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Human Biology Chapter 4

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Tissue
composed of specialized cells of the same type that perform a common function in the body
the 4 major tissue types are:
1.connective
2.muscular
3.cardiac
4.epithelial
What connective tissue does..
-establishes a structural framework for the body(cartilage/bone)
-transports fluids/dissolved materials from 1 region of the body to the other
-stores energy especially in the form of lipids
-defends body from invasion of microorganisms
tendon
cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bone
ligament
resemble tendons but connect bone to bone
cartilage
supportive connective tissue found in:
nose, ends of long bones,ribs.outer ear,backbone, cushion in the knee joint
bone
most rigid supportive connective tissue
blood
fluid connective tissue.
-consists of formed elements(cells-rbc,platelets)&plasma.
-flows through blood vessels
-transports nutrients/oxygen to tissue fluid(eliminating co2 carbon dioxide/wastes)
-distributes heat
-plays a role in fluid ion&ph balance
lymph
fluid connective tissue.
(interstitial fluid-between tissues)-a clear fluid derived from the fluids surrounding the tissues.
-has wbc antibodies
-absorb excess tissue fluid/ fat molecules from the small intestine
adipose tissue
fat tissue.
-cells are crowded&each is filled with liquid fat.
-body uses stored (long term) fat for energy/ insulation/organ protection/cushons
Muscular Tissue
-composed of cells called muscular fibers. striated.
-3types of vertebrate muscle tissue:
1.skeletal muscle-helps in moving the blood in the vessels in 1 direction. Attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton.
Contractions are under voluntary control.

2. Smooth(visceral)muscle- involuntary. found in the walls of the viscera(intestine/bladder/internal organs/blood vessels). Constricts blood. ex. bladder contractions in the urethra.

3. Cardiac Muscle- striated. Found on <3 walls. Contraction pumps blood/ accounts for <3beat. Involuntary contractions.
Nerve Tissue
consists of nerve cells called neurons&neurogia which support &nourish the neurons. Involved in sensory input, integration of nerve signals&motor output.
Epithelial Tissue
Called Epithelium. Lines the lungs. consists of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer. Covers surfaces& lines body cavities. Functions include: secretion, absorption,excretion,filtration, protection.

2Types of layering:
1. Simple&stratified-1layer-fragile
2.stratified epithelium-2+layers of cells

3Cell shapes:
1.squamous-flat/thin/irregular storage
2.cuboidal
3.columnar-longer
Integumentary System
Skin. Homeostatic functions- protects underlying tissue from physical trauma, pathogen invasion,water loss.
-regulates body temp.
-contains sensory receptors (touch/temp) that make us aware of the surroundings. Accessory organs include hair/nails.
Cardio(circulatory) system
transports cells/dissolved materials including nutrients,wastes,gasses.
<3-propels blood/maintains blood pressure.
blood vessels-arteries,capillaries,veins which distribute blood around the body.
blood-transports oxygen,co2,blood cells. Delivers nutrients & hormones. Removes waste products& assists in temp. regulation/disease defense.
lymthatic&immune systems
lymph system consists of:lymph vessels/nodes.(keeps blood volume constant).
Collects excess tissue fluid returning to blood/absorbs fat from digestive system.
Purifying lymph/storing lymphocytes which are wbc that produce antibodies.
The immune system consist of all the cells in the body that protect us form disease like lymphocytes
Digestive System
Recieves food&digests it into nutrient molecules which can enter the cells of the body. Eliminates non digested remains. Consists of:mouth,esphagus,stomach,sm/lg intestine.
Collects nutrients to carry to blood
Respiratory System
-Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air/circulating blood.
-Brings in h2o&removes co2.
-gas exchange within lungs between air&blood-alveoli
Urinary System
Homeostasis.(regulates internal environment).
Kidney-involved in formation of urine/regulation of blood, ph &ion connection
Ureters-conduct urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
Urinary bladder-stores urine for eventual elimination
*main function: rid the body of metabolic waste/esp. nitrogenous waste
Skeletal System
Protects body parts.
Skull-encases brain/ ribs-cage the heart&lungs/
-helps move the body because it serves as a place of attachment for skeletal muscle
-produces blood cells within bone marrow
Muscular System
SKELETAL muscle- maintain posture&assist in movement of the body/parts.
CARDIAC muscle- contractions for <3beat
SMOOTH muscle- contractions in the walls of internal organs is responsible for function.
*muscle contractions release heat which helps warm the body
Nervous System
Consists of the brain, spinal cord,associated nerves.
Nerves conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the brain/spinal cord-response to external&internal stimuli.
Coordinated & regulates function of the bodys other system/directs immediate response to stimuli
Endocrine System
Consists of grands that secrete hormones(chemical messengers)into bloodstream. Directs long-term changes in other organ systems. Ex. maintains functioning of male/female reproductive organs
Reproductive System
Male- consists of tests,glands(ex.prostate), ducts that conduct semen through the penis. Testes produce sex cells called sperm

Female-consists of the ovaries,oviducts,uterus,vagina&external genitals. Ovaries produce sex cells called eggs.

*fertilized egg&sperm result in the development of offspring
Homeostasis
Body's ability to maintain a relative constancy internal environment by adjusting its physiological processes even while external conditions may change dramatically.
Internal condition has 2parts:blood&tissue fluid-fluid bathes the body's cells. Blood delivers oxygen&nutrients to the tissues through the tissue fluids&carries carbon dioxide/wastes away from the tissues the same way.
Homeostatic Mechanisms consist of 3 parts
1.receptor-sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus.
2.control center- integration center. recieves & processes information supplied by receptor
3.Effector-cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center & whose activity either opposite or enhances the stimulus

Negative feedback-ex. maintaining body's internal temperature-96.8
Positive feedback- increase change in the same direction as the stimulus. Ex. child birth
_____ tissues cover external body surfaces/line cavities&have secretory functions:
Epithelial
___tissues detect &coordinate information(signals) about environmental changes&control responses to those changes...
nervous
integrating center...
brain
response that REVERSES a altered condition...
negative feedback
effectors...
muscles and glands
chain of events that intensifies the original condition...
positive feedback
NOT a function of integumentary system...
serves as a blood reservoir
Correct sequence of events in the circulation of blood...
heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, heart
in the pulmonary circuit, the ____ half of the heart pumps_____blood to capillary beds inside the lungs, then____ blood flows back to the heart.
right, deoxygenated, oxygenated
diffusion...
capillaries
passageway of blood away from heart...
arteries
transport, blood volume reservoirs...
veins
blood transport and pressure regulation...
arterioles
in negative feedback mechanisms...
the response tends to return internal operating conditions to the original state
The lymphatic system helps maintain blood volume by:
collecting excess tissue fluid and returning it to blood
cardiac muscle differs from skeletal muscle in that the cardiac muscle:
is involuntary
NOT a type of epithelial tissue:
bone and cartilage
Skeletal system functions in:
blood cell production, mineral storage, movement,
___is a dense fibrous connective tissue that joins bone to bone
ligament
the functional unit of the nervous system is a :
neuron
which of the following allows rapid change and does not achieve stability?
positive feedback
____epithelium is frequently found in glands.
cuboidal
Axons, dendrites and a cell body are characteristics of cells located in:
nervous tissue
Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristics of:
cardiac muscle tissue