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999 terms

Essential Words for GRE - Part 1 - by k065167

STUDY
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abate
(v) to become less strong, to make something less strong.

ex: the storm showed no signs of abating.
abatement
(n), a reduction in the intensity or amount of something
de facto
(adj) existing as a fact although it may not be legally accepted as existing.

ex: the general took the de facto control of the country.
chieftain
(n) CAPTAIN, the leader of a group of people
(n) HEADMAN, the head of a tribe or clan
aberrant
(adj) not usual or not socially acceptable, markedly different from an accepted norm

ex: One aberrant gene has already been linked to other social disorders.
aberration
(n) a fact, an action, or a way of behaving that is not usual, and that may be not socially accepted.

ex: a childless woman was regarded as an aberration, almost a social outcast.
abeyance
(n) temporary cessation or suspension, a temporary halt to something, with the emphasis on "temporary."

ex: a good judge must hold his or her judgement IN ABEYANCE until all the fact in a case have been presented.
abject
(adj) terrible and without hope, pitiful and miserable.
ex: the novel portrays the abject poverty of many people during the Great Depression.

(adj) without any pride or respect in yourself
abjure
(v) to RENOUNCE, to ABANDON, to promise publicly that you will give up or reject a belief or a way of behaving.

ex: they abjure the use of violence to settle disputes between nations.
abscission
(n) the act of cutting something off
ex: If you are a public speaker who habitually cuts yourself off, your speeches may suffer from abscission.

(n) shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant.
ex: When an apple ripens and then falls off a tree, it's called an abscission.
abscise
(v) remove or separate by abscission.
ex: the surgeon abscised a small growth on the patient's hand.

(v) shed flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of a scar tissue
abscond
(v) to escape FROM a place that you're not allowed to leave without permission.
ex: she absconded FROM every children's home they placed her in.

(v) to leave secretly and take with you something, especially money, that does not belong to you.
ex: he absconded WITH the company funds.
abstemious
(adj) moderate in appetite, not allowing yourself to have much food or alcohol, or do things that are enjoyable.

ex: people with an abstemious lifestyle tend to live longer than people who indulge their appetites.
appetite
(n) physical desire for food.
ex: he suffered from headaches and loss of appetite.

(n) a strong desire for something.
ex: the public have an insatiable appetite for scandal.
appetizer
(n) a small amount of food or drink that you have before a meal.

ex: some green olives make a simple appetizer.
appetizing
(adj) (of food,...) that smells or looks attractive, making you feel hungry or thirsty.

ex: the appetizing aroma of sizzling bacon.
abstinence
(n) the practice of not allowing yourself something, especially food, alcoholic drinks or sex, for moral, religious or health reasons.

ex: the monk's vow of abstinence includes all intoxicating substances.
amass
(v) to ACCUMULATE, to collect something, especially in large quantities.

ex: he amassed a fortune from silver mining.
liquor
(n) strong alcoholic drink
ex: the alcoholic's physician recommended total abstinence from liquor for her patient.

(n) any alcoholic drink
ex: the sale of liquor to persons under 18 is prohibited.
treason
(n) the crime of doing something that could cause danger to you country, such as helping its enemies during a war.
abysmal
(adj) TERRIBLE, extremely bad or of very low standard.

ex: the abysmal failure of the free market system in Russia.
accretion
(n) a layer of a substance that is slowly added to something.
ex: stalactites form from an accretion of limestone and other minerals.

(n) the process of a new layers being slowly added to something.
igneous
(adj) (geology) formed when magma becomes solid, especially after it has poured out of a volcano.
ex: An igneous rock is one that forms through intense, fiery heat--usually in a volcano. It starts out molten (so hot it melts into liquid), then solidifies as it cools. So, it's rock that has "ignited."

(adj) (geology) relating to the formation of rocks by solidification from a molten state.
accrue
(v) to accumulate, to grow by additions, to increase over a period of time.

ex: economic benefits accruing TO the country FROM tourism.
accrual
(n) the act of accumulating.

ex: the accrual of interest.
monopoly
(n) (business) the complete control of trade in particular goods or the supple of a particular service; A type of goods or a service controlled in this way.
ex: electricity, gas and water were considered to be natural monopolies.

(n) the complete possession or use of something; A thing that belongs only to one person or group and that other people cannot share.
ex: a good education should not be the monopoly of the rich.
monopolize
(v) to take control of the largest part of something so that other people are prevented from sharing it.
ex: men traditionally monopolized jobs in the printing industry.

(v) to take a large part of someone's attention or time so that they're unable to speak or deal with other people.
monopolist
(n) a person or a company that has the complete control of trade in particular goods or the supple of a particular service;
monopolistic
(adj) controlling or trying to get complete control over something, especially an industry or a company.
adamant
(adj) DETERMINED, uncompromising, unyielding, not to change your mind or to be persuaded about something.

ex: Eva was adamant that she would not come.
adjunct
(n) a thing added or attached to something larger or more important
ex: speed walking and marathons are regarded as adjuncts of track and field athletics since races in these sports are not normally held on a track.

(n) (grammar) an adverb or a phrase that adds meaning to the verb in a sentence
admonish
(v) to SCOLD, to tell someone firmly that you don't approve of something they have done.
ex: she as admonished for chewing gum in class.

(v) to strongly advice someone to do something.
ex: the judge admonished the jury to discount testimony that had been ruled inadmissible.
testimony
(n) a thing showing that something else exists or is true.
ex: the pyramid are an eloquent testimony to the ancient Egyptian's engineering skills.

(n) a formal written or spoken statement saying what you know to be true, usually in a court.
ex: her claim was supported by the testimony of several witnesses.
unscrupulous
(adj) UNPRINCIPLED, without principles, not honest or fair.

ex: the unscrupulous company sells an adulterated version of the drug.
proponent
(n) an ADVOCATE, a person who supports an idea or course of action.
doctrine
(n) a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a a Church, a political party,...

ex: he was deeply committed to the political doctrines of social equality.
doctrinal
(adj) relating to a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a a Church, a political party,...

ex: a rigid doctrinal approach.
doctrinaire
(adj) (disapproving) strictly following a theory in all circumstances, even if there're practical problems or disagreement.

ex: doctrinaire attitudes
aesthete
(n) a person who has a love and understanding of art and beautiful things.
affected
(adj) (of a person or their behavior) not natural or sincere.

ex: it has been argued that the emphasis on so-call "proper English" leads to unnatural and affected speech.
affectation
(n) behavior or an action that is not natural or sincere and usually intended to impress other people.

ex: his little affections irritated her.
affinity
(n) a natural connection, a strong feeling that you understand something or someone,
ex: humans have a special affinity FOR/WITH dolphins

(n) a close relationship between two people or things that have similar qualities, structures or features.
ex: there's a close affinity BETWEEN Italian and Spanish.
mar
(v) to RUIN, to damage or spoil something good.

ex: the game was marred by the behavior of drunken fans.
dictum
(n) a statement expressing something that people believe is always true or should be followed.

ex: the dictum that "In politics, there are no friendships"
aggrandize
(v) to make larger or greater, to add detail to, to increase the power or reputation of something

ex:If you are a window washer, but you refer to yourself as a "vista enhancement specialist," then you are aggrandizing your job title — that is, making it sound greater than it is.
aggrandizement
(n) the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scope of something.
ex: It's hard sometimes to tell if politicians run for office in order to help their communities, or just for their own aggrandizement.

(n) an increase in the power or importance of a person or country.
ex: he was a strong and greedy monarch who pursued a course of military aggrandizement from the beginning of this reign.
alacrity
(n) liveliness and eagerness, great willingness or enthusiasm.

ex: Someone with alacrity shows cheerful willingness and eager behavior, like a kid whose mother has told him he can buy anything in a candy store.
alchemy
(n) (literary) a mysterious power or magic that can change things, a seemingly magical process of transmutation.
ex: no one could understand the mysterious alchemy that caused two people as different from one another as Rob and Barbara to fall in love

(n) a form of chemistry studied in the Middle Ages which involved trying to change ordinary metals into gold.
allay
(v) to assuage, to mollify, to alleviate, to lessen, to ease, to soothe, to make something, especially a feeling, less strong.

ex: His poor little hands were wrapped in cotton-wool steeped in morphia, to allay the pain.
alleviate
(v) to EASE, to make something less severe.

ex: one of the weaknesses of capitalism is that, although it's very efficient at increasing absolute wealth, it's not as successful at alleviating relative poverty.
alleviation
the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance)

ex: the alleviation of poverty.
disparage
(v) to BELITTLE, to suggest that someone or something is not important or valuable.

ex: I don't mean to disparage your achievements.
disparagement
(n) the act of belittling somebody or something.

ex: he spoke of his colleagues with disparagement.
alloy
(n) a metal formed by mixing two types of metal together, or by mixing metal with another substance.

ex: Brass in an alloy of copper and zinc.
alloy
(v) to make one metal with another, especially one of lower value.
incentive
(n) something that encourages you to do something.

ex: they often use the allure of their country's vast market as an incentive for other countries to pursue policies in accordance with theirs.
incentivize
(v) to encourage someone to behave in a particular way by offering them a reward.

ex: the government wants to incentivize people to switch to greener cars.
allure
(n) the quality of being attractive and exciting.

ex: the allure of the big city.
alluring
(adj) attractive and exciting in a mysterious way.
lobby
(n) a group of people who try to influence politicians on a particular issue

(n) a group whose members share certain goals and work to bring about the passage, modification, or defeat of laws that affect these goals; an attempt organized by this group.
lobby
(v) to try to influence a politician or the government and persuade them to support or oppose a change in the law.

ex: women's groups are lobbying to get more money for children.
entice
(v) to persuade someone to do something, usually by offering them something.

ex: try and entice the child TO eat by offering small portions of their favorite food.
enticement
the act of persuading someone to do something, usually by offering them something.

ex: the party is offering low taxation as its main enticement.
enticing
(adj) so attractive and interesting that you want to have it or know more about it.

ex: an enticing smell came from the kitchen.
amalgamate
(v) to MERGE, to join two or more things together.
ex: this information will amalgamated with clues obtained earlier.

(v) (of two organizations) to MERGE, to join together to form one large organization.
ex: they decided to amalgamate the two schools.
buddhism
a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha
celestial
(adj) of the sky or of heaven.

ex: What is the difference between a celestial being and a celestial body? The first is something living such as an alien or an angel, whereas the latter is an inanimate object such as a star or a planet. Both, however, are from the sky.
terrestrial
(adj) (of animals and plants) living on the land or on the ground, rather than in waters, trees or the air.

(adj) connected with the planet Earth

(adj) (of television and broadcasting systems) operating on earth rather than from a satellite.
extraterrestrial
(adj) connected with life existing outside the planet Earth.
ex: extraterrestrial beings.

(n) a creature that comes from another planet.
ambivalent
(adj) having conflicting emotional attitudes, showing both good and bad feelings about something.

ex: she seems to feel ambivalent ABOUT/TOWARDS her new job.
ambivalence
(n) the state of having conflicting emotional attitudes or showing both good and bad feelings about something.

ex: there was ambivalence among church members about women becoming priests.
ambrosia
(n) something that is very pleasant to eat
(n) (in ancient Greek and Roman history) the food of the gods.
ambrosial
(adj) (of food) extremely pleasing to the taste, very delicious.

ex: the food critic praised the chief for preparing what he called an "ambrosial meal".
ameliorate
(v) to make something better.

ex: Food drives can ameliorate hunger. Aspirin can ameliorate a headache. A sympathy card can ameliorate grief. Family therapy can ameliorate severe sibling rivalry. Anything that can lift a burden can ameliorate.
amelioration
(v) the act of making something better.
amenable
(adj) (of people) easy to control, willing to be influenced by something.
ex:
- They had three very amenable children.
-The young writer is amenable to suggestions for improving her prose style to make it more interesting.
amenity
(n) a feature that makes a place pleasant, comfortable or easy to live in.

ex: many houses lacked even basic amenities such as baths, showers and hot water.
amulet
(n) a piece of jewelry worn by some people because they think it protects them from bad luck, illness,...

(n) an ornament worn as a charm against evil spirits.
anachronism
(n) something that seems old-fashioned and does not belong to the present.
ex: the monarchy is seen by many people as an anachronism in the modern world.

(n) something that is placed, for example in a book or a play, in the wrong period of history.
ex: the book is full of anachronisms which suggests there were parts rewritten in later centuries.
anachronistic
(adj) old-fashioned and does not belong to the present.

ex: the costumes were anachronistic for a Victorian play.
analgesic
(n) (medical) PAINKILLER, a substance that reduces pain.

ex: Aspirin is still one of the most effective medicines available to alleviate pain, fever, and inflammation.
analogous
(adj) similar in some way to another thing and therefore able to be compared with it.

ex: the psychology researcher's experiment postulates that the brain is analogous to a digital computer.
analogy
(n) a similarity in some ways between things that are otherwise dissimilar.
ex: the teacher drew an analogy between the human heart and a pump.

(n) a comparison of between two things that have similar features.
analogue
(n) a thing that is similar to another thing in some way.

ex: scientists are attempting to compare features of extinct animals with living analogues.
analogue
(adj) (of a clock or watch) showing the time using hands, not with a display of numbers.

ex: digital watches are more advanced than analogue ones.
misconstrue
(v) MISINTERPRET, to understand someone's words or actions wrongly. (originates from the words mis-, meaning "wrong," and construe, meaning "construction.")

ex: it's easy to misconstrue confidence as arrogance.
construe
(v) to INTERPRET, to understand in a particular way the meaning of a word, a sentence, or an action.

ex: her words could hardly be construed AS an apology.
scant
(adj) hardly any, not very much, not as much as there should be.

ex: the firefighters went back into the house with scant regard for their own safety.
scanty
(adj) too little in amount for what is needed
ex: details of his life are scanty

(adj) (of clothes) very small and not covering much of your body.
ex: a scanty bikini
scantily
(adj) in a sparse or scanty way

ex: scantily dressed models.
posit
(v) to POSTULATE, to suggest or accept that something is true so that it can be used as the basis for an argument or discussion.

ex: most religious posit the existence of life after death.
Confucius
Chinese philosphere and teacher; his beliefs,known as Confucianism greatly influenced Chinese life
confucian
(n) relating to or characteristic of Confucianism
(n) a believer in the teachings of Confucius
anarchy
(n) a situation in which a country, an organization,... has no official government, order or control.

ex: the overthrow of the military regime was followed by a period of anarchy.
anarchic
(adj) lacking order, law or control.

ex: it had become a lawless, anarchic city in which corruption thrived.
anarchism
(n) the political belief that laws and government are not necessary.
anarchist
a person who believes that laws and governments are not necessary.
tenable
(adj) (of a theory, an opinion,...) evidence-based and well-founded, easy to defend against attack or criticism.

ex: most political scientists don't believe anarchism to be a tenable theory of government.

(adj) (of a job, position) that can be held for a period of time.
antithesis
(n) the opposite of something.

ex: the antithesis of the principle of art for art's sake is social realism, which feels a heavy responsibility to identify, and even ameliorate, social ills.
deficit
(n) (economics) the amount by which money spent or owed is greater than money earned in a period of time.
ex: the economist drew an analogy between a family spending beyond its means and a government running a deficit.

(n) the amount by which something, especially an amount of money, is too small or smaller than something else.
ex: there's a deficit of $3 million in the total needed to complete the project.
overthrow
(v) to remove by force a leader or a government from a position of power.

ex: a group of anarchists called for the overthrow of the government.
overthrow
(n) the act of taking power by force from a leader or government.
anodyne
(adj) BLAND, unlikely to cause disagreement or offend anyone, not expressing strong opinions.
ex: some people use alcohol an an anodyne to numb their emotional pain.

