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Location of Major Endocrine Glands and Major Hormones
Terms in this set (33)
Major Endocrine Glands
Located in the skull. The main function is to stimulate body cells to increase in size and reproduce more rapidly. Controlled by the hypothalamus which stimulates or inhibits hormones. 9 major hormones.
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
Also called Somatotrophin. HGH promotes body growth by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, the rate of protein synthesis and the use of fats for the production of energy (ATP). The target is cells, bones, muscles, fat and liver.
Stimulates milk production. Target is the breast.
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates the secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland. Produced in times of stress and the target is the adrenal cortex of the kidneys.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Also called thyrotropin. Stimulates growth and secretion of the thyroid gland. Target is the thyroid gland.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Stimulates growth of the ova in ovarian follicles approximately every 28 days and increases the secretion of estrogen by follicle cells. Initiates sperm production within the tests. Target is the gonads.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
In women: causes ovulation which causes the ruptured ovarian follicle to become a corpus luteum (a yellow endocrine tissue that forms following the release of an ovum and degenerates after a few days unless pregnancy has begun) and increases secretion of progesterone.
In men: LH increases the secretion of testosterone.
Target is the gonads.
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
In skin and hair stimulates the production and release of melanin. In the brain it affects appetite and sexual arousal. Target is skin and brain.
Promotes the contraction of the uterus in childbirth and promotes the release of milk from the mammary glands. Target is the uterus and breast.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Also called Vasopressin. Increases water reabsorption, decreases the amount of urine formed and decreases sweating. In large amounts it causes vasoconstriction (makes everything shrink). Targets are kidneys, sweat glands, and blood vessels.
Located on the front and sides of the trachea below the larynx. 3 major hormones are Thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and Calcitonin.
T4 and T3
Essential to the physical growth, mental and reproductive development (stimulated by TCH).
Increases the rate of protein metabolism in the cells.
Increases cellular respiration and energy production.
Functions to maintain calcium in bones and decreases Ca++. Secretion is triggered by increased Ca++ in the blood (not stimulated by TCH).
Located on the thyroid gland. The hormone produced is parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its functions to increase blood calcium levels. The targets are bone, kidneys and small intestines. In bone, PTH stimulates the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from the bone to blood. In the kidneys, PTH increases the reabsorption of calcium and excretion of phosphate. In the intestine, PTH increases the absorption of both calcium and phosphate. PTH is antagonistic to calcitonin and triggered by low level of calcium in the blood. 2 pair on back of thyroid gland.
Located in the abdominal cavity. It is a mixed gland, both exocrine and endocrine. As an exocrine gland the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum of the small intestine. As and endocrine gland the "Islets of Langerhans" secrete hormones. The beta cells secrete insulin when triggered by hyperglycaemia. Alpha cells secrete glucagon triggered by hypoglycaemia.
Lowers blood sugar levels by increasing the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver and muscles.
Increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose by the liver to increase blood sugar levels.
Located in the abdominal cavity and sit on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts, the cortex and medulla.
Is the larger outer portion of the adrenal gland and produces cortisol, a glucocorticoid, and aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid. Is also a secondary site for production for very small amounts of androgen and estrogen.
Functions as an anti-inflammatory. Helps the body deal with stress by increasing the use of fats and amino acids as an alternate source of energy. Increases the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver for a quick emergency energy reserve when needed. It conserves glucose for use by the brain.
Increases blood sodium levels by increasing reabsorption by the kidney. It decreases potassium levels by increasing excretion and increases blood pressure. The secretion of aldosterone is stimulated by low blood sodium levels, high blood potassium levels or low blood pressure. The target is the kidney.
The smaller inner portion of the adrenal glands. It increases epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin). These hormones are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system in stress situations to prepare the body for the fight or flight response.
During the Fight or Flight Response:
-heart rate increases
-vessels in skin and viscera constrict
-blood vessels in skeletal muscle dilate
-cell respiration increases
-conversion of glycogen and fat to energy increases
-peristalsis in the intestine decreases
Female reproductive glands located in the pelvic cavity that secrete the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Stimulated by FSH from the pituitary and produced by follicle cells. Initiates the growth of ova. Before ovulation, estrogen stimulates the growth of uterine lining each month. The development of secondary sex characteristics such as reproductive organs, body hair, mammary glands, and hips are due to estrogen.
Stimulated by LH from the pituitary. After ovulation, the follicle becomes the corpus luteum and secretes progesterone which stimulates the endometrium to become a potential placenta. It also promotes the growth of secretory cells in the mammary glands.
Male reproductive organs located in the pelvic cavity. The testes are encased in the scrotum and produce testosterone.
Promotes maturity of sperm and secondary sex characteristics such as growth of reproductive organs, facial and body hair, and deepening of the voice and growth of skeletal muscles.
Produced in the kidneys and stimulates red blood cell production.
In females: is a hormone secreted by the corpus luteum. It decreases the secretion of FSH and GNRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) by the hypothalamus.
In males: stimulates increased testosterone secretion and decreased FSH production.
Negative feedback hormone.
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