elastic cartilage
cartilage in ears
Fibrocartilage
intervertebral discs and pubis symphysis
Articulations
joints
Osseous Tissue
bones
Osteocyte
mature osteoblasts
Compact bone
dense bone
Cancellous bone
spongy bone
Osteon
basic unit of bone
perforating canals
have blood vessels that carry blood to haversion canals
Lamellae
holes filled with red bone marrow
Red bone marrow
stem cells of blood, makes all blood vessels
Trabeculla
pattern of lamella in cancellous bone
Chondrocytes
forms cartilage
Function of skeletal System
Support, protection, assist in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood production site, energy storage
Epiphyseal plate
where bone grows as growth stops it becomes a line
Intramembranous Ossification
makes flat bones
Steps of intramembranous ossification
mesenchyme lays down in the shape of a bone, mesenchyme slowly gets replaced with loose connective tissue, osteoblasts move in and turn into bone, osteoclasts move in and make cancellous bone
Endochronal Ossification
forms long bones
Steps of Endochronal Ossification
hyaline cartilage is layed down, primary ossification, calcification, secondary ossification, completion of ossification
Primary Ossification
osteoblasts move in and begin to form bony collar
Cavitation
Formation of a cavity or hole
Secondary Ossification
forms the epiphysis
Steps of repairing of fractures
hematoma forms, Fibrocartilaginous callous forms, Bony callous formation, remodeling
hematoma
clot
Fibrocartilaginous callous formation
forms wherever blood clot is
Bony callous formation
osteoclasts move in and turn fibroblasts into bone
Remodeling
breakdown extra bone
Bone classifications
Long bones, Short bones, Irregular bones, Sutural bones, Sesamoid bones
Long bones
bones that are longer that wide and has epiphyseal plate at each end
Short bones
approximately same length and width has no epiphyseal plate
Flat bones
depth is thin
Irregular bone
any other type of bone
Sutural bone
bones in the suture
Sesamoid bone
bones imbedded in the tendon ex. tendon