(n) PAINKILLER, a medicine or something that calms or soothes pain.
platitude
(n) (disapproving) a comment or statement that has been made very often before and is therefore not interesting.

ex: a political speech full of platitudes and empty promises.
platitudinous
(adj) (disapproving) dull and tiresome but with pretensions of significance or originality; that has been made very often before and is therefore not interesting.

ex: shallow feelings and platitudinous remarks.
anomaly
(n) deviation from the norm, a thing or situation different from what is normal or expected.

ex: the apparent anomaly that those who produced the wealth, the workers, were the poorest.
anomalous
(adj) different from what is normal or expected.

ex: he's in an anomalous position as the only part-time worker in the firm.
antecedent
(n) a thing or event that exists or comes before another thing or event, and may have influenced it.

(n) antecedentS (plural) = ancestors, the people in someone's family who lived a long time ago.

(n) (grammar) a word or phrase to which the following word refers.
antecedent
(adj) PREVIOUS, that exists or comes before another thing or event, and may have influenced it.
antediluvian
(adj) very old-fashioned, so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period.
ex: You may laugh at your parents' antediluvian ideas of what's proper for going out on a date.

(adj) prehistoric, of or relating to the period before the biblical flood.
endeavor
(n) an attempt to do something new or difficult.

ex: the manager is expected to use his best endeavors to promote the artist's career.
endeavor
(v) to STRIVE, to try very hard to do something.

ex: I will endeavor to do my best for my country.
protagonist
(n) the main character in a play, film/movie or book.
ex: A novel, movie, or play might have many main characters, but it can really only have one protagonist — or maybe two in the case of, say, Romeo and Juliet.

(n) one of the main people in a real event, especially a competition, battle or struggle.
ex: Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were the protagonists of the U.S. Civil War.
apathy
(n) the feeling of not being interested in or enthusiastic about something, or things in general.

ex: Apathy was high in the election because there was no major controversy or issue to arouse voter interest.
apathetic
(adj) showing no interest or enthusiasm.

ex: one criticism of the welfare state is that it makes people overly reliant on the government and therefore take a apathetic and detached view of politics.
apogee
(n) the highest point of something, where it's greatest or most successful.
ex: the Ottoman Empire reached its apogee in the seventeenth century.

(n) (astronomy) the point in the orbit of an object in space when it's furthest from the planet around which it turns.
apothegm
(n) a short instructive saying that's easy to remember and sometimes even slightly witty, like "haste makes waste.". An apothegm often expresses a fundamental truth or general rule.

ex: one of the best known political apothegms was written by British historian Lord Acton: "power tend to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely"
appease
(disapproving)
(v) to make someone calmer or less angry by giving them what they want.

(v) to give a country what it wants in order to avoid war.
appeasement
(n) the act of making someone calmer or less angry by giving them what they want; or giving a country what it wants in order to avoid war.

ex: a policy of appeasement.
regime
(n) a method or system of organizing or managing something.
ex: our tax regime is one of the most favourable in Europe.

(n) a method or system of government, especially one that has not been elected in a fair way.
ex: an oppressive regime.
regimen
(n) a set of rules about food and exercise or medical treatment that you follow to stay healthy or to improve your health.

ex: a daily regimen of exercise.
appellation
(n) a name or a title.

ex:Mark Twain is the famous appellation by which everyone remembers author and humorist Samuel Clemens.
appellative
(adj) relating to the giving of a name
apposite
(adj) strikingly relevant, very appropriate for a particular situation or in relation to something.

ex: the writer searched two dictionaries and a thesaurus before finding a perfectly apposite word he was looking for.
apprise
(v) to tell or inform someone of something.

ex: the biography keeps the readers apprised of the racism black Americans had to endure.
approbation
(n) approval or agreement.

ex: Remember that probation is a testing period, to see if you can be good. Approbation means it's all good.
appropriate
(v) to take something, someone's idea,... for your own use, especially illegally or without permission.
ex: the invading army appropriated supplies from the houses of local people.

(v) to take or give something, especially money, for a particular purpose.
ex: five million dollars have been appropriated for research into the disease.
appropriation
(n) the act of taking something that belongs to someone else, especially without permission.

ex: the film company sued them over their appropriation of a cartoon character.
appropriation
(n) the act f keeping or saving money for a particular purpose.
ex: a meeting to discuss the appropriation of funds.

(n) a sum of money to be used for a particular purpose, especially by a government or company.
ex: an appropriation of $20000 FOR payment of debt.
apropos
(preposition) relevant, concerning or related to something / someone.
ex: Apropos of my interest in fishing, my grandfather gave me his set of championship lures, rods, reels and lucky tackle box.
apropos of nothing
the expression which is a glib way of saying "Oh, and by the way..." , used to conveniently change the subject of a conversation.

ex: Apropos of nothing, the speaker declared that the purpose of life is to love.
arabesque
(n) (in art) a type of design where lines wind around each other in intertwining curves.

(n) (in ballet) a position in which the dancer balances on one leg with the other leg lifted and stretched out behind parallel to the ground.
ex: the ballerina stunned the audience with her perfectly executed arabesque.
specimen
(n) a SAMPLE, a small amount of something that shows what the rest of it is like.
ex: astronauts have brought back specimens of rock from the moon.

(n) a single example of something , especially an animal or a plant.
ex: the aquarium has some interesting specimens of unusual tropical fish.

(n) a small amount of blood, urine,... that is taken from someone and tested by a doctor.
ardor
(n) PASSION, very strong feelings or enthusiasm or love.

ex: it's the unknown that excites the ardor of scholars, who, in the known alone, would shrivel up with boredom.
ardent
(adj) PASSIONATE, very enthusiastic and showing strong feelings about someone or something.

ex: an ardent supporter of European unity.
shrivel
(v) to become or make something dry and wrinkled as a result of heat, cold or being cold.

ex: the leaves on the plant had shrivelled UP from lack of water.
arduous
(adj) laborious, extremely difficult, involving lots of effort and energy, especially over a period of time,

ex: an arduous journey across the Andes.
argot
(n) JARGON, words or phrases that are used by a particular group of people and not easily understood by others.

ex: writers of crime fiction often use the argot of criminals and detectives to create a realistic atmosphere.
alienate
(v) to make someone less friendly or sympathetic towards you.
ex: his comments have alienated a lot of young voters.

(v) to make someone feel that they don't belong to a particular group.
ex: very talented children may feel alienated from the others in their class.
alienation
(n) the act of making someone less friendly or sympathetic towards you.
ex: the new policy resulted in the alienation of many votes

(n) the state of making someone feel that they don't belong to a particular group.
ex: many immigrants suffer from a sense of alienation.
artless
(adj) simple, natural and honest.
ex: the artless sincerity of a young child.

(adj) made without art or skill.
ascetic
(adj) not allowing yourself physical pleasures, especially for religious reasons.
(adj) related to a simple and strict way of living.

ex: the monks live a very ascetic life.
ascetic
(n) someone who practices self denial as a spiritual discipline.

ex:Muslim ascetics consider the internal battle against human passions a greater jihad than the struggle against infidels.
asceticism
(n) the doctrine that through renunciation of worldly pleasures it is possible to achieve a high spiritual or intellectual state.

ex: one tradition of asceticism derives from the belief that the body is fundamentally bad and must be subjugated to the soul.
asperity
(n) HARSHNESS, SEVERITY, the fact of being rough or severe in the way you speak to or treat someone.

ex: she pointed out, with some asperity, that it had all been my fault.
aspersion
(n) a disparaging remark, a critical or unpleasant remark or judgement.

ex: Finding out that a field-hockey coach had never played the sports might cast aspersions on her ability to coach it.
assiduous
(adj) DILIGENT, working very hard and taking great care that everything is done as well as it can be.

ex: the assiduous people of Hong Kong live in a territory with one of the highest per capita incomes int the world.
assiduity
(n) great and constant diligence and attention

ex: he work with great assiduity to earn the money for his son's education.
anguish
(n) severe pain, mental suffering or unhappiness.

ex: I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost.
astringent
(adj) critical in a severe or clever way.
ex: aIf someone is prone to biting sarcasm and cynicism, he probably has an astringent view of the world.

(adj) (of a taste or smell) slightly bitter but fresh.
ex: the astringent taste of lemon juice.

(adj) ( of a liquid or cream) able to make the skin feel less oily or to stop the loss of blood from a cut.
ex: Bob tent to nick himself when he shaves, so he uses an astringent aftershave to stop the bleeding.
astringent
(n) a liquid or cream used in cosmetics or medicine to make the skin less oily or to stop the loss of blood from a cut.
astringency
(n) a sharp astringent taste

(n) the ability to contract or draw together soft body tissues to check blood flow or restrict secretion of fluids
vicious circle
(n) a situation in which one problem causes another problem which then makes the first problem worse.
virtuous circle
(n) a series of events in which each one seems to increase the good effects of the previous one.
virtuous
(adj) behaving in a very good and moral way.

ex: in his book, Saint Augustine tells of his sinful life before he was converted to Christianity and began to live an ascetic and virtuous life.
virtue
(n) behaviour or attitudes that show high moral standards.

(n) a particular good quality or habit.
ex: As a politician, he always emphasized the virtues of compromise and conciliation.
asylum
(n) protection that a government gives to people who have left their own country, usually because they were in danger for political reasons.
ex: An asylum offers shelter and protection, like the awning of a building in a downpour. Or a country that takes in refugees in danger of persecution — otherwise known as "political asylum."

(n) a hospital where people with mental illness could be cared for, often for a long time.
stoic
(n) a person who is able to suffer pain or trouble without complaining or showing what they are feeling.

ex: Mr. Spock, from the oldest Star Trek show, was a great example of a stoic person: he tried to never show his feelings.
stoicism
(n) the fact of not complaining or showing your emotions when you're suffering.

ex: the stoic, accused of seeking asylum in the consolidation of philosophy, rebutted this charge, saying that Stoicism is simply the most prudent and realistic philosophy to follow.
imprudent
(adj) not wise, careful and sensible, lacking wise self-restraint.

ex: An imprudent person doesn't think about the consequences and might cross the street without looking both ways or bring the radio into the bath for a little light listening. Careless, wild, imprudent behavior can get you into big trouble!
prudent
(adj) sensible and careful when you make judgements and decisions; avoiding unnecessary risks.

ex: it might be prudent to get a second opinion before going ahead.
prudence
(n) wise, careful and sensible in practical affairs, knowing how to avoid embarrassment or distress.

ex: may be you'll exercise a little more financial prudence next time.
atavism
(n) the return to a previous way of doing, saying, or seeing things, often used negatively, though, to refer to behavior the speaker finds primitive or unacceptable.
ex: some modern political theorists reject nationalism as a tribal atavism.

(n) (biology) the reappearance of a characteristic in an organism after several generations of absence.
ex: Darwin was the first to study this interesting fact, which shows how atavism often results from the crossing of varieties.
attenuate
(v) to make something weaker or less severe.

ex: the drug attenuates the effects of the virus.
attenuation
(n) weakening in force or intensity, the property of something that has been weakened or reduced in thickness or density

ex: If you have a really intense crush on someone, but closer contact reveals that she smells funny in a bad way, you'll probably experience an attenuation of your romantic sensation.
attenuated
(adj) made weaker or less effective.
ex: an attenuated form of the virus.

(adj) (of a person) very thin.
attenuator
an electrical device for reducing or weakening the strength of an electrical signal.
audacious
(adj) DARING, willing to take risk or to do something shocking.

ex: the commander was known for his audacious attack on Allied forces in WWII.
audacity
(n) DARE, NERVE, brave but not rude or shocking behaviour.

ex: he had the audacity to say that she was too fat.
austere
(adj) simple and plain, without any decorations.
ex: her austere bedroom with its simple narrow bed.

(adj) (of a person) strict and serious in appearance or behaviour.
ex: my father was a distant, austere man.

(adj) allowing nothing that gives pleasure, not comfortable.
ex: the monk's austere way of life.
austerity
(n) the quality of being austere (simple and plain, strict and serious in appearance or behaviour)
ex: the austerity of a monk's life.

(n) a situation when people don't have much money to spend because of bad economic conditions.
ex: war was followed by many years of austerity.
deism
(n) the belief in a God who created the universe and then abandoned it, assuming no control over life or natural phenomena, and giving no supernatural revelation.

ex: deism is an austere belief that reflects the predominant philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment: a universe symmetrical and governed by rationality.
deist
a person who believes that God created the universe and then abandoned it
tenet
(n) one of the principles or beliefs that a theory or larger set of beliefs is based on.
ex: "Seek pleasure and avoid pain" is a basic tenet of Hedonism. "God exists" is a tenet of most major religions.

(n) an opinion or doctrine one holds.
ex: One of the central tenets of succeeding in the workplace is that a good offense is the best defense.
avarice
(n) GREED, extreme desire for wealth.

ex: successful investment bakers are sometimes accused of avarice.
avaricious
(adj) GREEDY, immoderately desirous of acquiring wealth

ex: an avaricious person will do anything to achieve material gain, and it is, in general, not a pleasant attribute.
aver
(v) to ASSERT, to DECLARE, to state firmly and strongly that something is true.

ex:
guru
(n) a Hindu or Sikh religious teacher or leader

(n) (informal) a person who is an expert on a subject or who is very good at doing something.
avocation
(n) a hobby or activity that you do for interest and enjoyment.
(A vocation is the work you do because you have to; an avocation is what you do for pleasure, not pay.)

ex: If you like knitting beautiful sweaters, then you, my friend, have an avocation — as long as you're not making your living from it.
avocation
(n) the second occupation.

ex: he became so proficient at his avocation that he's thinking of giving up his main job to do it full time.
avuncular
(adj) kind and patient and generally indulgent with people younger than he is, similar to the way an UNCLE treats his nieces or nephews.

ex: he had an avuncular manner that made him one of America's most trusted personalities.
judicature
(n) a system by which courts, trials,... are organized in a country

(n) the judicature : judges when they are considered as a group.
judicial
(adj) connected with a court, a judge or legal judgement.

ex: they applied for a judicial review to challenge the court's decision.
judiciary
(n) the judges of a country or state when they are considered as a group.
persecute
(v) to treat someone in a cruel or unfair way, especially because of their race, religion or political beliefs.

