Create an account
What are Germs?
Microorganisms that cover almost every surface, including the skin of the human body.
What is the difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria?
Pathogenic is disease causing while non-pathogenic is non disease causing.
What piece of equipment is the only way to truly sterilize utensils using steam, heat, and pressure?
4 disposable materials that prevent cross- contamination
1. cotton swabs
2. paper towels
Cleaning and disinfecting process:
Metal tweezers- clean with soap
Suction attachments- use 70% alcohol then soak for 20 min in a disinfectant
Extractors- clean with soap and water then spray with cavaside
Galvanic rollers- spray with alcohol
3 diseases a client may have that would contraindicate in-office treatments?
pink eye, impetigo, herpes
Why must an esthetician wear gloves?
Estheticians must wear gloves to perform in-office treatments in order to protect them from microorganisms
Skin infected caused by bacteria. Usually the cause is staphylococcal(staph) but sometimes streptococcus(strep).
Symptoms of Impetigo
Small blisters that expand and rupture within 24 hrs. Yellow fluid that drains and forms a honey colored crust
Genetically inherited disease-excess oil secreted by trhe sebaceous glands. Cells that clog the pores, trapping oil in the follicle
What causes adult acne?
Primary catalyst a chronic stress, high level of stress throws adrenal glands in over drive. Setting the stage for acne in 30s and 40s
Common factors that trigger acne
Overactive Sebaceous Glands
Dead Skin cell accummulation
Bacteria and Inflammation
Consits of red, elevated areas on the skin that may develop into pustules and even futher into cyst that can cause scarring
Skin condition that produces more dead skin cells than is normal, skin cells are not being shed properly. These dead cells sick to the surface of the skin and inside the follicles, mixing with excess oil and creating a comedo
first stage of comedo formation; a comedoso small that it can be seen only with a microscope
What is pustule and what is it made up of?
A clump of white blood cells that have formed and risen to the surface of the skin
What is the difference between a papule and a nodule?
A nodule is a raised lesion that is larger and deeper in the skin than a papule
Grade 1 Acne
mildest acne that's often just a minor pimple that appear occasionally in small numbers and small bumps that can disapper without being treated
Grade 3 Acne
considered severe and is often grade 2 left untreated and madeto worsen by squeezing the pimples and maintaining the oily dirty face that attracted those bacteria at the onset
Grade 4 Acne
most serious- the condition is medically referred to as nodulocystic, or cystic acne where the skin displays numerous pustules, papules, pustules with large cysts
infection of the skin that may affect any part of the body. Usually appears on the lower legs or face
Area of skin redness or swelling that gets larger, tight glossy look to the skin, pain or tenderness, skin rash that happens suddenly and grows quickly,signs of infection include: fever, chills, and muscle aches
Shingles is a painful, blistering skin rash due to the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox
viral skin infection that causes raised, pearl-like papules or nodules on the skin
common, benign,superficial cutaneous fungal infection usually characterized by hypopigmented or hyperpigmented macules and patches on the chest and the back
name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus- ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch
raised growths on the skin. Means greasy and keratosis means thickening of the skin
Fairly common skin growths that vary in size. Can occur almost anywhere on the body but usually develop on the trunk
several different types of skin swelling. Also called Dermatitis. Red, Swollen and itchy skin
(eczema) is inflammation of the upper layers of the skin, causing itching, blisters, redness, swelling, and often oozing, scabbing, and scaling
inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritating or allergy-causing substance (irrant or allergen)
common, inflammatory skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form an oily areas such as the scalpor inside of the ear
occurs when skin cells grow too quickly.Faulty signals in the immune system cause new skin cells to form in days rather than weeks.--Patches of thick, scaly skin that may be white, silvery or red
loss of cells that give color to the skin(melanocytes) results in smooth, white patches in the midst of normally pigemented skin
cell membrane can let certain substances "in" the body for example food, water and oxygen. It can also let "out" certain substances such as carbon dioxude and waste materials
4 Factors that can influence Skin Penetration
Thickeness of the stratum corneum, large buildup of dead skin cells, excessively oily skin, temperature of the skin
Lack of Estrogen can cause:
increase sensitivity of the skin, dehydration, possible hyperpigmentation, fluctuation in blood flow
the term for immunity to a certain disease built by antibodies the body produces when you get sick
ther term for immunity to a certain disease you have had from birth as a result of your mother's blood and your parent's genes
3 substances that can contribute to the slowing of the immune functoin:
improper diet, excessive alcohol intake, lacking exercise
4 procedures an esthetician performs where they may come in contact with infected body fluid
extractions, microderm, mani/pedi, waxing
Benefits of exfoliation
stimulates cell renewal, better product absorption, improves fine lines and wrinkles, improve skin texture, removes flakey patches, helps during extractions, clear congestion, improves hyperpigmentation and color
Contridications to Hydroxy Acid Treatments
open lesions/skin cancers, cold sores/herpes, windburn, sunburn, active rosacea, pregnancy
Common Complications with chemical peels
Injury, which can cause hyperpigmentation, cold sore reactivating
sun damage; pre cancerous( can become squamous cell carcinoma). Sharp, rough and prickly
Why do estheticians need to understand basic chemistry?
