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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Scientific Revolution & The Enlightenment
Terms in this set (33)
In the middle ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe.
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypothesis.
the idea that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun.
a major change in european thought, starting in the mid 1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
created the Heliocentric theory that the stars, earth, and other planets revolved around the sun after studying planetary movements for more than 25 years.
brilliant mathematician who continued Brahe's work. He concluded that planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits which showed Copernicus' work was true.
An Italian scientist who studied and built on new theories about astronomy. He built his own telescope and his observations shattered Aristotle's theory that the moon, sun, and stars were made up of a pure substance. His results supported Copernicus' theories. The Catholic Church made him deny his conclusions.
an English statesman and writer who believed that by better understanding science, people's lives could improve. He disapproved of medieval scholars who believed in the teachings of Aristotle and other ancient thinkers too. Encouraged the experimental method.
developed analytical geometry which linked algebra and geometry, providing a new tool for scientific research. Rather than using experimentation, he relied on mathematics and logic
the act of injecting a germ into a person's body so as to create an immunity to the disease
brought thoughts of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo together into the single theory that the same force ruled motion of the planets and all matter on earth and in space. (law of gravitation) Found that all objects attract eachother but the attraction depends on mass and distance.
What are the causes of the scientific revolution?
The major cause of the scientific revolution is the renaissance because the rebirth of learning inspired a spirit of curiousity in many fields and made people want to improve their lives.
Before the 1550s, who and what were the final authorities with regard to most knowledge?
-The church and it's leaders, the bible, and the king/queen. If they could not come up with an answer to a question, they would say that God did it.
How did Copernicus arrive at the Heliocentric theory? How did Kepler's finding support this theory?
Copernicus studied planetary movements after becoming interested in the old Greek that the sun stood at the center of the universe. Kepler's findings supported the theory because certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. One showed that planets moved around the sun in an elliptical orbit.
How did Descartes' approach differ from Bacon's? Why might the church dislike their ideas?
Descartes gained knowledge through math and logic instead of experimentation. The church might dislike this because many divine beliefs come from faith, not hard math facts or experiments and it took away power from the source that was once remotely depended on.
Why would the Catholic Church oppose the scientific revolution?
Because science often proved religion to be wrong, like the earth traveling around the sun. It took away from the dependance on the church for knowledge which led to a loss of power and more individual knowledge of common people.
Why was the scientific revolution so revolutionary?
The scientific revolution was so revolutionary because people started to use experimentation, the scientific method, and math to discover the world and prove things. Common people were able to gain knowledge for themselves instead of believing old teachings and the Catholic Church for information. The answer to every question wasn't, "God did it!" and thoughts about the world in general changed. Physics improved, new instruments and vaccinations were developed.
An 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
The agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
One of a group of social thinkers in France during the enlightenment.
An English political thinker who felt all humans were naturally selfish and wicked. He believed governments were necessary and people needed to hand over their rights to a stronger ruler (social contract). Thought an absolute monarchy would control the people.
A philosopher who believed people could learn from experience and improve themselves so they should be able to govern themselves. Thought all people are born "free and equal" with the natural rights of life, liberty, and propety. Was foundation of modern day democracy.
A powerful writer who targeted the clergy, government, and the aristocracy which in some cases resulted in jail time. However, he also fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
- Used satire
- "I do not agree with what you say but I will defend to the death your write to say it."
A french writer who studied political liberty and admired Britain's government system. He felt it was the best ruled because of the division of powers into separate branches (separation of powers). This idea is later called checks and balances, a key idea in the US government
A philosophe who favored individual freedom and direct democracy.
-views social contract as an agreement between free people to form a government
-believed that the only good government was freely formed by the people
-"man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains."
Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria worked to reform the justice system
-Called for speedy trials, greater rights for criminal defendents, and no torture
-Believed laws exist to preserve social order and avenge crimes, but the punishment should fit the crime
Views of Women's education
-Many Enlightenment thinkers took a traditional view of women's role.
-Prominent writer Mary Wollstonecraft urged greater rights for women. She argued that women need a quality education to be virtuous and useful. Urges women to go into the health and political fields.
-Some wealthy women used their status to spread ideas
All people are born free and equal with the rights of life, liberty and property
The use of sarcasm to criticize other people
Legacy of the Enlightenment
-Role of the philosophes: The philosophes are not activists, but inspire major revolutions
-Belief in progress: scientific breakthroughs show human capacity to improve society
-A more secular outlook: new knowledge of the world leads people to question religious ideas. Voltaire and others criticize beliefs and practices of christianity.
-Importance of the individual: people place more emphasis on individual rights and abilities. Reason becomes a central concept for rulers
What are some arguments for and against absolute monarchy?
For: creates law and order that is absolute and unchallenged
Against: ruler becomes all drunk and consumed with power
5 concepts that philosophes believed in heavily
reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty
What advantages did Montesquieu see in the separation of powers?
It would keep any individual or group from gaining total power
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