(v) to HARASS, to deliberately annoy someone all the time and make their life unpleasant.
persecution
(n) the act of treating someone in a cruel or unfair way, especially because of their race, religion or political beliefs.
persecutor
(n) a person who treat someone in a cruel or unfair way, especially because of their race, religion or political beliefs.
axiomatic
(adj) SELF-EVIDENT, true in such an obvious way that you don't need to approve it.

ex: in nineteenth-century geology, uniformitarianism was the antithesis of catastrophism, asserting that it was axiomatic that natural law and processes do not fundamentally change, and that what we observe nos is essentially the same as what occurred in the past.
revelry
(n) FESTIVITY, MERRYMAKING, noisy fun, usually involving a lot of eating and drinking.

ex: we could hear sounds of revelry from next door.
reveler
(n) a person who is having fun in a noisy way, usually with a group and often after drinking alcohol.
revel
(v) to MAKE MERRY, to spend time enjoying yourself in a noisy, enthusiastic way.

ex: he reveled IN the freedom he was allowed.
revel
(n) noisy celebrations.

ex: bright lights illuminated the revels and feasting.
cult
(n) a way of life, an attitude, an idea,... that has become very popular.

ex: an extraordinary personality cult had been created around the leader.
cult
(n) a small group of people who have extreme religious beliefs and who are not part of any established religion (such as Buddhism, Christianity,...).
(Most people view cults as strange and frightening, mostly because cults have, over the years, done some strange and frightening things, including murders and mass suicides)

ex: People argue about whether the major religions of the world are just well-established cults — that, age and size aside, they are no different from any group that follows a spiritual leader.
cult
(n) a system of religious beliefs and practices.

ex: the Vietnamese cult of ancestor worship.
cult
(adj) very popular with a particular group of people but not so popular with the mass audience (having a small, devoted fan-base)

ex: the TV series has a cult following among young people.
bacchanalian
(adj) (of a party,...) wild and involving large amounts of alcohol; pertaining to riotous or drunken festivity.
(from the name of the Greek god Bacchus, the god of wine and wild enjoyment)

ex: for some people New Year's Eve is an occasion for bacchanalian revelry.
bacchanalia
(n) an orgiastic festival in ancient Greece in honor of Dionysus (= Bacchus) involving frenzied revelry, drunkenness, and debauchery.
frenzied
(adj) involving lots of activities and strong emotions in a violent, frightening or uncontrolled way.

ex: a frenzied attack.
frenzy
(n) a state of great activity and strong emotion that is violent, frightening or uncontrolled.

ex: the speaker worked the crowd up into a frenzy.
debauched
(adj) (of a person) DEPRAVED, DISSOLUTE, immoral in sexual behaviour, drinks a lot of alcohol, takes drugs,...

ex: In such a haven of liberal and debauched bacchanalian excess, surely nothing whatsoever can possibly go wrong.
debauchery
(n) immoral behaviour involving sex, alcohol or drugs.

ex: you probably don't want to engage in any kind of debauchery the night before an exam.
banal
(adj) COMMONPLACE, TRITE, very ordinary and containing nothing interesting or important.

ex: the writer has a gift for making even the most banal observation seem important and original.
banality
(n) the quality of being commonplace, trite, very ordinary and containing nothing interesting or important.

ex: the banality of modern city life.
banter
(n) playful conversation, friendly remarks and jokes.

ex: the governor engaged in some banter with reporters before getting into the serious business of the news conference.
banter
(v) to have playful conversation, friendly remarks or jokes with someone.

ex: she bantered with reporters and posed for photographers.
bantering
(adj) (of a way of talking) amusing and friendly.

ex: there was a friendly, bantering tone in his voice.
bard
(n) a Poet, a person who writes poems.
(William Shakespeare has been known as "The Bard" since the nineteenth century, and, when it's not capitalized, it simply means "lyric poet.")

ex: the great bards of English literature have all been masters of the techniques of verse.
obscene
(adj) connected with sex in a way that most people fin offensive.
ex: obscene gestures/language/books.

(adj) OUTRAGEOUS, extremely large in size or amount in a way that most people find unacceptable and offensive.
ex: it's obscene to spend too much on food when millions are starving.
obscenity
(n) language or behaviour that is connected with sex in a way that most people fin offensive.
ex: the editors are being prosecuted for obscenity.

(n) a word or an act that is outrageous in a way that most people find unacceptable and offensive.
ex: she screamed a string of obscenity at the judge.
outrageous
(adj) SCANDALOUS, very shocking and unacceptable.

(adj) very unusual and slightly shocking.
outrage
(n) a strong feeling of shock and anger.
ex: the judge's remarks caused public outrage.

(n) an act or event that is violent, cruel or very wrong and that shocks or annoys people.
ex: no one has yet claimed responsibility for this latest bomb outrage.
outrage
(v) to make someone very shocked and angry

ex: he was outraged at the way his wife had been treated.
bawdy
(adj) OBSCENE, loud and dealing with sex in an amusing way.

ex: a group of Christian pilgrims entertained one another with stories, ranging from the holy to the bawdy, on their journey to Canterbury Cathedral.
beatify
(v) (of the Pope) to give a dead person a special honour by stating officially that he or she is very holy.

ex: the Pope beatified the children who said they saw the appearance of the Virgin Mary.
beatification
(n) (of the Pope) the act of giving a dead person a special honour by stating officially that he or she is very holy.

ex: beatification is the second and next to last step on the path to sainthood.
bedizen
(v) to decorate something tastelessly
(v) to dress up garishly and tastelessly, to dress in a vulgar, showy manner.

ex: Bedizen is used only in written form now, though because so few people know what it actually means you might well get away with saying, "Oh, I like the way you've bedizened yourself today," without getting a slap in the face.
belie
(v) to give a false impression of something or someone.
ex: her energy and youthful good looks belie her 65 years.

(v) to show that something cannot be true or correct.
ex: government claims that there is no poverty are belied by the number of homeless people on the streets.
riotous
(adj) noisy and/or violent, especially in a public way.
ex: the organizers of the march were charged with assault and riotous assembly.

(adj) noisy, exciting and enjoyable in an uncontrolled way.
ex: a riotous party.
riotously
(adv) extremely

ex: riotously funny.
friction
(n) the action of one object or surface moving against another.
ex: friction between moving parts had caused the engine to overheat.

(n) (physics) the resistance (the force that stops movement) of one surface to another surface which is moving over or through it.
ex: the force of friction slows the spacecraft down as it re-enters the Earth's atmosphere.
friction
(n) friction BETWEEN A and B = TENSION, DISAGREEMENT or lack of friendship among people who have different opinions about something.

ex: woman in non-polygamous societies often express amazement that several woman could share one husband without friction.
steer
(v) to control the direction in which a boat, car,... moves.
ex: he steered the boat into the harbour.

(v) to take control of a situation and influence the way in which it develops.
ex: he managed to steer the conversation away from his divorce.
steer
(n) a piece of advice or information that helps you do something or a void a problem.

ex: can anyone give me a steer on this problem?
beneficent
(adj) KIND, GENEROUS, giving help, showing kindness.

ex: the theologian discussed the question of why a beneficent and omnipotent God allows bad things to happen to good people.
beneficence
(n) the quality of being kind or helpful or generous.
omnipotent
(adj) having total power, able to do anything.

ex: an omnipotent God
omnipotence
(n) , the state of having total power, able to do anything.

ex: the omnipotence of God
bifurcate
(v) (of roads, rivers,...) to divide into two separate parts.

ex: contemporary physicists generally bifurcate their discipline INTO two parts - classical physics and modern physics.
bifurcation
(n) (of roads, rivers,...) to act of dividing itself into two separate parts.
momentous
(adj) of very great historical significance, very important or serious, especially because there may be important results.

ex: A momentous moment can be personal — perhaps the day you were named prom queen; or something historic — like the day Elizabeth was named Queen of England.
inaugurate
(v) to introduce a new public official or leader at a special ceremony.
ex: he was inaugurated AS President in January.

(v) to officially open a building or start an organization with a special ceremony.
ex: the new theater was inaugurated by the mayor.

(v) to introduce a new development or an important change.
ex: the moon landing inaugurated a new era in space exploration.
inauguration
(n) the act of introducing a new public official or leader at a special ceremony.

(n) the act of officially opening a building or starting an organization with a special ceremony.

(n) the act of introducing a new development or an important change.
inaugural
(adj) first, making the beginning of something important.

ex: the professor's inaugural lecture.
blandishments
(n) (plural) FLATTERY, pleasant things that you say or do to try to persuade someone to do something.

ex: he refused to be moved by either threats or blandishments.
blandish
(v) to FLATTER, to say or to pleasant things to someone in order to persuade them to do something.

ex: Lovely, blandishing lures were held out only to lead men to destruction.
bolster
(v) to give a boost to something, to improve something or make it stronger.

ex: the president has visited the state several times to bolster his sagging popularity there.
sag
(v) to hang or bend down in the middle, especially because of weight or pressure.
ex: the tent began to sag under the weight of the rain.

(v) to become weaker or fewer
ex: we tried to revive her sagging spirits.
saggy
(adj) no longer firm, hanging or sinking down in an unattractive way.

ex: a saggy mattress.
bombard
(n) words which sound important but have little meaning, used to impress people.

ex: If your football coach is known for his bombast, he probably gives a pompous speech before each game about the greatness of the team and, of course, his coaching.
bombastic
(adj) POMPOUS, using inflated language, which have little meaning, to impress people.

ex: nearly lost in the senator's long and bombastic speech were several sensible ideas.
pompous
(adj) PRETENTIOUS & SHOWY, showing that you think you're more important than other people, especially by using long and formal words.

ex: his speech sounded very pompous and self-congratulatory.
pomposity
(n) lack of elegance as a consequence of being pretentious, showy and puffed up with vanity; the act of showing that you think you're more important than other people, especially by using long and formal words.

ex: the prince's manner was informal, without a trace of pomposity.
boorish
(adj) (of people or their behaviour) very unpleasant and rude, having bad manners and a sloppy appearance.

ex: If you cousin tells revolting jokes, belches, and smells like he spent the winter in a cave, he could be described as boorish.
bovine
(adj) (technical) connected with cow
ex: Mad Cow Disease is technically known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and it can be said to have bovine origins.

(adj) (disapproving) (of a person) stupid and slow, intellectually dull, slow-moving, or somewhat cow-like in appearance.
ex: Someone's glacial pace and dull comments might contribute to his thoroughly bovine impression.
brazen
(adj) (disapproving) SHAMELESS, very bold and open about something that people find shocking.
ex: With brazen disregard for the sign that said "no cellphones please" the woman took a long call in the doctor's office waiting room.

(adj) made of brass, or having the color of brass.
broach
(v) to begin talking for the first time about a subject that is difficult to discuss, especially because it's embarrassing, sensitive or controversial.

ex: she was dreading having to broach the subject of money to her father.
streak
(n) a long thin mark or line with a different colour from the surface that it is on.
ex: there was a streak of blood on his face.

(n) a part of a person's character, especially an unpleasant part.
ex: a streak of cruelty.

(n) a series of successes or failures in a sport or in gambling.
streak
(v) to mark or covered something with long thin marks or lines with a different colour from the surface that it is on.
ex: the sunset streaked the sky WITH brilliant colours.

(v) to move very fast in a direction.
ex: she streaked home in under 54 seconds.

(v) to run through a public place with no clothes on to get attention.
streaker
(n) a person who runs through a public place with no clothes on to get attention.
streaky
(adj) marked with lines of different colours.

ex: the wallpaper was streaked WITH grease.
politburo
(n) the most important committee of a Communist party, with the power to decide on policy.
startle
(v) to SURPRISE someone suddenly in a slightly frightening or shocking way.

ex: the explosion startled the horse (so the animal made a sudden involuntary movement)
startled
(adj) excited by sudden surprise or alarm and making a quick involuntary movement.

ex: she jumped back like a startled rabbit.
startling
(adj) extremely unusual and surprising.
ex: startling revelations in the Sunday papers.

(adj) (of a colour) extremely bright.
ex: startling blue eyes.
bucolic
(adj) connected with the countryside or country life.

ex: a stream winding through stately parks and bucolic meadows.
burnish
(v) to polish metal until it's smooth and shiny.

ex: the poet burnished his reputation as one of the master poets of the twentieth century.
buttress
(n) a stone or brick structure that support a wall.
buttress
(v) to reinforced, to support or give strength to something.

ex: the sharp increase in crime seems to buttress the argument for more police officers on the street.
cacophony
(n) a mixture of loud unpleasant sounds.

ex: A cacophony is a jarring, discordant mix of sounds that have no business being played together. When the orchestra tunes up before a show, it sounds like a cacophony because each musician is playing a completely different tune, at different times, and at different volumes.
cacophonous
(adj) unpleasant, harsh-sounding.

ex: the dissonant harmonies of the great jazz pianist and composer might seem cacophonous to some listeners, but to many jazz aficionados they are sublime.
cadge
(v) to ask or BEG someone for food, money,... because you cannot or do not want to pay for something yourself.

ex: an enduring image of the Great Depression in America is the out-of-work man cadging money wit the line. "Mister, can you spare a dime for a cup of coffee?"
cadger
(n) a person who asks or BEGs someone for food, money,... because they cannot or do not want to pay for something themselves.
callous
(adj) CRUEL, INSENSITIVE, not caring about other people;s feelings or suffering.

ex: Jim's terrible experiences in the war have made him callous ABOUT the suffering of others.
callousness
(n) CRUELTY, INSENSITIVITY, the act of not caring about other people;s feelings or suffering.
calumny
(n) SLANDER, a malicious accusation, a false statement about a person that is made to damage their reputation.
ex: he accused the press of publishing vicious calumnies.

(n) the act of making such a statement.
canard
(n) a false piece of news or report, a deliberately misleading story.

ex: most politicians don't want to be associated with the old canard that big government in Washington can solve all of America's problems.
canon
(n) a generally accepted rule, standard or principle by which something is judged.
ex: Canons of aesthetic taste vary over the years, the Rococo period, for example, valued ornate art.

(n) a list of books or works that are generally accepted as the genuine work of a writer.
ex: the 60-volume Great Books of the Western World is an attempt to gather the central canon of Western civilization.
canon
(n) a Christian priest with special duties in a cathedral.

(n) a piece of music in which singers or instruments take it in turns to repeat the melody.
canonical
(adj) belonging to a group of literary works that are generally accepted as genuine or highly respected.
ex: the English professor is trying to persuade the chairperson to let her teach some writers that are not canonical.

(adj) according to the law of the Christian Church.
dispensable
(adj) not necessary, can be got rid of

ex: they looked on music and art lessons as dispensable.
indispensable
(adj) ESSENTIAL, too important to be got rid of.

ex: she made herself indispensable TO the department.
dispense with
(Phr V) to dispense with something = to stop using something because you no longer need it (which means it's DISPENSABLE)

ex: debit cards dispense with the need for cash altogether.
inmate
(n) one of several resident of a dwelling (especially someone confined to a prison or hospital)
ex: the jail has 500 inmates.

(n) a person serving a sentence in a jail or prison

(n) a patient who is residing in the hospital where he is being treated
cant
(n) statements about moral or religious issues that are not sincere and that you cannot trust.
ex: many of the beat artists of the 1950s reacted against what they regarded as the cant of bourgeois society.

(n) a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

(n) CLICHES, stock phrases that have become nonsense through endless repetition
sophisticated
(adj) having lots of experience and knowing.

(adj) (of a machine, system,...) clever and complicated in the way it works.

(adj) (of a person) able to understand difficult or complicated ideas.
ex: sophisticated audiences.
cantankerous
(adj) IRRITABLE, ILL-HUMORED, bad-tempered and always complaining.

ex: many of us have in your mind the stereotype of the cantankerous old man who is constantly complaining about something.
fickle
(disapproving)
(adj) changing often and suddenly
ex: the fickle world of fashion

(adj) (of a person) often changing their mind in an unreasonable way so that you cannot rely on them.
capricious
(adj) UNPREDICTABLE, CHANGEABLE, showing sudden changes in attitude or behaviour.

EX: the rule of law is regarded by many historians as one of humanity's greatest achievements because since its inception citizens are no longer subject to capricious decisions and penalties of rulers.
caprice
(n) a WHIM, a sudden change in attitude or behaviour for no obvious reason.

