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What are Germs?

Microorganisms that cover almost every surface, including the skin of the human body.

What is the difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria?

Pathogenic is disease causing while non-pathogenic is non disease causing.

The 3 basic types of bacteria and their shape

Spirilla- spiral

1. Antiseptic

weaker form of disinfectant

2. Disinfectant

chemicals that kill a majority of pathogenic microorganisms

3. Sterilization

process of killing ALL microorganisms

What piece of equipment is the only way to truly sterilize utensils using steam, heat, and pressure?


What implements or materials cannot be used in an autoclave?


Two disinfectants used in esthetics

1. Sodium Hydrochloride(household bleach)
2. Formaldehyde

What is the ratio you can dilute household bleach for a disinfectant?

1:10 with water

4 disposable materials that prevent cross- contamination

1. cotton swabs
2. paper towels
3.Disposable staptulas
4. Gloves

Cleaning and disinfecting process:

Metal tweezers- clean with soap
Suction attachments- use 70% alcohol then soak for 20 min in a disinfectant
Extractors- clean with soap and water then spray with cavaside
Galvanic rollers- spray with alcohol


Occupational Safety and Health Administration

MSDS( Material Safety Data Sheets)

includes how to safely clean up after an accidental spill

3 diseases a client may have that would contraindicate in-office treatments?

pink eye, impetigo, herpes


Center for Disease Control


Other Potential Infections Material

Universal and Standard Precautions

Treat all body fluids as they were/are contagious

3 types of blood borne diseases

HIV, Hepatitis, Syphilis

Why must an esthetician wear gloves?

Estheticians must wear gloves to perform in-office treatments in order to protect them from microorganisms


Skin infected caused by bacteria. Usually the cause is staphylococcal(staph) but sometimes streptococcus(strep).

Symptoms of Impetigo

Small blisters that expand and rupture within 24 hrs. Yellow fluid that drains and forms a honey colored crust


Genetically inherited disease-excess oil secreted by trhe sebaceous glands. Cells that clog the pores, trapping oil in the follicle

What causes adult acne?

Primary catalyst a chronic stress, high level of stress throws adrenal glands in over drive. Setting the stage for acne in 30s and 40s

Common factors that trigger acne

Overactive Sebaceous Glands
Dead Skin cell accummulation
Bacteria and Inflammation
Comedogenic ingredients

Acne Vulgaris

Common acne- inflammatory condition of the sebaceous glands of the skin.

Acne Vulgaris

Consits of red, elevated areas on the skin that may develop into pustules and even futher into cyst that can cause scarring

Retention Hyperkeratosis

Skin condition that produces more dead skin cells than is normal, skin cells are not being shed properly. These dead cells sick to the surface of the skin and inside the follicles, mixing with excess oil and creating a comedo


first stage of comedo formation; a comedoso small that it can be seen only with a microscope


the opening of a follicle


the impaction is neither red nor inflammed

Open Comedones

non inflammatory acne lesions usually called blackheads

Closed Comedones

non inflammatory acne lesions usually called whiteheads

Anaerobic Bacteria

Bacteria that does not need oxygen to grow or survive

Non-Inflammatory Acne

Blackheads, Whiteheads

What is microcomedo made up of?

Dead buildup, bacteria and fatty acids from sebum

What is pustule and what is it made up of?

A clump of white blood cells that have formed and risen to the surface of the skin

What is a papule?

A raised area of the skin that is generally smaller than 1 centimeter

What is the difference between a papule and a nodule?

A nodule is a raised lesion that is larger and deeper in the skin than a papule

What is a cyst

Deep infection caused by a deep massive invasion of white blood cells

Grade 1 Acne

mildest acne that's often just a minor pimple that appear occasionally in small numbers and small bumps that can disapper without being treated

Grade 2 Acne

moderate acne- blackheads and milia can break out in the greater numbers.

