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_____ theory is concerned with the many social and cultural contexts that impact and influence family living. These contexts include those that exert immediate influences on the family, such as schools, churches or temples, and neighborhoods

instrumental role

As the task-oriented mate, a husband is assigned responsibility for being primary breadwinner and protector against imbalance or disequilibrium. In Parsons' functionalist view of the family, this is an example of a(n


According to the conflict perspective, _________ is a defining trait built in to any society or culture. Dominant and subordinate groups and classes within a society are always in competition for the society's limited resources and for whatever the society deems important


According to Karl Marx's observations, European societies were comprised of two distinct classes of people. This class was subordinate to the demands of the ruling class

feminist theory

This theory is one that embraces the conflict approach to understanding and analyzing the roles of marriage and family in perpetuating inequalities in the male/female relationships. Because most societies the world over promote male domination in the home and in the workplace, it focuses on the plight of women

Communication involves co-construction of meanings

Professors and researchers of communication studies, Lynn Turner and Richard West summarize the general concepts of communication into four headings. Which one focuses on the learning the meaning of things between family members?

emotional communication

The physical gestures and movements that convey our emotions are most often referred to as nonverbal communication, or ________.

private couple meanings

If College Student Emily is going back and forth to home to help care for an ill parent or assist her family during a difficult time, her partner will take this information into consideration if she snaps at him or is unusually quiet; however, a clerk at a store or a waiter who does not know Emily's contextual information might assume that she is being rude or impolite in a social interaction. This is an example of _____

money matters, sex, division of household labor

The areas of marital conflict mentioned most tend to center around what?

regulated couples

________ use communication patterns and interpersonal behaviors that promote closeness and intimacy, such as using more positive comments than negative comments during times of tension

gender presentation

_____ refers to how an individual presents his or her gender identity through personality, habits, and behaviors

gender identity

____refers to how one accepts the culture's prescribed gender roles; how an individual adapts the expected gender role to his/her identity. It is subjective to the individual

gender stereotypes

____encompass the cultural beliefs about "what" gender roles are and "how" these roles should be enacted. They tend to reflect culture's belief about the ways in which men and women behave.

gender identity

Well before kindergarten, children know differences exist between boys and girls. According to Kohlberg (1966), around the age of three children become keenly aware that they biologically are male or female. What phase of gender understanding does this illustrate?

All are examples

What are examples of sexual harassment?
A. A university freshman seeks help from her male TA. After going over the course work, he suggests they go out to grab a bite to eat, indicating that her grades might improve if she got to know him better

B. Upon a male student being late for class, a female professor quips in front of the entire class "Perhaps you need to learn the art of quick love making."

C. A male student politely declines several requests of his female TA for a date. The female TA repeatedly sends email requests asking for a date, despite the male student repeatedly denying her requests.

middle childhood (7-11)

In DeLamater's and Friedrich's examination of sexuality development, they found that children in this development stage experience more with masterbation, and often experience their first sexual attraction and fantasies.


Whom do teens say are most influential when it comes to their decisions about sex?


According to research, what percentage of 9th graders have had sex?

erectile dysfunction

____is the most commonly reported sexual complaint in males


In studies, cohabiting couples were not only more likely to have sex outside of the cohabiting relationship, but were also less secretive than married couples about the outside sexual activities.

personal context

Prager's five different levels of intimacy: The ___ includes factors specific to each member of the couple, such as personality traits, attitudes and beliefs about the overall status of the relationship; emotional reactions to intimacy; willingness to self-disclose; and each partner's intimacy needs, goals, and motives.


An____is an intimate type that appears to be intimate on the surface, but lacks depth. Because of the lack of depth, these relationships may never progress beyond friendship.

becoming a self-governing person

Autonomy refers to what?

beginning of crowd

Still same-sex in nature, peer groups toward the end of sixth grade/beginning of seventh grade begin to shift to crowds, which consist of ten or more members. Crowd activities such as after-school dances and sporting events provide pre-adolescents the chance to "practice" interacting with the opposite sex. Which of Dunphy's stages of friendship is being described?

fear of sex

Individuals experiencing this form of intimacy fear may ask' "What if we end up having sex and he/she doesn't really love me? What if he/she disapproves of my body?"

Victorian era

During the _____, the virginal, shy, virtuous woman was the epitome of the attitude towards sexuality and the role of women.