(n) the tendency to change your mink suddenly or behave unexpectedly.
ex: styles in high fashion seem governed by caprice as much as anything else.
captious
(adj) (of a person) tending to find and call attention to faults, intended to entrap.

ex: the pedantic and captious critic seems incapable of appreciating the merits of even the most highly regarded books.
pedant
(n) (disapproving) a person who is too concerned with small details or rules especially when learning or teaching.

ex: a pedant will always insist that you ask for "fewer" items rather than "less".
pedantic
(adj) (disapproving) too worried about small details or rules.

ex: a pedantic insistence of the correct way of doing things.
cardinal
(adj) of foremost importance, serving as an essential component, having other things based on it.

ex: the cardinal rule of any weight-loss diet must be limiting the intake of calories.
carnal
(adj) (formal or law) connected with the body or with sex, marked by the appetites and passions of the body.

ex: carnal relations is a subject that kids want to know more about, but one that both kids and parents may be embarrassed to talk about with each other.
carnal
(adj) of or relating to the body or flesh, worldly (as opposed to spiritual).

ex: the yogi's goal is to achieve Nirvana through, among other things, the overcoming of carnal desires.
nirvana
(n) (in the religious of Buddhism and Hinduism) the state of piece and happiness that a person achieves after giving up all personal desires.

ex: the yogi's goal is to achieve Nirvana through, among other things, the overcoming of carnal desires.
ego
(n) the part of your identity that you consider your "self", your consciousness of your own identity, your sense of your own value and importance.

ex: If you say someone has "a big ego," then you are saying he is too full/proud of himself.
egocentric
(adj) SELFISH, thinking only about yourself instead of what other people need or want.

ex: young children are usually egocentric because they haven't learnt other forms of behaviour.
egoism
(n) (disapproving) the fact of thinking that you're better or more important than anyone else.

ex: his egoism prevented him from really loving anyone but himself.
egoist
(n) a person who thinks that he or she is better or more important than anyone else.

ex: you need to be an egoist to succeed in politics.
egomania
(n) a mental condition in which someone is interested in themselves in a way that is not normal.
delusion
(n) a belief that has no evidence in fact — a complete illusion; a false belief or opinion about yourself or your situation.
ex: The cook at the hot dog stand who thinks he is the best chef in the world? That opinion is definitely a delusion.

(n) the act of believing or making yourself believe in something that is not true.
ex: in order to reach nirvana, one must extinguish the fire fueled by the ego, which causes suffering, ignorance, delusion, and greed.
carp
(v) to keep complaining about something in an annoying way.

ex: cost-benefit analysis owes much of its origin to utilitarian thought; despite the carping of critics that such analysis is based on faulty premises, the technique has proved useful in many areas.
carping
(n) persistent petty and unjustified criticism

ex: People who find fault with you at every turn, who appreciate nothing and complain, complain, complain, are carping.
utilitarian
(adj) designed to be useful and practical rather than attractive.
utilitarianism
(n) the belief that the right course of action is the one that will produce the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people.
cartography
(n) the art or process of drawing or making maps.
caste
(n) a social class, especially one whose members don't allow others to join it.
ex: the dalits, formerly known as untouchables, are at the bottom of thousands of castes that make up Indian society.

(n) SOCIAL STRATIFICATION, the system of dividing society into classes based on differences on family origin, rank or wealth.
ex: most modern corporations employ a sort of caste system, wit senior executives at the top and ordinary workers at the bottom.
stratify
(v) to arrange something in layers or strata (classes in a society).

ex: a highly stratified society.
stratification
(n) the division of something into different layers or groups.

ex: social stratification.
hereditary
(adj) given to a child by its parents before it was born.
ex: a hereditary illness.

(adj) legally given to someone's child, when that person dies.
ex: a hereditary monarchy.

(adj) holding a rank or title that is hereditary.
ex: hereditary rulers.
heredity
(n) the process by which mental and physical characteristics are passes by parents to their children.

ex: the debate over the effects of heredity and environment.
castigate
(v) to criticize something severely.

ex: he castigated himself for being so stupid.
castigation
(n) severe criticism.

ex: many British writers recall with loathing the castigation they received at school.
loath
(adj) not willing to do something.

ex: he was loath TO admit his mistake.
loathe
(v) to DETEST, to dislike something very much.

ex: I loathe Asian art.
loathing
(n) a strong feeling of hatred.

ex: many soldiers returned with a deep loathing FOR/OF war
catalyst
(n) (chemistry) a substance that makes a chemical reaction happens faster without being changed itself.

(n) something causing a change.
ex: among the catalyst of the Romantic movement were the libertarian ideals of the French Revolution.
revolt
(n) UPRISING, a protest against authority or a government, often involving violence.

ex: Romanticism was a revolt AGAINST classicism and reason and emphasize the individual and the emotional.
revolt
(v) to REBEL, to RISE UP, to take violent action against the people in power.
ex: finally the people revolted AGAINST the military dictatorship.

(v) to DISGUST, to make you feel horror or disgust.
ex: all the violence in the movie revolted me.
revolting
(adj) DISGUSTING, extremely unpleasant.

ex: the revolting smell.
usher
(v) to take or show someone where they should go.
ex: the secretary ushered me into his office.

(v) take (someone) to their seats, as in theaters or auditoriums
usher
(n) a person who shows people where to sit in a church, public hall,...

(n) an officer who has special responsibilities in court, for example allowing people in and out of the court.
categorical
(adj) express clearly, to be very sure about what you're saying.
ex: to give a categorical assurance.

(adj) absolute, without exception.

ex: although incest is categorically forbidden by every state, recent evidence that marriage between cousins is no more likely to produce abnormal offspring than "normal" marriages may allow the constitutionality of bans on marriage between cousins to be challenged.
caucus
(n) a group of people with similar interests, often within a larger organization or political party.
ex: the workers formed an informal caucus to discuss their difficulties.

(n) a meeting of the members or leaders of a political party to choose candidates or to decide policy.
caucus
(v) to meet in a group of people with similar interests within a larger organization or political party to discuss something.

ex: the senators decided to caucus ABOUT the policy change.
causal
(adj) involving or constituting a cause, connected with the relationship between two things, where one causes the other to happen.

ex: the causal relationship between poverty and disease.
causality
(n) the relation between causes and effects, the principle that nothing can happen without a cause.

ex: the philosopher Plato believed there is a causality between income inequality and political discontent.
causation
(n) CAUSALITY, the process of one event causing or producing another
causative
(adj) acting as the cause of something

ex: smoking is a causative factor in several major diseases.
caustic
(adj) critical in a bitter or sarcastic way.
ex: the columnist's caustic comments on government policy did not win her any friends among government officials.

(adj) (of a chemical substance) CORROSIVE, able to destroy or dissolve other substances.
ex: caustic liquid which blisters the skin.
columnist
(n) a journalist who writes regular articles for a newspaper or magazine.
velocity
(n) (technical) the speed of something in a particular direction. A synonym is CELERITY; a simpler word is SPEED.

ex: In physics, velocity specifically refers to the measurement of the rate and direction of change in position of an object. It is a vector quantity that specifies both the speed of a body and its direction of motion.
velocity
(n) high speed.

ex: Jaguars can move with an astonishing velocity.
exert
(v) to use power or influence to affect something.
ex: Astronomers calculated that the centripetal force exerted by the Earth's gravity on the Moon will keep the Moon in orbit around the Earth for billions of years. Also, the Moon exerts a force on the Earth that causes the tides.

(v) to exert yourself = to make a big physical or mental effort.
ex: in order to be successful, he would have to exert himself.
exertion
(n) physical or mental effort, the act of making an effort.
ex: she was hot and breathless from the exertion of cycling uphill.

(n) the use of power in influence to make something happen.
ex: it requires no great exertion of your imagination to recognize the truth of this.
champion
(v) to fight or speak in support for a belief or a group of people.

ex: Robin Hood is famous for championing the underdogs of England.
homogeneous
(adj) consisting of things or people that are all of the same type.

ex: a homogeneous population.
homogeneity
(n) the quality of consisting of things or people that are all of the same type.

ex: Plain yogurt has a homogeneity about it — it's white all the way through and it should be the same texture throughout. On the other hand, yogurt with fruit at the bottom can be described as having HETEROGENEITY — different textures and different colors.
heterogeneous
(adj) consisting of many different kinds of people or things.

ex: the heterogeneous population of the United States
heterogeneity
(n) the quality of consisting of many different kinds of people or things.

ex: Plain yogurt has a HOMOGENEITY about it — it's white all the way through and it should be the same texture throughout. On the other hand, yogurt with fruit at the bottom can be described as having HETEROGENEITY — different textures and different colors.
chasten
(v) to censure someone severely, to correct someone's fault by punishment or discipline, to make someone feel sorry for what they have done.

ex: the child's behaviour improved after she had been chastened by punishment.
chicanery
(n) FRAUD, TRICKERY, the use of complicated plans and clever talk to trick people.

ex: the governor ordered an audit to investigate alleged financial chicanery.
chivalry
(n) polite and kind behaviour that shows a sense of honour, the qualities idealized by knighthood such as bravery and gallantry toward women.

(n) (in the Middle Ages) the religious and moral system of behaviour which the perfect knight was expected to follow.
ex:: Chivalry was rooted in Christian values, and the knight was bound to be loyal to Christian ideals.
chivalrous
(adj) (of men) GALLANT, polite, kind and behaving with honour, especilly towards women.

ex: The chivalrous stranger picked up the packages Veronica dropped and held the door open while she entered the apartment building.
heathen
(n) a person who has no religion or who believes in a religion that is not one of the world's main religions.
ex: the Crusades enhanced Christian ideals, as knights vowed to uphold Christianity against heathens.

(n) a person who shows lack of education.
infidel
(n) an offensive way of referring to someone who does not believe in what the speaker considers to be the true religion.
infidelity
(n) UNFAITHFULNESS, the act of not being faithful to your wife, husband or partner, by having sex with someone else.

ex: she could not forgive his infidelities.
fidelity
(n) the quality of being faithful to your wife, husband or partner, by not having sex with someone else.
ex: Marital fidelity is faithfulness to your spouse.

(n) the quality of being loyal to someone.
ex: Dogs are famous for their fidelity.

(n) the quality of being accurate.
ex: If you're a journalist, your reports should have fidelity to the facts.
scrupulous
(adj) METICULOUS, careful about paying attention to every detail.
ex: you must be scrupulous ABOUT hygiene when preparing a baby's feed.

(adj) careful to be honest and do what is right.
ex: he was scrupulous IN all his business dealings.
unscrupulous
(adj) UNPRINCIPLED, not honest or fair, without moral principles.
feudalism
(n) a social system existed during the Middle Ages in Europe in which people were given land and protection by a nobleman, and had to work and fight for him in return.
feudalistic
(adj) connected with a social system existed during the Middle Ages in Europe in which people were given land and protection by a nobleman, and had to work and fight for him in return.
feudal
(adj) connected with or similar to a social system existed during the Middle Ages in Europe in which people were given land and protection by a nobleman, and had to work and fight for him in return.
personality
(n) the various aspects of a person's character that combine to make them different from other people.
ex: his wife has a strong personality.

(n) the qualities of a person's character that make them interesting and attractive.
ex: we need someone with lots of personality to head the project.

(n) CELEBRITY, a famous person who works in entertainment or sport.
virtue
(n) behaviour or attitudes that show high moral standards.

(n) a particular good quality or habit
ex: as a politician, he always emphasized the virtues of compromise and conciliation.

(n) an attractive or useful quality.
virtuous
(adj) behaving in a very good and moral way.

ex: she lived an entirely virtuous life.
churlish
(adj) BOORISH, rude or bad-tempered

ex: according to the chivalric code, a knight was never supposed to be churlish, especially toward noble ladies, to whom he was supposed to be unfailingly gentle and courteous.
circuit
(n)
- a line, route or journey around a place.
- a complete path of wires and equipment aling which electric current flows.
- a track for cars and motorcycles to race around.
- a series of places or events at which the same person appear or take part.
ex: the lecture circuit.
circuitous
(adj) (of a route or journey) ROUNDABOUT, long and not direct.

ex: If you're in a hurry to get to the hospital where your wife is having a baby, you want to take the straightest, fastest way, not a circuitous one!
clairvoyance
(n) the power that some people are believed to have to be able to see future events or to communicate with people who are dead or far away.

ex: Belief in vocational magic and clairvoyance is clearly not entirely confined to medieval days.
clairvoyant
(n) PSYCHIC, a person who is believed to have to be able to see future events or to communicate with people who are dead or far away.

ex: he was a famous clairvoyant who some people believe was able to go into a trance during which he was in touch with a spiritual realm.

(adj) PSYCHICAL, having the power to see future events or to communicate with people who are dead or far away.
exalt
(v) to make someone rise to a higher rank or position, sometimes to one that they do not deserve.

(v) to praise someone very much.
exaltation
(n) an act of praising someone or rising them to a high position or rank.
ex: the exaltation of emotion above logical reasoning.

(n) a feeling of very great joy or happiness.
exalted
(adj) of high rank, position or great importance.

(adj) full of great joy and happiness.
clamor
(v) (BrE: "___"+our) to demand something loudly.
ex: over the past 12 years or so the voices clamoring for better protection of the Earth's rain forests have increased dramatically.

(v) to shout loudly, especially in a confused way.
ex: a crowd of reporters clamored around the car.
clamor
(n) (BrE: "___"+our) a loud noise made by lots of animals or people.
ex: the clamor of the market.

(n) a demand for something made by lots of people.
ex: the clamor FOR her resignation grew louder.
clamorous
(adj) , conspicuously and offensively loud, made by lots of animals or people to demand for something.

ex: If you're a clamorous person, you're not just loud, but you're also kind of aggressive about it.
cloister
(v) to SECLUDE from the world in or as if in a cloister or a monastery

ex: the writer cloistered herself in a country house to finish her novel.
cloistered
(adj) SECLUDED, shut away from the world, protected from the problems and dangers of normal life.

ex: the journalist described the large American philanthropic foundations as arrogant, elitist and cloistered.
philanthropy
(n) CHARITY, the practice of helping the poor and those in need, especially by giving money.
philanthropic
(adj) CHARITABLE, generous in assistance to the poor, especially by giving money.

ex: the journalist described the large American philanthropic foundations as arrogant, elitist and cloistered.
coagulate
(v) to CONGEAL, to change from a liquid to a thickened or (partly) solid state.

ex: in normal individuals, blood begins to coagulate about 20 seconds after a wound is sustained, thus preventing further bleeding.
coagulation
(n) the act of changing from a liquid to a thickened or (partly) solid state.

ex: the coagulation of blood around the edges of the wound.
coalesce
(v) to AMALGAMATE, to come together to form one larger group, substance,...

ex: the President said that Americans must be vigilant so that the interests of business and the military do not coalesce, and thus undermine those of society as a whole.
coalescence
(n) AMALGAMATION, the act of coming together to form one larger group, substance,...

ex: The frontiers are melting; coalescence, unity, harmony are being achieved.
vigilant
(adj) ALERT, WATCHFUL, very careful to notice any signs of danger or trouble.

ex: the thief was spotted by vigilant neighbours.
vigilance
(n) WATCHFULNESS, the act of being very careful to notice any signs of danger or trouble.

ex: he stressed the need for constant vigilance.
coda
(n) the concluding part of a literary or music composition; something that summarizes or concludes.

ex: the coda of the Danish composer Per Norgard's Sixth Symphony seems to return to the severe sound of the opening.
codify
(v) to SYSTEMATIZE, to arrange law, rules,... into a system.

ex: Warriors live by a code. Building inspectors check that a building and its systems are up to code. Hockey players use "the code" to determine when — and why — to fight on the ice. All of these codes are clear to the people who use them because someone in the past made an effort to codify the various rules into an organized system.
codification
(n) the act of arranging laws, rules,... in a systematic order

ex: the most influential codification of civil law was the Napoleonic Code in France, which became the paradigm for law in non-English speaking countries of Europe.
enact
(v) to pass a law.
ex: legislation enacted by parliament.

