What is the ratio you can dilute household bleach for a disinfectant?
1:10 with water
4 disposable materials that prevent cross- contamination
1. cotton swabs 2. paper towels 3.Disposable staptulas 4. Gloves
Cleaning and disinfecting process:
Metal tweezers- clean with soap Suction attachments- use 70% alcohol then soak for 20 min in a disinfectant Extractors- clean with soap and water then spray with cavaside Galvanic rollers- spray with alcohol
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
MSDS( Material Safety Data Sheets)
includes how to safely clean up after an accidental spill
3 diseases a client may have that would contraindicate in-office treatments?
pink eye, impetigo, herpes
Center for Disease Control
Other Potential Infections Material
Universal and Standard Precautions
Treat all body fluids as they were/are contagious
3 types of blood borne diseases
HIV, Hepatitis, Syphilis
Why must an esthetician wear gloves?
Estheticians must wear gloves to perform in-office treatments in order to protect them from microorganisms
Skin infected caused by bacteria. Usually the cause is staphylococcal(staph) but sometimes streptococcus(strep).
Symptoms of Impetigo
Small blisters that expand and rupture within 24 hrs. Yellow fluid that drains and forms a honey colored crust
Genetically inherited disease-excess oil secreted by trhe sebaceous glands. Cells that clog the pores, trapping oil in the follicle
What causes adult acne?
Primary catalyst a chronic stress, high level of stress throws adrenal glands in over drive. Setting the stage for acne in 30s and 40s
Common factors that trigger acne
Stress Overactive Sebaceous Glands Dead Skin cell accummulation Bacteria and Inflammation Comedogenic ingredients
Common acne- inflammatory condition of the sebaceous glands of the skin.
Consits of red, elevated areas on the skin that may develop into pustules and even futher into cyst that can cause scarring
Skin condition that produces more dead skin cells than is normal, skin cells are not being shed properly. These dead cells sick to the surface of the skin and inside the follicles, mixing with excess oil and creating a comedo
first stage of comedo formation; a comedoso small that it can be seen only with a microscope
the opening of a follicle
the impaction is neither red nor inflammed
non inflammatory acne lesions usually called blackheads
non inflammatory acne lesions usually called whiteheads
Bacteria that does not need oxygen to grow or survive
What is microcomedo made up of?
Dead buildup, bacteria and fatty acids from sebum
What is pustule and what is it made up of?
A clump of white blood cells that have formed and risen to the surface of the skin
What is a papule?
A raised area of the skin that is generally smaller than 1 centimeter
What is the difference between a papule and a nodule?
A nodule is a raised lesion that is larger and deeper in the skin than a papule
What is a cyst
Deep infection caused by a deep massive invasion of white blood cells
Grade 1 Acne
mildest acne that's often just a minor pimple that appear occasionally in small numbers and small bumps that can disapper without being treated
Grade 2 Acne
moderate acne- blackheads and milia can break out in the greater numbers.
Grade 3 Acne
considered severe and is often grade 2 left untreated and madeto worsen by squeezing the pimples and maintaining the oily dirty face that attracted those bacteria at the onset
Grade 4 Acne
most serious- the condition is medically referred to as nodulocystic, or cystic acne where the skin displays numerous pustules, papules, pustules with large cysts
infection of the skin that may affect any part of the body. Usually appears on the lower legs or face
Area of skin redness or swelling that gets larger, tight glossy look to the skin, pain or tenderness, skin rash that happens suddenly and grows quickly,signs of infection include: fever, chills, and muscle aches
Inflammation of the hair follicle due to an infection
A viral infection of the skin
Shingles is a painful, blistering skin rash due to the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox
Warts are growths on your skin caused by an infection with human papilloma virus, or HPV
viral skin infection that causes raised, pearl-like papules or nodules on the skin
common, benign,superficial cutaneous fungal infection usually characterized by hypopigmented or hyperpigmented macules and patches on the chest and the back
name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus- ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch
common, acquired, benign skin growths that look like a small piece of soft, hanging skin.
raised growths on the skin. Means greasy and keratosis means thickening of the skin
Fairly common skin growths that vary in size. Can occur almost anywhere on the body but usually develop on the trunk
skin condition in which white bumps appear on the upper arms, thighs, and cheeks
several different types of skin swelling. Also called Dermatitis. Red, Swollen and itchy skin
(eczema) is inflammation of the upper layers of the skin, causing itching, blisters, redness, swelling, and often oozing, scabbing, and scaling
inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritating or allergy-causing substance (irrant or allergen)
common, inflammatory skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form an oily areas such as the scalpor inside of the ear
occurs when skin cells grow too quickly.Faulty signals in the immune system cause new skin cells to form in days rather than weeks.--Patches of thick, scaly skin that may be white, silvery or red
loss of cells that give color to the skin(melanocytes) results in smooth, white patches in the midst of normally pigemented skin
gives the cell structure and shape- posses a function known as selective permeability
allows other structures to move around inside the cell
cell membrane can let certain substances "in" the body for example food, water and oxygen. It can also let "out" certain substances such as carbon dioxude and waste materials
makes up the bones of the body
type of tissue that the cells control the brain and nerves
Technical name for fat
this tissue is the primary concern for the esthetician
when a wax soultion is applied to the skin as it bounds with the hairs. A cloth is then pressed into the solution and then pulled sharply back against the direction of the hair growth.
(phase of hair growth) - growth phase
(hair growth phase)- transition or shrieveling phase
(Hair growh phase)- resting phase-the old hair falls out and the growth phase begins again
hair removal methods
shaving, abrasives, tweezing, chemical depilatories, electrolysis, hard wax, cold wax, soft wax, laser
works well onto small patches of strong coarse hair, the wax gets a better grip of the hair than warm wax, it does not leave a sticky residue like warm wax, it is good for removing shorter hairs, possibly more suited for sensitive skin, less reddening on the skin following the wax
quicker than hot wax, larger areas can be waxed at once, suitable for most hair types, hair re-growth is finer
water solube, clean to work with, uses only natural ingredients, it grips the coarse facial hair leaving the fine hairs, it can be used at very low temps, sticks to hair not skin, less stick to work without waxing
Signs of Infection
Pain, Swelling,redness, gever, throbbing, pus
protein nails are made of
0.1 mm-3mm per month
main function of the nail
thin layer of tissue- this is how the nail plate and nail bed are attached
crescent-shaped whitish area of the bed of a fingernail or toenail
a fungus caused when moisture seeps between an artifical nail and the free edge of the nail
ringworm of the hands
ringworm of the feet
white spots appearing on the nail
split or brittle nail
cuticle that splits around the nail
Causes of Leukonchia
injury, nutrition deficiency, hereditary
any sort of mechanically or manual manipulation of soft tissue
gentle, but firm stroking and sliding over the body