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Chapters 4-5 Sociology
Terms in this set (38)
the process wherby individulas in the same physical setting demonstrate to one another thay they are aware of each other's presence.
peope's need to interact with others in their presence.
the empirical study of conversations, employing techniwues drawn from ethnomethodology. Conversation analysis examines details of naturally ocurring conversations to reveal the organizational principles of talk and its role in the productionand reproduction of social order.
a meeting between two or more people in a situation face-to-face interaction. our daily lives can be seen as a series of different encounters strung out across the course of the day. in modern societies, many of these encounters are with strangers rather than people we know.
The study of how people make sense of what others say and do in the course of day-to-day social interaction. Ethnomethodology is concerned with the "ethnomethods" by which people sustain meaningful interchanges with one another.
Interaction between individuals engaged in a common activity or in direct conversation with one another.
Preparing for the presentation of one's social role
The deliberate subversion of the tacit rules of conversation.
Communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
the process by which people act and react in relation to others
the social identity an individual has in a given group or society. Social positions may be general in nature (those associated with gender roles) or may be more specific (occupational positions).
a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status
social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of a society. status groups normally display distinct lifestyles- patterns of behavior that the members of a group follow.
Interaction occurring among people present in a particular setting but not engaged in direct face-to-face communication.
type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority and the existence of written rules of procedure and staffed by full-time, salaried officials.
an organizational culture involving rituals, events, or traditions that are unique to a specific company
group consisting of two persons
relations that exist in groups and organizations, laid down by the norms, or rules, of the official system of authority
a process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans that go against the group consensus.
human resource management
A style of management that regards a company's work force as vital to its economic competitiveness.
forms of technology based on the information processing and requiring microelectronic circuitry
The group with which an individual identifies as a member
a leader who is able to instill in the members of a group a sense of mission or higher purpose, thereby changing the nature of the group itself
a leader who is concerned with accomplishing the group's tasks, getting group members to do their jobs, and making certain that the group achieves its goals
Term used by sociologist George Ritzer in his book The McDonaldization of Society (1995). He describes it as the process by which a society takes on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant (efficiency, calculability, predictability, & control); extension of world trade to the Soviet Union.
a set of informal and formal social ties that links people to each other.
relations that exist in groups and organizations developed on the basis of personal connections; ways of doing things that depart from formally recognized modes of procedure
had subjects administer increasing voltage. Everytime the person got an answer wrong, the person was told to turn up the volt and continued to do so even after hearing the person receiving the shock cry and complain. The person's obedience was due to "normative pressure".
a large group of individuals with a definite set of authority relations. most types of organizations exist in industrialized societies, influencing most aspects of our lives.
Means by which a group is rationally designed to achieve its objectives, often using explicit rules, regulations, and procedures
those outside the group with which an individual identifies
A group that is characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment
a group that provides a standard for judging ones attitudes or behaviors.
a group characterized by it's large size and by impersonal, fleeting relationships.
a collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but who do not significantly interact or identify with one another.
the social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence
a collection of peopl who regualarly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who shares a sense of common identity.
group consisting of three persons
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