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ARH3555 Midterm

Chinese art history
STUDY
PLAY
Antiquarianism
the study of objects from the past which in pre-modern China was an activity that supplemented and corrected the recieved historical record by the investigation of inscribed objects, especially ritual bronze vessels and texts cut into stone
arhat
luohan
Avalokitesvara
Guanyin
Bodhidharma
the first patriarch of Chan Buddhism, an Indian or Sogdian monk who is beleived to have brought Chan from India to China
bodhisattva
a being whose nature is enlightenment as in the historical Buddha prior to his final enlightenment
bracket cluster
dou gong, a combination of blocks (dou) and arms (gong) usualy atop a column that serves to transmit the roof weight to the column grid and foundation
Chan Buddhism
a Buddhist sect that emphasizes meditation and personal transmission of doctrine, aka Zen in Japanese
chinzo
a chan term for official portraits of priests which may have served to document the transmission of docntrine from master to pupil
Cizhou ware
Northern China during Song and Ming, black and white
Dazu
center of Tantric Buddhism and the site of Buddhist cave temples and carvings dating from the Tang to Qing dynasties, located in the northwest of the city of Chongqing, Szechuan
fengshui 風水
geomancy- the lore and methods of siting buildings with regard to the propitious or harmful influences of landscape formations
Guan ware
"official" special reference to Souther Song, crackled celadon glaze
Guanyin
the bodhisattva of compassion, one of the attendants of Amitabha Buddha and a popular object of devotion throughout East Asia (aka Avalokitesvara)
Huineng
one of two contenders for the title of 6th patriarch of chan buddhism, traditionally known as the founder of Southern school of Chan
Jian ware
southern Chinese, blacks and browns with random spots on the glaze
jiehua
"ruled-line painting" a style of painting in which rulers and other tools were used to produce precise and detailed images of man-made constructions
Jurchen
a semi-nomadic people who founded the Jin Dynasaty (1115-1234) in the north of modern day China and forced the Song Dynasty court south of the Huai River in 1127
Kaolin
a white clay with few imprities which is an essential ingredient in porcelain
koan
a nonsensical or paradoxical question or story used in Chan Buddhism as amethod to force the listener to abandon logical thought and attain a suprarational understanding
longquan ware
porcellaneous stoneware with a grayish body and thick, green glaze, decorated with sculptural designs
luohan
the major follwers of the Buddha who vowed to remain alive to preserve his teachings (aka arhat)
Meditation school
a school of Chinese Buddhism devoted to intense mental regimens as a means of attaining enlightenment
Parinirvana
the "final nirvana" - death of the historical Buddha
porcelain
a high-fired ceramic made from white clay with clear glazes producing a vitreous resonant and translucent body
Qidan
a semi-nomadic people who founded a kingdom on the northern border of Song-period China aka Liao dynasty
qingbai
porcelain ware with blue-tinged glaze, thinly potted and may have incised or molded designs
Ru ware
extremely rare stoneware with thick, gray-blue glaze, Northern Song
Sakyamuni
an honorific name for the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) who was a member of the Sakya clan
shanshui 山水
a generic term for a landscape
stoneware
high-fired ceramic that is partially virtrified, hence non porous and hard and often covered with a feldspathic gray-green or brown glaze
stupa
an Indian sacred mound erected by Buddhists to enshrine a relic
sutra
the holy texts, words, and teachigns of the Buddha
The Three Friends of Winter
pine, bamboo, and flowering plum = perserverance through adversity
Xing ware
stoneware with white glaze made in North China
yaozhou ware
stoneware with grayish body and usually decorated with an olive-green glaze
ziran
a desirable quality of natural spontaneity (lack of artifice and resonance with nature) in one's personality or creative work
Kaifeng
Northern Song Capital
Emperor Huizong
northern song emperor, supporter of the arts especially elegant calligraphy, monocrhome imperial ware ceramics, elaborate garden complex
Hangzhou
Southern Song capital
Emperor Gaozong
first Southern Song emperor
Dong Yuan
one of the founders of Dong-Ju school of landscape painting, perceptual effect of looking blurry and vague up close but resolving into legibility from a distance
Fan Kuan
landscape painter (Early Snow Along the River, Travelers Among mountains and Streams)
Guo Xi
Song court painter (The Lofty Message of Forests and Streams, Early Spring)
"three distances"
near, middle, far
Li Gonglin
Northern Song scholar-official (Illustrated Classic of Filial Piety)
Ma Yuan
Southern Song court painter (On a Mountain Path in Spring, Apricot Blossoms)
Su Shi
Song poet-official, literati
Huang Tingjian
Northern Song poet-official, large-scale, thickly brushed calligraphy (Han Shan's Poem)
Mi Fu
Northern Song calligraphist (Letter About a Coral Tree)
Mi Youren
Northern Song calligraphist, Mi Fu's son
the four great innovations of China
compass, gunpowder, paper, printing
Ding ware
white, translucent, pure ceramic ware, used a mold to decorate
Pure Land Buddhism
popular during Tang dynasty, assigned importance to Amitabha's bodhisattva Guanyin and Dashizhi
Esoteric Buddhism
Tang dynasty, brought to China by Indian monks
Zhang Zheduan
Northern Song jiehua painter (Spring Festival on the River)
Li Song
Southern Song court painter (Knick-Knack Peddler)
Liang Kai
Southern Song court painter who retired to a monastery and painted Chan Buddhism influenced paintings (Sakyamuni Emerging from the Mountains, 6th Chan Patriarch Chopping Wood)
Muqi
Southern Song Chan Buddhist monk painter (Guanyin, Crane, and Mother Gibbon and Baby)
Ghenghis (Chinghis) Khan
Mongol warlord who conqured China and much of Asia
Khubilai Khan
Ghenghis' grandson who ruled the Yuan Dynasty
Marco Polo
Venetian traveller who became a part of Khubilai Khan's court
Thangka
Tibetan silk painting with embroidery, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, famous scene, or mandala of some sort
Zhao Mengfu
Yuan literati painter (The Mind Landscape of Xie Yuyu)
Guan Daosheng
Zhao Mengfu's wife (Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain)
wenren hua
literati painting
Huang Gongwang
Yuan (Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains)
Ni Zan
Yuan poet, calligrapher, and landscape and bamboo painter (Rongxi Studio)
Wang Meng
Yuan, grandson of Zhao Mengfu (Dwelling in the Reclusion in the Qing Bian Mountains)
Wu Zhen
Yuan dynasty painter, (The Central Mountain)
the four masters of the Yuan
Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan, Wang Meng
the four gentlemen
the orchid, the bamboo, the chrysanthemum, and the plum blossom
Juyong gateway
the most famous portion of the Great Wall
Yongle Gong
third emperor of the Ming Dynasty's gardens
Lu Dongbin
Daoist deity considered to be the leader of the Eight Immortals
Li Tieguai
Daoist deity, most popular of the Eight Immortals, aka "Iron Crutch Li"
Erlangshen
a Chinese God with a third truth-seeing eye in the middle of his forehead.
Lingdezhen
the "porcelain capital"