Terms in this set (65)
Key characteristics that make new media different from old media
an evolutionary development along the axes of space and time, which had already taken place within the communications revolution of the 19th century
Two communications over the past two centuries
Time- collapsing innovations
Space-collapsing vs. time-collapsing communication technologies
Space-collapsing (19th and 20th century) : radio, telephone, t.v.
Time-collapsing: disc, tape video film.
Distinction between old, analog media and new, digital media (and the advantages of digital)
Old analog media: remember when he showed the video on how music was made with a needle or how it came out.
Digital encoding of all media communication
Devices for producing and consuming digital communication
Networking of all digital devices
Any and every piece of information and communication can be transformed and transmitted in the form of bytes.
How integration/multimedia is changing journalism and storytelling
Old and new media examples of allocution, consultation, registration, and conversation
Any and every piece of information and communication can be transformed and transmitted in the form of _____.
What does it mean to communicate interactively?
Place: multi literal exchange
Time: synchronicity and equally long turns
Action: equal control in action and reaction
Mental: mutual understanding
Sharing a file with another person is inappropriate when...
Sharing a file with another person is appropriate when...
when artists make a crap-ton
if you've paid
individual and corporate
14 years by request
option for another 14
life of author + 70 years
125 years after creation
or 95 years after publication
lessing file says....
not all piracy is wrong, needs to be useful and productive
There are ___ types of sharing
download copyright music,movies,books,etc. for free (instead of purchasing)
downloading copyrighted music, movies, books for free (as a way to decide what to buy)
works that are no longer sold
no copyright, alternative licenses (CC), artists that just want to get copyrighted worked out
4 types of sharing
Type A -- illegal -- clearly harmful
Type B -- illegal -- not clearly harmful
Type C -- illegal -- not clearly harmful
Type D -- legal -- not clearly harmful
What should you also consider?
state of competition
albums vs singles
The role of journalism in democracy and what it should do for citizens?
Distribute truthful information, politics and government
Holding powerful people and groups accountable
Providing a wide range of perspectives on key issue
Founders on journalism
Madison: "Popular government without popular information or the means of acquiring it, is but a Prologue to a Farce or a Tragedy or perhaps both."
Jefferson: "Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to have the latter."
Pros on journalism
non-rivalrous: my use doesn't diminish your use
non-excludable: hard to keep people from enjoying its benefits
handout: jeffersons candle metaphor
Big positive externalties
Benefits enjoyed by a third party as a result of a transaction
Think: Property taxes and public education
Long story short: You can benefit from journalism w/o consuming it
van Dijk (our author) notes several important tendencies that characterize the "age of networks". He describes the following tendencies as "two sides of the same coin":
that we are simultaneously individualized AND intertependent
How does van Dijk descibe the development of media over the past two centuries?
as two concentrations of innovations
van Dijk distinguishes between structual and technological communications revolutions. He explains that structural revolutions involve "fundamental changes in the coordinates of space and time." Which of the following developments constitute a fundamental change in our relationship to both space AND time.
the development of writing
In the "old media" environment, text and photos could appear in newspapers, radio could transmit sound, and film and TV could present moving images. In the "new media" environment a single website or app can be used to communicate sounds, data, text, and images. What key characteristic of new media is being described here?
Jess is a big fan of Taylor Swift. She knows so much about Taylor Swift that she starts making edits to the Wikipedia entry for "Taylor Swift". Her edits aren't trivial. They're meaningful changes in the story that Wikipedia tells about Taylor Swift's personal and professional life. Based on van Dijk's discussion of "interactivity", what aspect of interactivity is Jess most clearly taking advantage of?
the extent of control exercised by the interacting parties
van Dijk identifies four different types of "information traffic patterns." What type of information traffic pattern was most common in the era of radio, television, and other 20th century mass media?
On p. 16, van Dijk provides a table of "Communication capacities of old and new media." This table helps us compare the relative strengths and limitations of different media. Interestingly, van Dijk describes the Internet as having a "medium" capacity for interactivity. Why doesn't van Dijk think the Internet has a "high" capacity for interactivity?
in much of new media, such as journalism and broadcasting, the user has little control over content
most people don't actually interact much using new media; instead, they choose from menus of new media content, consume that content, and react
new media users are often unable to exchange all the signals that one is able to exchange in face-to-face conversation
The Economist uses the term "horizontal media" to describe services such as Facebook and Twitter. What do they mean by "horizontal media"?
users can share links and information with large numbers of people without the help of a traditional media organization
According to The Economist, what innovative use of social media have Al Jazeera and CNN both pioneered?
reliance on contributions from volunteers to provide coverage of important news events
According to Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey, what role will journalists will need to play moving forward?
journalists will need to be "curators" -- selecting, filtering, and analyzing the information on the Internet
In the last decade, searching for news (e.g. "Googling") may have been the most important development for the news business. However, according to the Pew Research Centre's Project for Excellence in Journalism, this may be the most important development for news over the next decade:
CUNY's Jeff Jarvis argues that journalists' role in the new media landscape is to add value to ongoing conversations about news by providing reporting, context, analysis, verification, and debunking. This won't come easy to journalists, though. What will journalists need to admit if they're to take on this new role?