Which ancient Greek type of love is being described : ____was thought to be a self-sacrificing, spiritual love that looked out for the interest and well-being of others.

passion, intimacy, and commitment

Recognizing that love is a process that undergoes change, Robert Sternberg proposed that love relationships consist of three interconnected components. What are they?


Which of Sternberg's eight love types is being described? ____ is characterized by the absence of intimacy, commitment, and passion.

avoidant attachment types

Individuals in this type of adult love relationship have little difficulty seeking or maintaining closeness (physical, emotional, affectional) with another. They don't fear being abandoned or losing their partner. These adults report enduring happy, warm, trusting relationships that promote self-esteem.

social exchange theory

The ___ theory asserts that individuals are thought to act out of self-interest in ways to maximize and make the most of the resources they possess. This theory helps to explain what motivates individuals to act.

geographic closeness

Propinquity has a lot to do with partner selection. "Propinquity" refers to what?


____ involves practices that groom young adults for marriage, practices that are socially prescribed forms of conduct that guide men and women toward matrimony.

Friends with benefits; booty call

____ or ____ are the terms used to describe two people who have regular sex with one another, but who do not relate as boyfriend and girlfriend.


Part of Knapp's relationship escalation model, this is when two individuals become a "couple" and are identified as a couple among their friends and family. Each shares their relational identity.


Marriage allows for ____, in which each spouse can take on tasks and concentrate on those things they do well (he may like to do light carpentry and she may like to do yard work)

high levels of overall relationship satisfaction

Vitalized couples are characterized by____

relational expectancies

"If I chose to marry what will by priorities be? Perhaps companionship or friendship? Do I anticipate a marriage with children? A marriage partner who shares my dreams and life goals? And a marriage that is united in purpose and direction?" Questions such as these are examples of ____, key factors in marital satisfaction and longevity.

When a spouse's expectations are violated

Levitt found that when (not if) relational expectancies are tested, one of three outcomes will occur. When this happens, the relationship experiences negative affects.


Married people are generally healthier than non-married individuals.


_____ is a disease characterized by the build-up or migration of a uterine tissue to other parts of the body (such as the ovaries or fallopian tubes).

shock and panic

When parents lose a child to death, or when they have a baby born with birth defects, they experience a cycle of grief and loss. During this part of the cycle, the parent often responds with withdrawal, eating, hysteria, talking, etc.


____ refers to the death of a fetus after the 20th week (four months) of pregnancy.

family projection process

Some research has demonstrated that bad memories of our childhood experiences have accounted for unique variances in why some men and women choose to have children, and others do not. These experiences underlie what is known as what?


______refers to the age at which a transition takes place.

authoritative parenting

One of Baumrind's parenting styles, these parents demonstrate high levels of warmth, affection, and responsiveness toward their children, and also show adequate to high levels of parent/child communication. This parenting style does not place high demands on children, nor do parents attempt to control their children's behavior, children's behavior is mostly self-regulated.

maternal gatekeeping

Several bodies of research that investigated the division of family work and parental responsibilities showed that women's socialization-and the inherent cultural notion that she will always be the better parent-creates in the mother difficulty in relinquishing her traditional role. This is described as _____.


For the most part, men and women would rather perform routine housework than residual tasks like bill paying, yard work, etc.

supportive co-parenting

In this co-parenting style, parents directly or indirectly agree with each other by promoting the same general message to the child.

voluntary caretaking

Sometimes grandparents assume the role of parents to make sure their grandchildren are in a safe, stable environment in the absence of their biological parents. This exhibits which category of "grandparents as parents"?


When comparing women of different races,_____ consistently earn more.

job complexity

___occurs when jobs are at the same time challenging and stimulating

opportunity cost

the ____ method asks the question, What would a person be paid in wage labor for one hour of household work?

work-family spillover/crossover

This occurs when a spouse brings the emotional events and tensions of one environment to the other


There is little diversity among single-parent households.

dyadic phase

According to Duck, this phase occurs when couples discuss their dissatisfaction with their marriage and attempt either to find a resolution or their intent to end the relationship. Not all couples enter into discussions, however

a "cooling off"period, temporary marital hiatus, a precursor to divorce papers

To estranged couples, "seperation" means _____


When a parent is granted_____custody, he or she is granted the legal right to have the child live primarily with him or her, making this parent the custodial parent.

divorce mediation

______is a process that helps ex-spouses resolve child support, child custody, and property settlements for themselves and for their children, rather than having a judge determine these issues for them.


Spouses who are older or who are in poorer mental or physical health are usually awarded a larger share of marital property than healthier spouses, true or false?

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