to better communicate with clients about better skincare and cosmetics
Biologically Inert Ingredients
ingredients that do not react to normal chemical reactions within the skin; making it unlikely to produce allergic or irritant reactions
process of using barrier and intercellular compatible materials like lipids to better penetrate ingredients
food and drug act of 1938-DRUG
articles other than food intendedto affect the structure of any function of the body
food and drug act of 1938-COSMETIC
articles intended to be rubbed, poured or sprinkled to the human body for cleansing, beautifying or promotion attractiveness
generally manufactured without the use of certain ingredients that are known to frequently cause allergic reactions
uses methods of physical contact to literally scrape or bump cells off the skin
Removing Surface Cells impove or help the skin
improves product penetration, helps clear away dead skin cells and debris from the pore openings; making extractions easier, remove uneven buildup
Conditions you would not use brushing machine, microderm, or any harsh chemical peels
couperose skin, fragile, thin skin, patients taking Accutane
Alpha Hydroxy Acid
it works by dissolving surface lipids that hold the cells of the corneum together
a white appearence of the skin that appears after applying a strong exfoliation peeling substance
type of crystals that can be used for microderm- benefits: less irritation, stable, hard, inert
Results of Microderm
refreshed appearance, reduction of t-zone oiliness, temporary pore reduction, tighter skin
Retin A and AHA prepare for microderm
helps break down the stratum corneum which allows fora better result
Fitzpatrick Skin Typing
widely used skin typing classification applied today to predict scarring and pigmentary problems from various treatments
The most important indicator in the treatment room of skin type?
Evaluating skin response to UV light
Helping the post operative patient
provide proper skin care, emotional support, health edu, controlling and medicating erythema
surgical procedures used for cosmetic purposes only ex: eye lift, face lift, forehead lifts, liposuction, collagen injections
procedures used for accidental injuries orother physcial deformities ex: skin cancer removal, nose job
Waxing Hair Removal
when a wax soultion is applied to the skin as it bounds with the hairs. A cloth is then pressed into the solution and then pulled sharply back against the direction of the hair growth.
hair removal methods
shaving, abrasives, tweezing, chemical depilatories, electrolysis, hard wax, cold wax, soft wax, laser
works well onto small patches of strong coarse hair, the wax gets a better grip of the hair than warm wax, it does not leave a sticky residue like warm wax, it is good for removing shorter hairs, possibly more suited for sensitive skin, less reddening on the skin following the wax
quicker than hot wax, larger areas can be waxed at once, suitable for most hair types, hair re-growth is finer
water solube, clean to work with, uses only natural ingredients, it grips the coarse facial hair leaving the fine hairs, it can be used at very low temps, sticks to hair not skin, less stick to work without waxing
Benefits of massage
stress relief, relaxes and refreshes muscles, improves detox, keeps skin healthy, increases metabolic function, pain management, prevent cramp or strained muscles, reduces tension, headaches
Contraindications for massage
systemic disease, clients undergoing chemo, vascular problems, pregnancy, daibetic, swelling, infection, lumps, bumps, any unstable health condition
effects of Smoking on the skin
causes free radicals, depletion of Vit. C in the body, decreases circulation, makes skin sallow, and causes extrinsic aging around the mouth
Layers of the epidermis
Basal Layer or Stratum Germinitavim
mostly thin, small pores, pink to red in color. Flushes easily, can be uncomfortable/painful when touched
temporarily sensitive due tosomething causing irritation, by environment or applied. Such as windburn, sunburn,or chemicals
Basal Cell Carcinoma
most common form of skin cancer, orginateds in the basal layer. Pearl like fleshy bumps on the face, flesh or pink in color- painless
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
2nd most deady, caused by Cumulative sun exposure. Raised, crusty, warty looking. appears as ulcers or nodular bumps may bleed easily
inert, acts as a sunscreen, camouglages imperfections, light and all purpose, skin friendly
tiny particle that must live on a host cell.Capable of infesting almost all plants and animals,including bacteria
chemical exfoliant that works from the inside out. Glycoloic, lactic, malic, and tartaric acids -- best for aging, dry/dehydrated, wrinkle and hyperpigmentation
chemical exfoliant htta works from the outside in. salisylic and citric acid- best for acne, rosacea, telangectasia
apply Soft Wax
very thin like glaze, spreadin the direction ofhair growth at a 45 degree angle toward you, better for large areas
apply hard wax
applied thicker, should have lip to pullm spread in the directionof hair growth, sets in seconds, good for smaller arears
bearberry extract, licorice extract, azeliac acid, kojic acid,mulberry extractg, asafetida, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, ascorbyl glucosamine, arbutin
in normal adults they makeup 22-28% of the total number of Leukocytes in the circulating blood
an element that will easily pass and electrical current or flow of negatively charged electrons
creates a chemical reaction that acts to emulsify or liquefy sebum- 2 reactions disincrustation and iontophoresis
a sprayer that sprays a cool, fine mist, food for sensitive skin and hydration for all skin types
the structure in which the hair growsthat are commonly knownas "pores", the hair follicle
tinea versicolor- yeast infection that affects the ability of the skin to produce melanin
consits of lymphb flowing thru the lymphatic spaces, cleansing wastes and toxins out of the body
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together