(v) to perform a play or act a part in a play.
ex: scenes from history enacted by local residents.
enactment
(n) the process of a law becoming official
(n) a law which has been made official.
statute
(n) a law passed by a parliament, council,... and formally written down.
ex: the basis of civil law is statute rather than custom and precedent, which are the basis of common law.

(n) a formal rule of an organization or institution.
ex: under the statutes of the university they had no power to dismiss him.
cognizance
(n) knowledge or understanding of something.

ex: Your cognizance of where the exits are located in the movie theater could save your life in a fire.
cognizant
(adj) informed, conscious, aware, , (usually followed by 'of') having knowledge or understanding
strait
(n) a narrow passage of water that connect two seas or large areas of water.

(n) straits (plural) = a very difficult situation especially because of lack of money.
ex: she found herself in desperate financial straits.
straitened
(adj) without enough money; without as much money as there was before.

ex: a husband and wife in straitened circumstances each sacrifices to buy a Christmas present for the other, not cognizant of what the other is doing,
collage
(n) the art of making a picture by sticking pieces of coloured paper, cloth, or photographs onto a surface; artistic composition of materials pasted over a surface,
ex: the cubist Juan Gris is noted for his use of collage to create the illusion of photographic reality.

(n) a collection of similar or different things.
ex: an interesting collage of 1960s songs.
commensurate
(adj) PROPORTIONAL, matching something in size, importance, quality,...

ex: in the US, malpractice suits have raised the cost of medicine because doctors must pay more for insurance, and thus increase their fees commensurately.
malpractice
(n) careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in a professional job.

ex: he's currently standing trial for alleged malpractices.
compendium
(n) a comprehensive summary or collection of things on a particular subject, especially in a book.

ex: If you gather all of the anecdotes your parents and grandparents have told you into a book, you'll have created a compendium of family stories.
complacency
(n) (disapproving) a feeling of satisfaction with yourself so that you don't think any change is necessary.

ex: despite signs of an improvement in the economy, there's no room for complacency.
complacent
(adj) (disapproving) too satisfied with yourself so that you don't think any change is necessary.

ex: although Tom received an "A" on his midterm exam, the Professor warned him not to become complacent.
complaisant
(adj) showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others

ex: she was a complaisant wife and dutiful daughter.
complaisance
(n) a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others or to show a cheerful willingness to do favors for others.

ex: We have been treated with unbounded civility, complaisance, and respect.
complement
(v) to add to something in a way that improves it or make it more attractive.

ex: the team needs players who complement each other
complement
(n) a thing that add new qualities to something in a way that improves it or make it more attractive.
complementary
(adj) (of two or more things) different but together form a useful or attractive combination.
cornerstone
(n) the most important part of something that the rest depends on.
ex: one of the cornerstones of capitalism is the conviction that a worker's reward should be commensurate with his or her contribution.

(n) a stone at the corner of the base of a building, often laid in a special ceremony.
compliant
(adj) (disapproving) too willing to obey rules or agree with other people.
ex: we should not be producing compliant student who do not care to criticize.

(adj) in agreement with a set of rules.
compliance
(n) the practice of obeying rules or requests made by people in authority.

ex: safety measures were carried out IN compliance WITH paragraph 6 of the building regulations.
comply
(v) to obey a rule, an order,...

ex: the terrorists refused to comply WITH the UN resolution.
compunction
(n) REMORSE, a guilty feeling about doing something.

ex: the American psychiatrist said, " men who have been raised violently have every reason to believe it is appropriate for them to control others through violence; they feel no compunction ABOUT being violent to women, children, and one another.
myopia
(n) SHORT SIGHT, SHORT-SIGHTEDNESS, the inability to see things that are far away clearly.

(n) (disapproving) the inability to see what the results of an action or a decision will be; the inability to think about anything outside your own situation.
myopic
(adj) SHORT-SIGHTED, unable to see distant objects clearly
ex: myopic eyes

(adj) lacking foresight or scope
ex: a myopic strategy
replica
(n) a very good or exact copy of something.

ex: she was a younger replica of her mother.
replicate
(v) to DUPLICATE, to copy something exactly
ex: subsequent experiments failed to replicate these findings.

(v) (of a virus or molecule) "..." itself = to produce exact copies of itself.
ex: the drug prevents the virus from replicating itself.
replication
(n) DUPLICATION, the act of making exact copies.

ex: When you conduct an experiment, you have to repeat it several times to verify that your hypothesis is correct. Each repetition is one replication.
concave
(adj) (of an outline or a surface) curving in
OPP: CONVEX

ex: concave lenses are used in glasses to compensate for myopia.
concavity
OPP: CONVEXITY.
(n) the quality of being curved inwards.
ex: rocks exposed to wind often show some degree of concavity.

(n) a shape or place that curves in.
ex: a deep concavity in the side of the hill.
concoct
(v) to make something, especially food or drink, by mixing different things.
ex: the soup was concocted from up to a dozen different kinds of fish.

(v) to MAKE UP, to invent a story, an excuse,...
ex: the various human cultures have concocted a great many explanations to describe the beginning of the Earth, life, and humanity.
concoction
(n) a strange or unusual mixture of something, especially drinks or medicines

ex: A concoction is a curious mixture of things, like a bunch of liquids stirred in a cup, or the elaborate and unbelievable story you make up to explain not finishing your homework.
concomitant
(adj) happening at the same time as something else, especially because one thing is related or causes the other.

ex: a rebuttal of the argument that homo sapiens's higher cognitive function could not be the result solely of evolution is that such abilities arose as concomitant of language, which gave early hominids a tremendous advantage over other pieces.
rebut
(v) to REFUTE, to say or prove that a statement or criticism is false.

ex: an attempt to publicly rebut rumours of a divorce.
rebuttal
(n) the speech act of refuting by offering a contrary contention or argument

ex: the accusation met with a firm rebuttal.
hominid
(n) (technical) a human or creature lived in the past which humans developed from.

ex: a hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes) which include chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and humans.
hominoid
(n) (technical) a human or a creature related to humans.
condone
(v) to FORGIVE, to accept morally wrong behaviour or to treat it as if it were not serious; to overlook it voluntarily.

ex: Mahama Gandhi believed in the principle of ahimsa and refused to condone violence of any kind, even if used in a just cause.
confound
(v) to BAFFLE, to PERPLEX, to confuse and surprise someone.
ex: everyone but astrophysicist seems to be confounded by the question, "What happened before the Big Bang?"

(v) to prove somone/something wrong.
ex: she confounded her critics and proved she could do the job.

(v) to defeat an enemy.
genial
(adj) AFFABLE, friendly and cheerful
geniality
(n) AFFABILITY, a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to)
congenial
(adj) (of a person) pleasant to spend time with because their interest and character are similar to yours.
ex: a congenial colleague.

(adj) (of a place, job,...) pleasant because it suits your character.
ex: a congenial working environment.

(adj) SUITABLE for something.
ex: a situation that was congenial to the expressions of nationalist opinions.
conjugal
(adj) connected with marriage and the sexual relationship between a husband and wife.

ex: the goal of the Bennett sisters in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice is to find a suitable man to marry with whom they can live in conjugal happiness.
theorem
(n) a rule or principle, especially in mathematics, that can be proved to be true.

ex: Pythagoras's theorem
feud
(n) an angry and bitter argument between two people or groups that continues over a long time.

ex: In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare describes the lovers' long-feuding families, the Capulets and the Montagues.
feud
(v) to have an angry and bitter argument with someone over a long time.

ex: he has been feuding his brother for years.
connoisseur
(n) an expert on matters involving the judgement of beauty, quality or skill in art, food or music.

ex: the art connoisseur selected works by Van Gogh, Rembrandt, and Picasso for the exhibition.
conscript
(v) (US: draft) to call up, to make someone join the armed forces.
ex: the French writer was conscripted into the artillery and had to put his medical studies in abeyance for the duration of World War II.

(n) (US: draftee) a person who has been called up to join the armed forces.
ex: the position of the National Organization for Women is that having male-only conscripts violates the principle of gender equality.
conscription
(n) (US: the draft) the practice of ordering people by law to serve in the armed forces.

ex: during the war of 1812, American political leaders considered national conscription to augment state militias, but Daniel Webster successfully argued before the Congress that such a measure would be unconstitutional and thus the proposal was rejected.
augment
(v) to increase the amount, value, size,... of something.

ex: Maybe your bike isn't getting around very well on hills: the bike needs to be augmented with a better set of tires. People augment their computers and phones all the time, adding new gadgets and apps.
augmentation
(n) the act of increasing the amount, value, size,... of something.

ex: Augmentations have sometimes been made to the arms of English families by foreign monarchs
militia
(n) a band of civilians trained to do army type business, without officially joining the army; a group of people who are not professional soldiers but who have had military training and can act as an army.

ex: Sometimes militias add on to regular army forces, like the citizen's militias who fought alongside regular troops in the Revolutionary War.
militiaman
(n) a member of a band of civilians trained to do army type business, without officially joining the army; serves only during emergencies
stalemate
(n) a situation in a competition in which neither side is able to win or make any progress.
ex: the war fought between the British Empire and the United States from 1812 to 1815 ended in a stalemate.

(n) (in chess) a situation in which the players can't successfully move any of the pieces and the game ends without a winner.
consecrate
(v) to state/ declare officially in a ceremony that something is holy/ sacred and can be used for religious purposes.
ex: the church was consecrated in 1853.

(v) to state officially in a religious ceremony that someone is now a priest.
ex: he was consecrated as bishop last year

(v) to give someone or something to a special religious purpose.
ex: she consecrated her life to God.
consecration
(n) the act of dedicating something to God, sanctifying it and making it holy.

ex: someone entering the priesthood goes through a consecration rite that establishes his holy commitment.
contend
(v) to ASSERT, to say that something is true, especially in an argument.

ex: one of the most famous philosophers to argue for ethical relativism was Friedrich Nietzsche, who contended that the rightness of an action is dependent on the circumstances of the time and culture in which it occurs.

(v) to compete against someone to gain something,
ex: three armed groups were contending for power.
contention
(n) DISPUTE, angry disagreement between people.
ex: one area of contention is the availability of nursery care.

(n) ASSERTION, a belief or opinion that you express in an argument.
ex: the study's contention is that obesity is America's biggest health problem.
contentious
(adj) CONTROVERSIAL, QUARRELSOME, likely to cause disagreement between people.

ex: when genetic engineering began in the 1970s, there was a contentious debate among scientists themselves about its dangers.
contiguous
(adj) touching or next to something, neighboring, connecting without a break.

ex: there are 48 contiguous states in the US.
contiguity
(n) ADJACENCY, the attribute of being so near as to be touching.

ex: Knowledge and truth must be forms of contiguity and succession.
continence
(n) self-control, abstention from sexual activity; the exercise of self constraint in sexual matters

(n) the ability to control the bladder or bowels; voluntary control over urinary and fecal discharge
chastity
(n) the state of not having sex with anyone or only having sex with the person you're married to.

ex: Saint Augustine's famous line "give me chastity and continence, but not just now" is sometimes used to highlight the idea that action is desirable at some point, but not at present.
chaste
(adj) not having sex with anyone, only having sex with the person that you married to.

(adj) not expressing sexual feelings
ex: a chaste kiss on the cheek.

(adj) pure and simple in design or style, not decorated.
ex: the cool, chaste interior of the hall.
chastely
(adv) in a virtuous manner, not expressing sexual feelings.
ex: he kissed her chastely on the cheek.

(adv) pure and simple in design or style, not decorated.
contrite
(adj) very sorry for something bad that you have done

ex: in sentencing the convicted man to a life sentence, the judge took into consideration the fact that he did not seem to be at all contrite ABOUT his crime.
contrition
(n) , deep regret for doing something wrong

ex: In fearful contrition he fell upon the floor, sobbing and crying out in his misery and distress
contumacious
(adj) disobedient, rebellious, lacking respect for authority.

ex: in late eighteenth century, Great Britain tried unsuccessfully to put down the uprising against their rule by contumacious Americans, leading eventually to the establishment of a separate nation.
conundrum
(n) a confusing problem or question that is very difficult to solve.

(n) RIDDLE, a question, usually involving tricks with words, that you ask for fun.
ex: the paradoxical statement "this statement is false" presents us with a conundrum.
immediacy
(n) the quality in something that makes it seem as if it's happening now, close to you and is therefore important, urgent,...
ex: Email lacks the immediacy of online chat.

(n) lack of delay, speed.
ex: Our aims is immediacy of response to emergency calls.
chateau
(n) (plural: chateau + x) a castle or large country house in France.
quell
(v) to stop something such as violent behaviour or protests.
ex: the king ordered his army to quell the rebellion by his contumacious subject.

(v) to CALM, to stop or reduce strong or unpleasant feelings.
ex: to quell your fear.
guerrilla
(n) a member of a small group of soldiers who are not part of an official army and who fight against official soldiers, usually to try to change the government.

ex: a guerrilla war involves small group of fighters that are flexible and mobile. In guerrilla war there is no front line as there is in conventional war.
converge
OPP: DIVERGE
(v) to move towards a place from different directions and meet; to become similar or the same at a point.

ex: there was a signpost where the two paths converged.
convergent
OPP: DIVERGENT
(adj) tending to come together from different directions.

ex: convergent lines/ opinions.
convergence
OPP: DIVERGENCE
(n) the occurrence of two or more things coming together from different directions.

ex: We can use convergence to describe things that are in the process of coming together, like the slow convergence of your opinions with those of your mother, or for things that have already come together, like the convergence of two roads, or for the place where two things already overlap.
convivial
(adj) SOCIABLE, cheerful and friendly in atmosphere or character; occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company.

ex: one of the job of an ambassador is to provide a convivial atmosphere for diplomats to meet.
conviviality
(n) SOCIABILITY, a boisterous celebration; a merry festivity

ex: There was conviviality on Monday, with even the most hard-line Conservatives praising the prime minister.
diplomat
(n) a person whose job is to represent his or her country in a foreign country, for example, in an international conference.
ex: Diplomats keep the peace and maintain good relationships with other countries, even as they try to get other countries to see and do things our way.

(n) a person who is skilled at dealing with other people.
ex: you'll need a real diplomat to persuade them to come to some agreement.
diplomacy
(n) the activity of managing relations between different countries; the skill in doing this.
ex: Diplomacy is better than word.

(n) TACT, skill in dealing with people in difficult situations without upsetting or offending them.
ex: she was praised for her tact and diplomacy.
diplomatic
(adj) connected with managing relations between countries.
ex: attempts are being made to settle the dispute by diplomatic means.
diplomatic immunity
(n) special rights given to diplomats working in a foreign country which mean they cannot be arrested, taxed,... in that country.

ex: the adviser were granted diplomatic immunity.
convoluted
(adj) extremely complicated and difficult to follow.
ex: unraveling the convoluted genetic code is one of the greatest achievement of modern science.

(adj) having many twists or curves.
ex: a convoluted beach.
convolution
(n) a thing that is extremely complicated and difficult to follow.
ex: the bizarre convolution of the story.

(n) a twist or curve, especially one of many.
ex: the convolutions of the brain.
ravel
(v) to make a situation or problem more complicated.

(v) to ravel something out = to open something which has become twisted.
unravel
(v) to open or separate something that is twisted, woven or knitted.

(v) to explain something that is difficult to understand.
copious
(adj) ABUNDANT, in large amounts.

ex: she supported her theory with copious evidence.
parch
(v) (especially hot weather) to make an area of land very dry.

ex: a drought is parching much of the country.
parched
(adj) very dry, especially because the weather is hot.

ex: the copious rainfall was welcomed by farmers in the parched land.
coquette
(n) a woman who behaves in a way intended to attract men.

ex: she played the part of a coquette in the college play.
coquettish
(adj) (of a woman or her behaviour) flirty.

ex: a coquettish smile from the actress.
cornucopia
(n) a decorated object shaped like an animal's horn, shown in art as full of fruit and flower.