Grade 3 Acne

considered severe and is often grade 2 left untreated and madeto worsen by squeezing the pimples and maintaining the oily dirty face that attracted those bacteria at the onset

Grade 4 Acne

most serious- the condition is medically referred to as nodulocystic, or cystic acne where the skin displays numerous pustules, papules, pustules with large cysts


infection of the skin that may affect any part of the body. Usually appears on the lower legs or face

Cellulitis Symptoms/Signs

Area of skin redness or swelling that gets larger, tight glossy look to the skin, pain or tenderness, skin rash that happens suddenly and grows quickly,signs of infection include: fever, chills, and muscle aches


Inflammation of the hair follicle due to an infection

Herpes Simplex

A viral infection of the skin

Herpes Zoster

Shingles is a painful, blistering skin rash due to the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox


Warts are growths on your skin caused by an infection with human papilloma virus, or HPV

Molluscum Contagiosum

viral skin infection that causes raised, pearl-like papules or nodules on the skin

Tinea Versicolor

common, benign,superficial cutaneous fungal infection usually characterized by hypopigmented or hyperpigmented macules and patches on the chest and the back

Tinea Corporis

name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus- ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch

Skin Tags

common, acquired, benign skin growths that look like a small piece of soft, hanging skin.

Seborrheic Keratosis

raised growths on the skin. Means greasy and keratosis means thickening of the skin

Cherry Angioma

Fairly common skin growths that vary in size. Can occur almost anywhere on the body but usually develop on the trunk

Keratosis Pilaris

skin condition in which white bumps appear on the upper arms, thighs, and cheeks


several different types of skin swelling. Also called Dermatitis. Red, Swollen and itchy skin


(eczema) is inflammation of the upper layers of the skin, causing itching, blisters, redness, swelling, and often oozing, scabbing, and scaling

Contact Dermatitis

inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritating or allergy-causing substance (irrant or allergen)

Seborrheic Dermatits

common, inflammatory skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form an oily areas such as the scalpor inside of the ear


occurs when skin cells grow too quickly.Faulty signals in the immune system cause new skin cells to form in days rather than weeks.--Patches of thick, scaly skin that may be white, silvery or red


loss of cells that give color to the skin(melanocytes) results in smooth, white patches in the midst of normally pigemented skin

Cell Membrane

gives the cell structure and shape- posses a function known as selective permeability


allows other structures to move around inside the cell

Selective Permeability

cell membrane can let certain substances "in" the body for example food, water and oxygen. It can also let "out" certain substances such as carbon dioxude and waste materials

Skeletal Tissue

makes up the bones of the body

Nerve Tissue

type of tissue that the cells control the brain and nerves

Adispose Tissue

Technical name for fat

Endothelial Tissue

Inner tissues

Epithelial Tissue

outer tissue


this tissue is the primary concern for the esthetician

4 Ways to Penetrate the Skin

Follicle Wall, Sebaceous Glands, Intercellular, Transcelluar

4 Factors that can influence Skin Penetration

Thickeness of the stratum corneum, large buildup of dead skin cells, excessively oily skin, temperature of the skin


special chemicals that are manufactured or secreted by glands within the body


itching tingly feeling of the skin experienced by some woman during menopause


too much thryroid hormone


not enough thyroid hormone

Lack of Estrogen can cause:

increase sensitivity of the skin, dehydration, possible hyperpigmentation, fluctuation in blood flow

Immune System

bodys mechanism for fighting disease

Acquired Immunity

the term for immunity to a certain disease built by antibodies the body produces when you get sick

