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genetics vocab N323
Terms in this set (94)
One of the possible alternative forms of a gene, usually distinguished from other alleles by its phenotypic effects.
A cell nucleus that contains either more or less chromosomes than the normal diploid number for that species.
Onset of a genetic condition at earlier ages and with increasing severity in successive generations.
A group of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that pairs with a complementary sequence (codon) in an mRNA molecule.
Programmed cell death.
The result of meiosis I that puts random combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes into gametes
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. In humans, chromosomes 1 to 22 are autosomes.
One of the strands of a duplicated chromosome joined by a single centromere to its sister chromatid.
A region of a chromosome to which microtubule fibers attach during cell division. The location of a centromere gives a chromosome its characteristic shape.
One of the two strands of a duplicated chromosome. It is joined by one centromere to the sister chromatid.
The DNA and protein components of chromosomes, visible as clumps or threads in nuclei.
The thread-like structures in the nucleus that carry genetic information.
Genetically identical molecules, cells, or organisms all derived from a single ancestor.
Triplets of nucleotides in mRNA that encode the information for a specific amino acid in a protein.
Full phenotypic expression of both members of a gene pair in the heterozygous condition.
A process in which chromosomes physically exchange parts.
The process of cytoplasmic division that accompanies cell division.
The branch of genetics that studies the organization and arrangement of genes and chromosomes using the techniques of microscopy.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A helical molecule that consists of antiparallel strands of polynucleotides that is the primary carrier of genetic information.
The condition in which each chromosome is represented twice as a member of a homologous pair.
A helical molecule consisting of two strands of nucleotides that is the primary carrier of genetic information.
The trait expressed in the F1 (or heterozygous) condition.
The study of congenital anomalies in anatomical form or patterns of development.
Reversible chemical modifications of chromosomal DNA proteins that change the pattern of gene expression without changing the nucleotide sequence of the DNA.
The interaction of two or more non-allelic genes to control a single phenotype.
The attempt to improve the human species by selective breeding.
The cell nucleus that contains the normal diploid number of chromosomes for a particular species.
Unfertilized germ cells (sperm or ova).
The fundamental unit of heredity.
Procedure in which normal genes are transplanted into humans carrying defective copies as a means of treating genetic diseases.
The scientific study of heredity.
The set of genetic information carried in the DNA of an individual.
The study of the organization, function, and evolution of genomes.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Analysis of genetic variation across an entire genome searching for association between variations and a genome region encoding a specific phenotype.
A situation in which the expression of a gene depends on whether it is inherited from the mother or the father (see also genetic imprinting or parental imprinting).
The specific genetic constitution of an organism.
A mutation that occurs in germ cells (i.e., sperm or ova) that can be passed on to next generation at conception.
The condition in which each chromosome is represented once in an unpaired condition.
A set of genetic markers located close together on a single chromosome or chromosome region.
A gene present on the X chromosome that is expressed in males in both the recessive and dominant conditions.
The idea that human traits are determined solely by genetic inheritance, ignoring the contribution of the environment.
Carrying two different alleles for one or more genes
Having identical alleles for one or more genes.
Chromosomes that physically associate (pair) during meiosis. Homologous chromosomes have identical gene loci.
Expression of a phenotype that is intermediate between those of the parents.
The random distribution of genes into gametes during meiosis.
A complete set of chromosomes from a cell that has been photographed during cell division and arranged in a standard sequence.
The position of a gene on a chromosome.
The process of cell division during which one cycle of chromosomal replication is followed by two successive cell divisions to produce four haploid cells.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
A single-stranded complementary copy of the amino acid-coding nucleotide sequence of a gene.
Inherited anomaly that is characterized by a small jaw.
A mutation that causes the substitution of one amino acid for another in a protein.
Mitochondria (sing. mitochondrion)
Membrane-bound organelles, present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells that are the sites of energy production within the cells.
Form of cell division that produces two cells, each of which has the same complement of chromosomes as the parent cell.
The study of genetic events at the biochemical level.
A condition in which two or more different karyotypes are present in a single individual.
Genes that have more than two alleles.
The number of events that produce mutated alleles per locus per generation.
The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis or mitosis.
Basic building block of DNA and RNA consisting of a base, a sugar, and a phosphate.
The membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes.
Genes that initiate or continue uncontrolled cell proliferation.
The process of forming oocytes from precursor germ cells.
Mitotically active cells in the gonads of females that produce primary oocytes.
The haploid cell produced by meiosis that becomes the functional gamete.
The construction of family trees and their use to follow the transmission of genetic traits in families. It is the basic method of studying the inheritance of traits in humans.
The observable characteristics of an organism.
The actual number of chromosomes in a single cell nucleus at mitosis.
The ability of a stem cell to form any fetal or adult cell type.
How often a gene is expressed within a population. The probability that a phenotype will occur when the genotype is present.
Substitution of one base for another in DNA or RNA.
A chromosomal number that is a multiple of the normal haploid chromosomal set.
The branch of genetics that studies inherited variation in populations of individuals and the forces that alter gene frequency.
First affected family member seeking medical attention for a medical disorder.
The trait unexpressed in the F1, but which is re-expressed in some members of the F2 generation.
Recombinant DNA technology
A series of techniques in which DNA fragments are linked to self-replicating vectors to create recombinant DNA molecules, which are replicated in a host cell.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A single strand of bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil) that is constructed during transcription from a segment of DNA that contains the gene for a specific protein.
Cytoplasmic particles that aid in the production of proteins.
The large cell produced by the first meiotic division.
A group of anomalies thought to follow in a chain from a single cause.
The separation of members of a gene pair from each other during gamete formation.
In humans, the X and Y chromosomes that are involved in sex determination.
Same as monogenic trait: A trait whose expression is determined by two alleles of a single gene. Example is Huntington's Disease.
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
Single nucleotide differences between and among individuals in a population or species.
A mutation that occurs after conception in body cells (somatic cells) but cannot be passed on to next generation.
The four haploid cells produced by meiotic division of a primary spermatocyte.
A set of genes that produce proteins to restrict a cell from entering the cell cycle and that inhibit movement of a cell from one phase to the next. Some products of these genes trigger apoptosis.
Any observable property of an organism.
The transfer of genetic information from the base sequence of DNA to the base sequence of RNA, mediated by RNA synthesis.
Conversion of information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of a mRNA molecule into the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
An RNA molecule that contains a binding site for a specific type of amino acid and has a three-base segment known as an anticodon that recognizes a specific base sequence in messenger RNA (mRNA).
The branch of genetics concerned with the mechanisms by which genes are transferred from parent to offspring.
A condition in which one chromosome is present in three copies rather than the usual 2 (diploid) [2n + 1). Trisomy 21 is Down Syndrome. Other trisomies may be incompatible with life
The fertilized egg.
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