(n) something that contains a large supply of good things.
ex: the book is a cornucopia of good ideas.
ex: the US economy has produced a cornucopia of employment opportunities.
downplay
(v) to make people think that something is less important than it really is.

ex: in the press conference, the coach tried to downplay the team's poor performance.
congruent
(adj) (geometry) having the same size and shape.

(adj) appropriate or suitable for something
ex: Einstein downplayed the strength of the evidence for the theory because it was not congruent with his personal cosmology.
congruence
(n) COMPATIBILITY , the quality of being appropriate or suitable for something.

ex: If you've been studying French, you might be glad to note, when learning Spanish, that there are many areas of congruence in grammar and vocabulary between the two Romance languages.
embody
(v) to REPRESENT, to express an idea or quality.
ex: a politician who embodied the hopes of black youth.

(v) to include or contain something.
ex: this model embodies many new features.
embodiment
(n) EPITOME, a person or thing that represents or is a typical example of an idea or a quality.

ex: he is the embodiment of the young successful businessman.
vital
(adj) necessary or essential for something to exist or succeed.
ex: good financial accounts are vital to the success of any enterprise.

(adj) (of a person) DYNAMIC, full of energy and enthusiasm.
vitality
(n) VIGOUR, energy and enthusiasm.

ex: she is bursting with vitality and new ideas.
intimidate
(v) to frighten or threaten someone so that they will do what you want.

ex: Shakespeare embodies the incredible confidence and vitality of Renaissance artists and writers, depicting the entire cosmos, not intimidated by its vastness.
intimidation
(n) the act of frightening or threatening someone so that they will do what you want.

ex: Intimidation might make members of a jury hesitate to convict a defendant.
intimidated
(adj) feeling frightened and not confident in a situation.

ex: we tried to make sure our children didn't feel intimidated on their first day at school.
intimidatory
(adj) intended to frighten or threaten someone.
covert
OPP: OVERT
(adj) secret or hidden, making it difficult to notice.
ex: every measure, both covert and overt, is being taken against terrorists.

(n) a area of thick low bushes and trees where animals can hide.
overt
OPP: COVERT
(adj) done in an open and not secret way.

ex: there was little overt support for the project.
fanfare
(n) a short loud piece of music played to celebrate the arrival of something or someone important.
ex: a fanfare of trumpets will sound for the Queen.

(n) a large amount of activity and discussion on TV, in newspapers,... to celebrate something.
ex: the product was launched amid much fanfare worldwide.
covetous
(adj) GREEDY, AVARICIOUS, having a strong desire for the things that other people have.


ex: the astronomer is covetous OF the time his colleague gets for research using the Hubble Space Telescope.
covetousness
(n) GREED, AVARICE, strong desire for the things that other people have.

ex: The seeker must force out of his heart all malice, jealousy, hate, selfishness, covetousness, unbelief, and give himself up to the opposite feelings.
covet
(v) to want something very much, especially something belongs to someone else.

ex: they are this year's winners of the coveted trophy (the trophy that everyone would like to have)
cozen
(v) to deceive, to mislead by trick or fraud.

ex: the writer pointed out that a common strategy of politicians is to cozen the people by exaggerating the seriousness of a problem and then offering a solution that, conveniently, only they can provide.
cozenage
(n) a SCAM, a fraudulent business scheme
craven
(adj) COWARDLY, lacking courage.

ex: The lord warned the hero, who is reluctant to fight, that refusing to fight would be a craven act.
credence
(n) a quality that an idea or a story has that makes you believe it is true.
ex: historical evidence lends credence TO his theory.

(n) belief in something as true, acceptance of something as true
ex: they could give no credence TO the findings of the survey.
credo
(n) a set of beliefs, any system of principles that guide a person or group.

ex: A hedonist's credo might be simply "party on," or "enjoy the ride;" an actor's "the show must go on."
daunt
(v) to INTIMIDATE, to DISCOURAGE, to make someone feel nervous and less confident about something.

ex: she was a brave woman but she felt daunted by the task ahead.
daunting
(adj) INTIMIDATING, making someone feel nervous and less confident about something.

ex: starting a new job can be a daunting prospect.
dauntless
(adj) RESOLUTE, FEARLESS, not easily frightened or stopped from doing something difficult.
dearth
(n) SCARCITY, a lack of something.

ex: in his book The Affluent Society, the economist pointed out that in America affluence is located disproportionately in the private sector, leaving a dearth of resources available for the public sector.
affluent
(adj) PROSPEROUS, WEALTHY, having lots of money and a good standard of living.

ex: affluent Western countries.
affluence
(n) PROSPERITY, WEALTH.

ex: the 1950s were an age of affluence in America.
decorum
(n) PROPRIETY, polite behaviour that is appropriate in a social situation.

ex: Letters expressing this pleasure admit of a little more egotism than is sanctioned by decorum in some other cases.
decorous
(adj) PROPER, polite and appropriate a social situation, not shocking.

ex: The adjective decorous shares its origins with decoration. Both words come from the Latin word decor, meaning "beauty, elegance, charm, grace, ornament."
defame
(v) to harm someone's reputation by saying or writing bad or false things about them.

ex: the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates was defamed as a teacher who corrupted the morals of his students.
defamation
(n) the act of damaging someone's reputation by saying or writing bad or false things about them.

ex: he brought a legal action against the magazine for defamation of character.
defamatory
(adj) (of speech or writing) intended to harm someone's reputation by saying or writing bad or false things about them.

ex: These defamatory statements were usually first noticed in some religious paper or periodical.
default
(n) failure to do something that must be done by law, especially paying a debt.

ex: economists have pointed out the danger of using government money to help bank in danger of defaulting on loan: such help might encourage banks to take excessive risks on the future , knowing they will be "bailed out" by the government.

(n) (computing) what happens of you don't make any other choice or change.
default
(v) to fail to do something that must be done by law, especially paying a debt.

ex: defaulting borrowers/ tenants
deference
(n) RESPECT, regard for another's wish, behaviour that shows your respect for someone/ something.

ex: the flags were lowered out of deference to the bereaved family.
defer
(Phr V) defer TO someone = to agree or accept what someone has decided because you respect him or her.

ex: the young lawyer deferred to the view of the senior partner in the law firm.
deferential
(adj) RESPECTFUL, showing respect, regard for another's wish, showing your respect for someone/ something through your behaviour.

ex: To be obedient, courteous, or dutiful are all ways of being deferential. Bowing low to the Queen is a deferential act when visiting Buckingham Palace.
defunct
(adj) no longer existing, operating or being used.

ex: skeptics have been prognosticating that Moore's Law, which says computer processing power doubles every 18 months, will soon become defunct, but the ingenuity of engineers, coupled with commercial incentives, has so far succeeded in preventing the law from being invalidated.
prognosticate
(v) to PREDICT, to foretell, to make a prediction about something; to tell something in advance.

ex: When a lot of natural disasters start happening close together, you might prognosticate that the world is ending, a prediction that's actually thousands of years old.
prognostication
(n) PREDICTION, a thing that someone says will happen in the future.

ex: gloomy prognostication.
prognosis
(n) (medical) an opinion, based on medical experience, of the likely development of a disease or an illness.

(n) a FORECAST, a judgement about how something is likely to develop in the future.
prognostic
(adj) PREDICTIVE, of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions.

ex: We are familiar with the ordinary prognostics of good and bad weather.
delineate
(v) to DEPICT, to describe, to represent, to draw or explain something in detail.

ex: Quantum theory led to the formulation of the uncertainty principle, which was delineated in 1937.
momentum
(n) the ability to keep increasing or developing
ex: they began to lose momentum in the second half of the game.

(n) a force gained by movement.
ex: the vehicle gained momentum as the road dipped.
momentum
(n) (technical) the quantity of movement of a moving object, measured as its mass multiplied by its speed

ex: the uncertainty principle states that it's impossible to measure accurately two properties of a quantum object, such as its position and momentum.
demography
(n) the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

ex: demography makes use of the knowledge of other fields such as geography and statistics.
demographic
(adj) relating to the population and different groups within it; relating to the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations.

ex: demographic trends in many European countries indicate that in the next generation there will be relatively fewer working people to support retired people.
diminution
(n) the act of reducing something or being reduced; an amount reduced.

ex: if, beginning the the mid-twentieth century, many governments in the world had not taken steps to promote birth control among their citizens, causing a diminution in the birth rate, demographers say the world would now have a much greater population than it does.
diminutive
(adj) very small
ex: she was a diminutive figure beside her husband.

(n) a short informal form of a word, especially a name.
ex: "Nick" is a common diminutive of "Nicholas".
demotic
(adj) casual, used by or typical of ordinary people.

ex: he is considered by many to be a quintessentially American poet, who was able to "make the demotic sing".
demur
(v) to express doubt, to disagree with or refuse to do something.

ex: the Supreme Court's decision was not unanimous, one justice demurred, saying that the majority decision used specious reasoning.
specious
(adj) MISLEADING, seeming right or true but actually wrong or false.

ex: Dubious marketing is a problem in China, where specious online posts can influence consumer patterns.
denigrate
(v) to BELITTLE, to slur someone's reputation, to criticize someone unfairly, to say someone doesn't have any value or importance.

ex: according to a recent biography of Napoleon, the famous leader felt a need to denigrate women.
denigration
(n) an abusive attack on a person's character or good name.

ex: Nationalists oppose the film as a denigration of Japanese culture.
denizen
(n) an INHABITANT, a person, an animal, or a plant that lives, grows or is often found in a particular place.

ex: polar bears, denizens of the frozen north.
denouement
(n) (from French) outcome, unraveling of the plot of a play or work of literature
the end of a play, book,... in which everything is explained or settled; the end result of a situation.

ex: the book tells the story of what was for Europe a rather embarrassing denouement to the Crusades.
census
(n) the process of officially counting something, especially a country's population, and recording various facts.

ex: On the census form you'll be asked how many people live in your house, their ages, and ethnic and racial backgrounds. With this, the government can plan facilities and also track population trends — whether cities are growing or shrinking, what ethnic groups make up our population, and where they live.
depose
(v) to remove someone, especially a ruler, from power.

ex: the president was deposed in a military coup
coup
(n) a sudden change of government that is illegal and often violent.
ex: He seized power in a military coup in 2008.

(n) a brilliant and notable success, the fact of achieving something that is difficult to do.
ex: He pulled off a major diplomatic coup by winning agreement from all the warring factions on a permanent ceasefire.
faction
(n) a small group of people within a larger one whose members have different aims and beliefs to those of the larger group.
ex: rival factions within the administration.

(n) opposition, disagreement,... between small groups of people within an organization or political party.
ex: a party divided by faction and intrigue.
faction
(n) film/ movies, book,... that combine fact with fiction.
factional
(adj) connected with a small group of people within a larger one whose members have different aims and beliefs to those of the larger group.

ex: factional conflicts, factional rivalries.
warring
(adj) involved in a war.

ex: a ceasefire has been agreed by the country's three warring factions.
deride
(v) to MOCK, to treat someone as ridiculous and not worth considering seriously.

ex: innovation often requires challenges to orthodox thinking and can sometimes be derided as impractical visionaries.
derisive
(adj) unkind and showing that you think someone is ridiculous.

ex: You may sometimes catch your kids making derisive comments — especially if you ask them to do chores instead of whatever they think is more important.
derision
(n) SCORN, a strong feeling that someone is ridiculous and not worth considering seriously, shown by laughing in an unkind way or by making unkind remarks.

ex: Derision is more than just making fun of someone — it's mocking someone so forcefully and with such venom that you discredit the person completely.
derivative
(n) something derived, unoriginal, developed or produced from another thing.

ex: the drug morphine, considered by doctors to be one of the most effective analgesics, is the principle derivative of opium, which is the juice in the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy.
derivative
(adj) derived, copied from something else, not having new or original ideas.

ex: the critic dismissed the new novel as dull and derivative.
affix
(n) word elements that are attached to the beginning (prefixes) or the end (suffixes) of words to refine the meaning or change the word's grammatical form.
vulgar
(adj) COARSE, in bad taste, not polite, elegant or well behaved.
ex: vulgar decorations.

(adj) CRUDE, rude and likely to offend.
ex: vulgar jokes.
vulgarian
(n) a person who doesn't have polite manners or good taste.
vulgarism
(n) a rude word or expression, especially one relating to sex.
vulgarity
(n) the fact of being rude and not having good taste or good manners.

ex: a pornographic magazine full of vulgarities.
vulgarize
(n) to spoil something by changing it so that it's more ordinary than before and not of such a high standard.
desiccate
(v) to DEHYDRATE, to dry something up completely,

ex: the dry desert air caused the bodies of dead animals to desiccate quickly.
desiccated
(adj) DEHYDRATED, thoroughly dried-out.

ex: desiccated food.
desiccation
(n) DEHYDRATION, the process of becoming completely dry.

ex: the dramatic desiccation of North Africa is a perplexing phenomenon.
desuetude
(n) a state of inactivity or disuse.

ex: NASA is considering a plan to refurbish booster rockets from the Apollo Program that have fallen into desuetude.
desultory
(adj) going from one thing to another, without a definite plan and without enthusiasm.

ex: the jury had difficulty following the witnesses' desultory testimony.
deterrent
(n) a thing that makes someone less likely to do something; something that discourages or hinders.

ex: During the Cold War, the US maintained a large number of nuclear weapons as a deterrent to aggression by the Soviet Union and its allies.
deterrence
(n) disincentive, discouragement, intimidation, the act or process of discouraging actions or preventing occurrences by instilling fear or doubt or anxiety.

ex: nuclear deterrence is the military doctrine that an enemy will be afraid to use nuclear weapons as long as he can be destroyed as a consequence.
deter
(v) to make someone decide not to do something by making them understand the difficulties and unpleasant results of their actions.

ex: the high price of the service could deter people FROM seeking advice.
detraction
(n) a petty disparagement/criticism, the act of discrediting or damaging someone's reputation (especially by slander).

ex: the writer responded in a letter to the critic's long list of detractions about his book.
detract
(v) to disparage, to make something seem less good or enjoyable or to damage someone's reputation.

ex: he was determined not to let anything detract from his enjoyment of the trip.
detractor
(n) a person who tries to make someone or something less good or valuable by criticizing it.

ex: detractors claimed the building will be ugly and impractical.
diaphanous
(adj) transparent, so light and fine that you can see through it; so thin as to transmit light

ex: If you want a classic example of diaphanous clothing check out all those nineteenth century Romantic paintings of voluptuous Goddesses clad in clearly insufficient lightweight gowns flouncing around in the middle of forests at night or storm-tossed fields.
diatribe
(n) bitter verbal attack, a long and angry speech or piece of writing attacking and criticizing someone.

ex: he launched a bitter diatribe against the younger generation.
dichotomy
(n) the separation that exists between two groups or things that are completely opposite and different from each other.

ex: the philosopher is a dualist who argues that there is a dichotomy BETWEEN the mind and physical phenomena.
capital punishment
(adj) death sentence.

ex: some studies suggest that capital punishment is a deterrent against murder.
diffident
(adj) SHY, not having much confident in yourself

ex: he was modest and diffident about his won success.
diffidence
(n) SHYNESS, lack of confidence.

ex: as a result of the strength of his opposition to the Vietnam War Senator Eugene McCarthy overcame his diffidence and ran against President Johnson for the Democratic nomination for president.
diffuse
(adj) WORDY, RAMBLING, not clear or easy to understand, using a lot of words.

ex: this essay is so diffuse to follow its central argument.
digress
(v) to STRAY from the topic, to start to talk about something that is not connected with the main point of what you're saying.

ex: Be prepared for innovative thinkers to go off on tangents—in their minds they are not digressing, but connecting the dots.
digression
(n) the act of straying from the main point and start to talk about something that is not connected with the main point of what you're saying.

ex: the novel contains many fascinating digression from the main story that discuss topics such as Platonic philosophy.
transcend
(v) to EXCEED, to be or go beyond the usual limits of something.

ex: No doubt you know about the words transcontinental or maybe trans fats? The prefix trans is used to mean "beyond, across" and transcend takes this even farther by adding in a sense of upwardness with the stem cend.
transcendent
(adj) exceeding or surpassing usual limits, especially in excellence

ex: Platonic refers to the philosophy of Plato, an ancient Greek philosopher who held that both actual things and ideas such as beauty and truth are copies of transcendent ideas.
transcendence
(n) the state of excelling or surpassing or going beyond usual limits, extremely great.

ex: Set in San Francisco's trans-gendered, drug addict underground, its smart writing and stylish graphics move fluidly between grit and transcendence.
transcendental
(adj) going beyond the limits of human knowledge, experience or reason, especially in a religious or spiritual way.

ex: Transcendental curves are curves that cannot be defined by algebraic equations.
dirge
(n) a song sung in the past at a funeral or for a dead person

(n) (disapproving) any song or piece of music that is too slow and sad.
ex: the music critic describe the movement of the symphony portraying the hero's last day as "dirge-like"
disabuse
(v) to free someone from a misconception by telling that what they think is true is, in fact, not true.

ex: the chairman of the Federal Reserve used his testimony before Congress to disabuse his audience OF the idea that the business cycle has been eliminated by the unprecedented period of prosperity.
discern
(v) to know, recognize or understand something that is not obvious.
ex: he discerned a certain coldness in their welcome.