Natural Immunity

ther term for immunity to a certain disease you have had from birth as a result of your mother's blood and your parent's genes


the immune system commicates with each cell and releases hormones


cancer causing

3 substances that can contribute to the slowing of the immune functoin:

improper diet, excessive alcohol intake, lacking exercise


Artificial way of tricking the immune system into making anitbodies


Drugs that are made from extracts of living organisms that simply kill bacteria

Acid Mantle

layer of lipids and sweat secretions that help kill bacteria

Langerhans Cells

Guard Cells that Constantly Patrol the Epidermis

Sun exposure

worst enemy of the langerhans cells


most frequently autoimmunity diease you will encounter as an esthetician

Tests that detect HIV

elisa, western blot test

Window Phase

period of time between exposure and the time anitbodies are made

Ratio of HIV

1 in 250 people

4 procedures an esthetician performs where they may come in contact with infected body fluid

extractions, microderm, mani/pedi, waxing


Herpes zoster


autoimmune deficiency syndrome


agents that remove dead skin cells

Benefits of exfoliation

stimulates cell renewal, better product absorption, improves fine lines and wrinkles, improve skin texture, removes flakey patches, helps during extractions, clear congestion, improves hyperpigmentation and color

Contridications to Hydroxy Acid Treatments

open lesions/skin cancers, cold sores/herpes, windburn, sunburn, active rosacea, pregnancy

Considerations with use of Hydroxy Acid

base of formula, percentage, pH

Mechanical/Manual Exfoliation

physical bumping of the skin

Chemical Exfoliation

dissolving dead skin cells

Mechanical Exfoliation

Gommage, granular scrubs, microderm, luffa

Best candidates for chemical peels

Hyperpigmentation, aging, acne

Common Complications with chemical peels

Injury, which can cause hyperpigmentation, cold sore reactivating

Jessners Peel

14% Salicylic, 14% Lactic, 14% resorcinol

Superficial Peeling

effects the epidermis (stratum corneum)

Medium Peeling

removes the entire epidermis

Deep Peeling

effects the epidermis- papillary layer


inflammatory disease of the skin that is painful and causing itching


scaly red patched on the scalp, lower back and chest


skin is dry and scaly like a fish; build up of keratinous cells

Sebhorrheic Dermatitis

a form of eczema that primarily affects oily areas of the face

Actinic Keratosis

sun damage; pre cancerous( can become squamous cell carcinoma). Sharp, rough and prickly


what the esthetician specializes in

Why do estheticians need to understand basic chemistry?

to better communicate with clients about better skincare and cosmetics


a chemical in its simplest form


anything that takes up space and has substance


Smallest measurable unit of an element

covalent bond

bond between atoms sharing electrons


two or more elements joined together to produce an entirely different substance


two different elements or compounds that are mixed together


mixture of different chemicals evenly dispersed through the mixture


a reciprocal measurement of hydrogen's in a substance


ingredients that lubricate skin and give cosmetics a soft smooth feeling

Biologically Inert Ingredients

ingredients that do not react to normal chemical reactions within the skin; making it unlikely to produce allergic or irritant reactions


chemical agents that inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetics


chemicals added to products to prevent oxidation

Chelating Agent

improves the efficiency of preservatives by breaking down the cell wall


reduce strength


gives a product a gel like consistency


process of purifying water


process of using barrier and intercellular compatible materials like lipids to better penetrate ingredients


substance that allows ingredients to be delivered in the body

active ingredient

chemical within the drug that causes physiological changes

emulsion cleansers

cleansing milks made mostly of water for sensitive and dry skin


ingredient that attracts water


heavy large molecule that sits on the top of the skin and prevents moisture loss


Lack of lipids (lack of fat/oil)

Toner use

bring pH level back, neutralize skin, clean debris

Food and Drug Administration

federal agency that regulates the cosmetic industry

food and drug act of 1938-DRUG

articles other than food intendedto affect the structure of any function of the body

food and drug act of 1938-COSMETIC

articles intended to be rubbed, poured or sprinkled to the human body for cleansing, beautifying or promotion attractiveness


product designed for appearance improvement and has positive physiological effects

Hypoallergenic Cosmetics

generally manufactured without the use of certain ingredients that are known to frequently cause allergic reactions


products are treatments that do not contain water

Mechanical exfoliation

uses methods of physical contact to literally scrape or bump cells off the skin

Examples of Mechanical Exfoliation

granular scrubs, brush machine, luffa

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