that they don't have a monopoly on wisdom
Baker explains that many people contribute to sites, such as ThisNext, without getting paid or even aiming to. He mentions several forms of non-monetary "compensation" that people receive for their free work online. Which of the following forms of compensation does Baker say that people receive for contributing to these sites? (Note: You can select more than one answer)
getting praise for their work from peers
getting satisfaction from helping out other people
getting thrills from "winning"
Communispace is a market research company that organizes "virtual focus groups." In those virtual focus groups, volunteers provide insights on advertising campaigns and suggestions for new products. Communispace offered participants a $10 gift card as a "thank you" for their participation. What happned when Communispace offered more than $10 to participants?
nothing -- volunteers appreciated the gesture, but they weren't doing it for the money
Baker's article focuses on Laura Sweet and her contributions to the website, ThisNext. Sweet thinks that she'll be able to take her passion -- "locating strange and lovely things on the Internet" -- and make some money from it in the future. How does she think she'll be able to do this?
she thinks that she might be able to translate her success and visibility at ThisNext into opportunities on blogs, books, television, or other job possibilties
In March 2014, an editor for The Atlantic approached freelance journalist Nate Thayer about repurposing an article he'd published elsewhere for the news magazine's website. What did The Atlantic offer Thayer in exchange for his work?
exposure to The Atlantic's 13 million monthly readers
Our author, Kathleen Kuehn conducted research with T.C. Corrigan (you know him, right?) in which they examined the motivations of sports bloggers (SB Nation) and consumer reviewers (Yelp). According to their research, why did so many sports bloggers and consumer reviewers invest their time, energy and creativity in their work? (Note: You can select more than one answer)
as a stepping-stone for securing future work
to build their social networks
Kuehn and Corrigan define "hope labour" as "un- or under-compensated work, often performed in exchange for experience and exposure in the hopes that future work will follow." Kuehn says that, "Media, education and politics ar all complicit in normalizing hope labour opportunities." What does Kuehn point to as evidence of hope labour's growth in education, specifically?
the growth of internships
McChesney (our author) starts this chapter by identifying two of the key challenges facing contemporary journalism, particularly newspapers. Which of the following is a key challenge facing newspapers, according to McChesney?
competition for advertising dollars from the Internet is undermining a key revenue source for newspapers
McChesney says that new media "celebrants" see the Internet as the basis for journalism's revitalization. He identifies four reasons for this optimistic view about the Internet's impact on journalism. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons he identifies for being hopeful about the Internet's impact on journalism?
Internet news operations are less biased than their traditional media counterparts
McChesney highlights a study by the Pew Center for People and the Press. In that study, Pew's researchers examined the "media ecology" in the city of Baltimore for an entire week in 2009, including both old media (magazines, newspapers, TV, radio) and new media (websites, blogs, social media, Twitter). They found that much of the news that Baltimore citizens received contained no original reporting -- it was simply repeating or repackaging previously published information. Of the reporting that did include original information, where did most of that reporting come from?
The city daily newspaper-- Baltimore sun
McChesney notes that newspaper print advertising revenue has fallen precipitously during the Internet era. However, some hope that as newspapers move online they'll be able to make up for the losses on the print side. For every 7 dollars that of print advertising revenue that newspapers lose, how much to they gain in Internet advertising revenue?
Matthew Hindman says that there is a "power law" at work when we look at the traffic to political or news media websites. What does he mean by this?
the websites for a small number of traditional news giants (e.g., New York Times, CNN) receive the bulk of web traffic, while a very small amount of traffic flows to millions of less well known sites
Overall, McChesney is clearly not optimistic about the prospects for commercial journalism on the Internet. However, what does he identify as the "one exciting new hope for digital journalism"?
online nonprofit news media
True or False: McChesney thinks that there is a business model that is capable of providing us with the journalism that a self-governing society requires.
Examples of gate keepers
NBC ABC MTV CBS
Rise of horizontal media means
it made it quick and easy for anyone to share with a large number of people without a traditional media org
Social media technologies allow a far wider range of people to take part in
gathering, filtering, and distributing news
Filtering the news can be seen
in social media by topics
top sites in the US
Social recognition =
People work for free for 4 key thing
Hope labor =
experience + exposure = job prospects
What does ad revenue loss mean for journalism?
cutting print frequencies or going online only
layoffs and buyouts
overall and by profession
more specifically cuts to the expensive stuff: foreign, statehood, investigative
polls rather than issues, fact checking
more of an autopsy than an antiseptic
PR increasingly masquerading news
$ reasons for hope in internet journalism
1. more people can participate as journalists
1. Fast access to the worlds information
3. Draw on the masses intelligence and labor
4. lowers production and distribution cost
___ of stories with new information came from traditional media