(v) to see or hear something, but not very clearly
ex: we could hardly discern the house in the distance.
discerning
(adj) (approving) PERCEPTIVE, able to show keen insight and good judgement about the quality of something.

ex: the discerning customer will recognize this as a high quality product.
discernible
(adj) perceptible,

ex: his face was barely discernible in the gloom.
discernment
(n) DISCRIMINATION, the ability to show keen insight and good judgement about the quality of something.

ex: he shows great discernment in his choice of friends.
obscure
(adj) not well known, difficult to understand.
ex: he was born around 1650 but his origins remain obscure.

(v) to make it difficult to see, hear or understand something.
ex: a shadow fell across her face, obscuring her expression.
obscurity
(n) the state in which something is not well known or has been forgotten.
ex: the actress was only 17 when she was plucked from obscurity and made a star.

(n) the quality of being difficult to understand; something that is difficult to understand.
ex: the course teaches students to avoid ambiguity and obscurity of expression.
obscurantism
(n) the practice of deliberately preventing someone from understanding or discovering something.

ex: religious prejudice and scientific obscurantism have been closely entangled throughout the whole history of this debate.
discomfit
(v) to DISCONCERT, to make someone feel confused or embarrassed.

ex: the young man was discomfited being the only make in the play.
discomfiture
(n) disconcertion / disconcertment, the act of making someone feel confused or embarrassed.

ex: he was clearly taking delight in her discomfiture.
discord
(n) (OPP: concord) disagreement, arguing.
ex: Discord is the strife and tension that arises when two sides disagree on something, like the high pitched screaming of two kids fighting over the front seat of the car.

(n) (music) a combination of musical notes that do not sound pleasant together.
discordant
(adj) not in agreement, combining with other things in a strange or unpleasant way.
ex: the functional modernity of the computer struck a discordant note amid the elegant eighteenth-century furniture.

(adj) (of sounds) (OPP: harmonious): not sounding pleasant together.
discredit
(v) to make people stop respecting someone or believing in something.
ex: the candidate's attempt to discredit his opponent by spreading damaging rumors about him failed.

(n) damage to someone's reputation, loss of respect.
ex: violent football fans bring discredit on the teams they support.
discrepancy
(n) a difference between two or more things that should be the same.

ex: the book studies the discrepancy in values and outlook BETWEEN men who fought in the war, whether voluntarily or not, and those who remained civilians.
venous
(adj) of or contained in veins (the tubes that carry liquid around the bodies of plants and animals)
intravenous
(adj) (medical) (of drugs or foods) going into a vein.

ex: If you're severely dehydrated, your nurse will rig up an intravenous drip to get liquid into you: she'll skip your mouth and plug directly into your veins.
discrete
(adj) DISTINCT, independent of other things of the same type.

ex: like the physicist, the abstract artist strives to identify the discrete elements of reality to understand how they interact.
discreteness
(n) , the state of being separate and distinct from other things of the same type.
discretion
(n) the freedom or power to decide what should be done in a particular situation.
ex: how much to tell terminally ill patients is left to the discretion of the doctor.

(n) the quality of being discreet, the quality of showing self-restrain in speech or actions.
ex: this is confidential, but I know I can rely on your discretion.
discretionary
(adj) not decided by rules, decided according to the judgement of a person in authority about is necessary in each particular situation.

ex: you may be eligible for a discretionary grant for your university course.
discreet
(adj) TACTFUL, PRUDENT, careful in what you say or do in order to keep something secret or to avoid causing embarrassment or difficulty for someone.

ex: a discreet glance at the clock told me the interview had lasted an hour.
disingenuous
(adj) not sincere, not candid, especially when you pretend to know less about something than you really do.

ex: when a person starts a sentence, "I don't mean to appear disingenuous", one might be tempted to suspect that the person is being just that.
ingenuous
(adj) (sometimes disapproving) NAIVE, honest, innocent and willing to trust people.

ex: it's ingenuous to suppose that money didn't play a part in his decision.
disinterested
(adj) UNBIASED, OBJECTIVE, IMPARTIAL, UNPREJUDICED, not influenced by personal feelings, or by the chance of getting some advantage for yourself.

ex: the newspaper reporter looked for disinterested witnesses to the events to get an objective account of what had happen.
disjointed
(adj) DISCONNECTED, INCOHERENT, not communicated or described in a clear or logical way.

ex: the novel suffers from a disjointed plot and pale, insignificant characters.
disparate
(adj) made up of parts or people that are very different from each other.
ex: many technological projects are interdisciplinary, requiring a knowledge of fields as disparate as physics and biology.

(adj) (of two or more things) so different from each other that they cannot be compared or cannot work together.
ex: a critical study that aims to cover such disparate forms as Anglo-Saxon poetry and the modern novel.
disparity
(n) a condition of being unequal or unlike, a difference, especially one connected with unfair treatment.

ex: the huge income disparity in the world is clearly illustrated by the fact that the assets of the world's 200 richest people exceed the combined income of 41% of the world's population.
dissemble
(v) to hide your feelings or intentions, often by pretending to have different ones.

ex: "Miss," the prosecutor said, "I believe you are dissembling. I want you to tell me the whole truth about what happened that night."
disseminate
(v) to scatter, to disperse, to spread information, knowledge,... so that it reaches many people.

ex: while belief in reincarnation appeared as doctrine first in India and was disseminated throughout Asia by Buddhism, it's interesting that it was accepted by the most influential philosophy of the West, Platonism, and by some important early Christian thinkers, such as the theologian Origen.
circumspect
(adj) CAUTIOUS, DISCREET, PRUDENT, thinking very carefully about something before doing it, because there may be risks involved.

ex: he was very circumspect in his financial affairs.
circumspection
(n) CAUTION, DISCREETNESS, DISCRETION, PRUDENCE , the trait of being very careful and prudent.

ex: Incidents occurring at an early period of their relations were well calculated to induce circumspection in such a matter on both sides.
mitigate
(v) to ALLEVIATE, to make something less harmful, serious,...

ex: the great increase in travel in modern times makes it difficult to determine how and where a disease originated, as well as how it was disseminated, so that measures can be taken to mitigate its effect.
mitigation
(n) ALLEVIATION, a reduction in how unpleasant, serious,... something is.

ex: In the legal world, a lawyer might ask a judge for mitigation of a particularly harsh sentence.
battalion
(n) a large group of soldiers that form part of a BRIGADE.
ex: the battalion's commander told his men to use their own discretion in selecting enemy targets.

(n) a large organized group of people with a particular purpose.
ex: a battalion of supporters.
dissident
(n) a person who strongly disagrees with and criticizes their government, especially in a country where this kind of action is dangerous.

ex: some of the most notorious concentration camp in history were the Gulag camps used by the Soviet Union to control dissidents.

(adj) disagreeing, especially with a majority or government.
dissidence
(n) disagreement; especially disagreement with the government.

ex: Poor results in state elections have increased friction between the governing parties and dissidence within their own ranks.
dissolution
(n) the act of officially ending a marriage, a business agreement or a parliament.

(n) the process in which something slowly disappears.
ex: some philosophers maintain that the dissolution of the body does not mean the destruction of the mind.

(n) the act of breaking up an organization,...
dissolve
(v) (of a solid) to mix with a liquid and become part of it.
ex: Salt dissolves in water.

(v) to remove or destroy something, especially by a chemical process.
ex: the new detergent that dissolves stains.
dissolve
(v) to officially end a marriage, business agreement or parliament.
ex: their marriage dissolved in 1999

(v) to disappear, to make something disappear.
ex: when the ambulance had gone, the crowd dissolved.
dissonance
(n) DISCORD, a combination of musical notes that do not sound pleasant together.

(n) lack of agreement.
ex: in psychology, the term "cognitive dissonance" refers to a conflict resulting from inconsistency between one's belief and one's action. For example, a soldier who believes that all killings is immoral but is forced to kill by his superiors might experience cognitive dissonance.
dissonant
(adj) DISCORDANT, lacking in harmony
distend
(v) to swell or make something swell because of pressure from inside.

ex: people in an advanced stage of starvation often have distended bellies.
distension
(n) , the act of expanding/swelled by pressure from within.

ex: There were persistent local symptoms, referred especially to the stomach,—"boring pain," distension, difficult digestion, with great wasting of flesh and strength.
distill
(v) to make a liquid pure by heating it until it becomes a gas, then cooling it and collecting the drops of liquid that form.
ex: to distill fresh potable water from sea water.

(v) to get the essential meaning or ideas from thoughts, information, experiences,...
ex: the notes I made on my travels were distilled INTO a book (a book was distilled FROM my notes)
distillation
(n) the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors.

(n) the process of getting the essential meaning or ideas from thoughts, information, experiences,...
ex: the movie is a perfect distillation of adolescence.
distillate
(n) a substance formed by distilling a liquid.
distillery
(n) a factory where strong alcoholic drink is made by the process of distilling.
distrait
(adj) having the attention diverted especially because of anxiety

ex: Distrait means "preoccupied with worry." If you can't concentrate on the hot gossip your friend is sharing with you because you can't stop thinking about what your mom is going to say about the window you accidentally broke, you're distrait.
divest
(v) to strip, to remove clothes.
ex: he divested himself OF his jacket.

(v) to get rid of something.
ex: the company is divesting itself of some of its assets.

(v) to take something away from someone.
ex: after her illness she was divested of much of her responsibility.
divestment
(n) the act of selling the shares you have bought in a company

(n) the act of taking money away from where you have invested it.
divulge
(v) to REVEAL, to give someone information that is supposed to be secret.

ex: Under the Geneva Conventions, prisoners of war cannot be tortured and forced to divulge information.
dogmatic
(adj) (disapproving) DOCTRINAIRE, being certain that your beliefs are right and that others should accept them, without paying attention to evidence or other opinions.

ex: the doctrinaire Marxists say that capitalism is merely a temporary phenomenon on the road to socialism.
dogma
(n) a belief or set of beliefs held by a group or organization, which others are expected to accept without argument.

ex: religious whose dogma specifies a time of the creation of the world have found difficulty in reconciling their view of creation with that of modern science.
melancholy
(n) a deep feeling of sadness that lasts for a long time and often cannot be explained.
ex: there is a brooding melancholy in his black and white photography.

(adj) MOURNFUL, very sad or making you feel sadness.
ex: the melancholy song died away.
doggerel
(n) poor verse, poetry that is badly written or ridiculous, sometimes because the writer has not intended it to be serious.
dormant
(adj) temporarily INACTIVE, not active or growing now but able to become active or grow in the future.

ex: there is a considerable body of evidence showing that many diseases, such as ulcers, asthma, and hypertension have a large psychological component.; the working hypothesis is that they represent manifestation of dormant emotional disturbances.
dormancy
(n) , a state of being temporarily INACTIVE, not active or growing now but able to become active or grow in the future.

ex: The volcano, which resides under a glacier, dramatically roared back to life on March 20 after nearly 200 years of dormancy.
dross
(n) something of very low quality, the least valuable part of something.
ex: he considered the working class to be the dross of society.

(n) a waste substance, especially that separated from a metal when it was melted.
ex: the fire burns away the dross leaving the pure metal.
dupe
(v) to DECEIVE, to trick or treat someone.
ex: he was duped INTO giving them his credit card.

(n) a person who is deceived, tricked or cheated
ex: these men were simply the dupes of their unscrupulous leaders.
exhilarated
(adj) EBULLIENT, ENTHUSIASTIC, made joyful

ex: the exhilarated candidate for president appeared before his supporters to announce that he had won in a landslide.
exhilarate
(v) to make someone feel very happy and excited.

ex: speed had always exhilarated him.
exhilaration
(n) EBULLIENCE, ENTHUSIASM, the feeling of lively and cheerful joy.

ex: the exhilaration of performing on stage.
eclectic
(adj) not following one style or set of ideas but choosing from various sources or using a wide variety.

ex: Neo-Platonism - an eclectic third-century synthesis of Platonic, Pythagorean,, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Jewish philosophy - was an essentially mystical belief that a person can achieve spiritual emancipation through union of the soul with the ultimate source of existence.
arithmetic
(n) the type of mathematics that deals with the adding, multiplying,... of numbers.

(n) sums involving the adding, multiplying,... of numbers.
ex: I think there's something wrong with your mental arithmetic (sums you do in your head, without writing anything down)
arithmetical
(adj) relating to the type of mathematics that deals with the adding, multiplying,... of numbers.

ex: Pythagoras described reality in terms of arithmetical relationships.
metaphysics
(n) Metaphysics is the philosophical study of being and knowing. If you have ever contemplated your own existence in the universe, you were dabbling in metaphysics.
effervescent
(adj) (of people and their behaviour) BUBBLY, excited, enthusiastic and full of energy.
ex: a person who believes himself to be physically unattractive might develop an effervescent personality as a compensation for his perceived deficiency.

(adj) (of a liquid) FIZZY, having or producing small bubbles of gas.
effervescence
(n) the quality of being bubbly; excited, enthusiastic and full of energy.

(n) (of a liquid) the property of giving off bubbles as gas escapes.
ex: effervescence occurs when hydrochloric acid is added to a block of limestone.
effete
(adj) (disapproving) weak, without the power that it once had.
ex: in 1969, US President denounced people protesting against the Vietnam War: "a spirit of national masochism prevails, encouraged by an effete corps of imprudent snobs who characterize themselves as intellectuals."

(adj) (of a man) without strength, looking or behaving like a woman.
masochism
(n) the practice of getting sexual pleasure from being physically hurt.

(n) (informal) the enjoyment of something that most people would find unpleasant or painful.
ex: That's masochism to spend the whole weekend in a tent in the rain.
masochist
(n) someone who obtains pleasure from rbeing physically hurt or punishment

ex: anyone who goes jogging for two hours a day must be a masochist
masochistic
(adj) deriving pleasure or sexual gratification from being abused or dominated.

ex: he has a masochistic streak and seems to enjoy being treated badly by women.
clinical
(adj) relating to the examination and treatment of patients and their illnesses.

ex: Clinical psychologists provide treatment for psychological disorders, and today can choose from an array of psychotherapies; often they are eclectic, choosing elements of therapies best suited to each particular case.
clinical
(adj) (disapproving) cold and calm and without feeling or sympathy.
ex: he watched her suffering with clinical detachment.

(adj) (disapproving) (of a room, building,...) very plain, without decoration.
ex: everything in the nursery was white and clinical
clinician
(n) a doctor, psychologist,... who has direct contact with patients.
sonnet
(n) a poem that has 14 lines, each containing 10 syllables, and a fixed pattern of rhyme.

ex: the poet's doggerel is superb, but it is his sonnet that has made him immoral.
efficacy
(n) EFFECTIVENESS, efficiency, the ability of something, especially a drug or medical treatment, to produce the desired results.

ex: a cardinal rule of medicine is that the efficacy of a treatment should be measured against the seriousness of its side effects.
efficacious
(adj) EFFECTIVE, efficient, producing the result that was wanted or intended.

ex: in a situation where some subjects are benefiting whiles others are not, a researcher is likely to have an ambivalent feeling, since he or she is in a "no-win" situation. The experimenter must choose between, on the one hand, getting more conclusive results by continuing the experiment and, on the other hand, stopping it and administering the drug that has proven efficacious to those who have not received it.
cardinal
(adj) most important, having other things based on it.

ex: respect for life is a cardinal principle of English law.
cardinal points
(n) the four main points (North, South, East, West) of the compass.
conclusive
(adj) proving something, and allowing no doubt or confusion, forming an end or termination; especially putting an end to doubt or question

ex: If want to prove that frogs can speak, and you record a frog reciting "The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere," that would be conclusive evidence for your claim. But if the frog mumbled and might have been just making frog noises, critics would say that your video is not conclusive.
administer
(v) to manage or organize the affairs of a company, an organization, a country,...
ex: the pension funds are administered by commercial banks.

(v) to make sure that something is done fairly and in the correct way.
ex: the questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers.
administer
(v) to give or provide something, especially in a formal way.
ex: the priest was called to administer the last rites.

(v) to give drugs, medicine,... to someone.
ex: the dose was administered TO the child intravenously.

(v) (formal) to kick or hit someone
ex: he administered a severe blow to his opponent's head.
effrontery
(n) PRESUMPTUOUSNESS, NERVE, shameless boldness, behaviour that is very confident but very rude, without any feeling of shame.

ex: in her essay the student had the effrontery to argue that school is largely a waste of time.
egotistical
(adj) excessively self-centered, conceited, thinking that you're better or more important than anyone else.

ex: the critics accused the writer of being egotistical since she wrote only about herself.
elegy
(n) a poem or song that expresses sadness and lamentation ,especially for someone who has died.

ex: Eight years afterwards he published a long and elaborate critique on Goethe's lays, songs, elegies, and miscellaneous poems.
elegiac
(adj) expressing sadness or lamentation, especially about the past or people who have died.
lament
(v) to BEMOAN, to BEWAIL, to feel or express great sadness or disappointment about something.
ex: she sat alone weeping, lamenting her fate.

(n) a song, poem or other expression of great sadness for someone who has died or for something that has ended.
ex: a nostalgic lament for lost love.
lamentable
(adj) REGRETTABLE, DEPLORABLE, very disappointing or sad.

ex: The poor gentle little thing instantly broke down, too, in most lamentable fashion.
lamentation
(n) an expression of great sadness or disappointment.

ex: lamentations from the team's supporters about their failure.
lamented
(adj) (of something that has died or disappeared) missed very much, mourned or grieved for
elixir
(n) a magic liquid believed to cure illnesses or to make people live forever.

ex: the doctor said that her prescription would help to alleviate my condition but that I could not expect it to be an elixir.
Elysian
(adj) (literary) BLISSFUL, DELIGHTFUL, relating to heaven or to a place of perfect happiness.

ex: in ancient Greek stories, the Elysian Fields, or Elysium, is a wonderful place where some people were taken by the gods after death.
emaciated
(adj) thin and weak, usually because of illness or lack of food.

ex: he was thirty, but looked fifty, with pale skin, hopeless eyes and an emaciated body, covered in sores.
emaciation
(n) , extreme leanness, thinness and weakness (usually caused by starvation or disease)

ex: she was very thin, almost to the point of emaciation.
gullible
(adj) NAIVE, to willing to believe or accept what other people tell you and therefore easily tricked.

ex: the advertisement is aimed at gullible young women worried about their weight.
gullibility
(n) , tendency to believe too readily and therefore to be easily deceived.

ex: the newspaper relies on the gullibility of its readers.
emollient
(adj) SOOTHING, MOLLIFYING, making a person or situation calmer in the hope of keeping relations peaceful.

ex: the politician;s speech is filled with emollient phrases to make his message more palatable.
emollient
(adj) (technical) SOOTHING, used for making your skin soft or less painful.
ex: an emollient cream.

(n) (technical) a liquid or cream used to make the skin soft.
palatable
(adj) pleasant or acceptable to someone.
ex: some of the dialogue has been changed to make it more palatable to an American audience.

(adj) (of food or drink) APPETIZING, having a pleasant or acceptable taste.
empirical
(adj) (OPP: theoretical) based on experiments or experience rather than ideas or theories.

ex: some people erroneously cite the theory of relativity as support for ethical relativism, whereas in reality the former is a scientific theory, while the latter is a moral issue, and thus by its nature is not subject to empirical verification.
empiricism
(n) the use of experiments or experience as the basis for your ideas, the belief in these methods.

ex: If you believe in the Easter Bunny, the Tooth Fairy, or Santa Claus, you're out of the realm of empiricism — there are no facts to support those myths. If you want to get something practical done, or to really know what the deal is with something, empiricism is the way to go.
erroneous
(adj) INCORRECT, based on wrong information.

ex: he seems to be under the erroneous impression that she is in love with him.
erroneously
(adv) incorrectly, in a mistaken manner.

ex: the bank erroneously transferred the money to her account.
emulate
(v) to IMITATE, to copy, to try to work in the same way as something else.

ex: Bionics uses technology to emulate nature, but sometimes a similar process occurs in reverse, in which scientists use technology as a heuristic tool to better understand natural processes.
heuristics
(n) a commonsense rule (or rules of thumb) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem by finding practical ways of dealing with them, or by learning from past experience.

ex: He suggests that cognitive diversity has four dimensions: perspectives, interpretations, heuristics, predictive models.

(n) the educational method in which students learn from their own investigations.
heuristic
(adj) of or relating to or using a commonsense rule (or rules of thumb) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem by finding practical ways of dealing with them, or by learning from past experience.

ex: The answer was writing a heuristic algorithm that crawls 24/7 through the incoming data and weeds out anomalous readings.
encomium
(n) a formal expression of praise, a speech or piece of writing that praise someone highly.

ex: the prime minister asked her speechwriter to compose an encomium for the retiring general.
endemic
(adj) regularly found in a particular place or among a particular group of people and difficult to get rid of.

ex: Malaria, once endemic to the area, has now been largely eradicated (got rid of/ wiped out)
enervate
(v) to WEAKEN, to make someone feel weak and tired.

ex: During WWII Russian commanders counted on the bitter cold to enervate German soldiers invading their country.
enervation
(n) serious weakening and loss of energy, lack of vitality

ex: His condition is undignified, even dreadful: he keeps between the two extremes of work at high pressure and a state of melancholy enervation.
engender
(v) to CAUSE, to PRODUCE, make a feeling or a situation exist.

ex: the issue engendered controversy.
disseminate
(v) to broadcast/ circularize/ disperse/ distribute, pass around/ spread information, knowledge,... so that it reaches many people.

ex: although it is widely believed that the primary objective of the researchers developing the Internet was to secure the American nuclear missile system, in fact their main goal was to foster science by enhancing the ability of technology to disseminate information among scientists.
dissemination
(n) , the act of dispersing or spreading something, especially information, knowledge,... so that it reaches many people.

ex: If you've done something really embarrassing and don't want the whole school to know, let's hope no one who saw you is an expert in the rapid dissemination of humiliating facts.
entomology
(n) the scientific study of insects

ex: considering that there are approximately 925,000 species of insects (more than all other pieces combined), entomology is a vast field of study.
enunciate
(v) to say or pronounce words clearly.
ex: in everyday speech the sounds of many words are not enunciated clearly.

(v) to express an idea clearly and exactly
enunciation
(n) to act of saying or pronouncing words clearly.

ex: After a few days he was once more himself, except that his enunciation never again became absolutely clear.
prodigious
(adj) ENORMOUS, very large and powerful and causing surprise or admiration.

ex: as technologies developed at a prodigious rate, technologists increasingly emulated the professionalization and methodology of science by establishing professional associations and publications that publish peer-reviewed articles.
prodigy
(n) a young person who is unusually intelligent or skillful for their age.

ex: a musical prodigy
fanatic
(n) ENTHUSIAST, a person who is extremely enthusiastic about something.
ex: a fitness fanatic.

(n) EXTREMIST, a person who holds extreme or dangerous opinions.
ex: religious fanatics
fanatical
(adj) extreme, enthusiastic, marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea

ex: Much of the tragedy of the Holocaust can be attributed to the fanatical racism engendered by the Nazis.
fanaticism
(n) EXTREMISM, extreme beliefs or behaviour, eespecially in connection with religion or politics.

ex: the fanaticism of football supporters.
eminent
(adj) (of people) famous and respected, especially in a profession.
ex: the eminent Havard biologist in an entomologist specializing in ants.

(adj) (of good qualities) unusual, excellent.
eminence
(n) (of people) the quality of being famous and respected, especially in a profession.

ex: few could have predicted that she would reach eminence as a surgeon.
ephemeral
(adj) short-lived, lasting for only a short time.

ex: impressionist painters such as Claude Monet share with the Romantics an affinity for nature, but the Impressionists took a more scientific interest in it, attempting to accurately depict ephemeral phenomena such as the play of light on water.
ephemera
(n) things that are important or used only for a short time.

ex: a collections of postcards, tickets and other ephemera.
affinity
(n) a strong feeling that you understand something and like it or not.
ex: he was born in the country and had a deep affinity with nature.

(n) a close relationship between two people or things that have similar qualities, structures or features.
ex: When you are attracted to someone or something a great deal, we say that you have an affinity, a natural connection. Likewise, scientists use affinity to describe organisms that are alike or resemble each other.
epistemology
(n) the part of philosophy that deals with knowledge by examining the nature of it.

ex: a major question in epistemology is whether the mind can ever gain objective knowledge, limited as it is by its narrow range of experience.
equable
(adj) calm and not easily upset or annoyed.
ex: throughout the crisis the president remained equable.

(adj) (of weather) keeping a steady temperature with no sudden changes.
equably
(adv) in a calm and not easily upset or annoyed equable manner

ex: Calmly and equably he must pick his way through this beautiful and passionate wonder.
equanimity
(n) CALMNESS, a calm state of mind which means you don't become angry or upset, especially in difficult situations,

ex: emergency room doctors and nurses are trained to maintain their equanimity when treating their patients.
dialectic
(n) (philosophy) a method of discovering the truth of ideas by discussion and logical argument by and considering ideas that are opposed to each other.
ex: Much of the modern economic history can be seen as a dialectic between advocates of laissez-faire policies.

(n) the way in which two aspects of a situation affect each other.
laissez-faire
(n) the police of allowing private business to develop without government control.

(adj) allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
ex: they have a laissez-faire approach to bringing up their children (they give them a lot of freedom).
equivocal
(adj) (of words or statements) AMBIGUOUS, not having a clear or definite meaning or intention; can be understood in more than one way.
ex: women were less equivocal than men on the subject of fidelity and marriage.

(adj) (of actions or behaviour) difficult to understand or explain clearly.
ex: the experiments produced equivocal results.
equivocate
(v) to talk about something in a way that is deliberately not clear in order to avoid or hide the truth.

ex: the businessperson has earned a reputation as someone who never equivocates and can be trusted to do exactly what he promises.
equivocation
(n) a way of behaving or speaking about something in a way that is deliberately not clear in order to avoid or hide the truth.

ex: the saying "It's a matter of semantics" is often used to indicate that the real meaning of something is being lost in verbiage, often with the implication that there is obfuscation or equivocation.
semantic
(adj) connected with the meaning of words and sentences.

ex: Semantic arguments become vigorous, charades-like performances that are stretched out for too long.
semantics
(n) the study of the meaning of words and phrases.

ex: "destination" and "last stop" technically mean the same thing, but students of semantics analyze their subtle shades of meaning.
semantic field
(n) a set of words with related meanings.
verbiage
(n) (disapproving) the use of too many words, or of more difficult words than are needed, to express an idea.

ex: Stuart's disclaimer, then, divested of its misleading verbiage, contains but two points.
errant
(adj) mistaken, doing something that is wrong, not behaving in an acceptable way.

ex: errant fathers who refuse to pay maintenance for their children.
erudite
(adj) LEARNED, having or showing great knowledge that is gained from academic study.

ex: she could turn any conversation into an erudite discussion.
erudition
(n) great academic knowledge.

ex: If you write with erudition, your readers will know that you are a serious scholar, as long as you're not too far over their heads.
sagacious
(adj) WISE, showing good judgement and understanding.

ex: great erudition does not mean that a person is sagacious.
sagacity
(n) the trait of showing good judgement and understanding.

ex: He possessed undaunted courage, and blended bold enterprise with much sagacity.
sage
(adj) WISE, especially because you have a lot of experience.

(n) a very wise person.
esoteric
(adj) likely to be understood or enjoyed by only a few people with a special knowledge or interest.

ex: epidemiologists, using esoteric statistical analyses, field investigation, and complex laboratory techniques, investigate the cause of a disease, its distribution, method of spread, and measures for preventing or controlling it.
epidemiology
(n) the scientific study of the spread and control of diseases.
essay
(n) an attempt to do something.
ex: his first essay in politics was a complete disaster.

(v) to make an attempt to do something.
ex: the composer began to work on the sonata, a form she had not previously essayed.
estimable
(adj) ADMIRABLE, deserving respect and admiration, possible to estimate.

ex: I would never doubt the worthy intentions of that estimable gentleman.
veer
(v) (especially of a vehicle) to SWERVE, to change direction suddenly.
ex: It's still not clear by the missile veered off course.

(v) (of a conversation or a way of behaving or thinking) to change in the way it develops.
ex: his emotions veered between fear and anger.
ethnocentric
(adj) based on the attitude that one group is superior, based on the ideas and beliefs of one particular culture and using these to judge other cultures.

ex: the words "primitive" and "savage" reflect an ethnocentric bias in Western culture that regards societies that don't have Western science and technology as inferior.
ethnocentrism
(n) belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.

ex: During certain period of Chinese history, foreigners were considered to be "barbarians"; perhaps this ethnocentrism made it difficult for the Chinese to accept innovations from other countries.
etiology
(n) (medical) the scientific study of the causes of disease.

ex: the etiology of metal illness is complex because of the diversity of factors - social, biological, genetic, and psychological - that contribute to many disorders.
etymology
(n) the study of the origin and history of words and their meaning.

(n) the origin and history of a word.
ex: the origin of the word "barbarian" reflects the ethnocentrism of the ancient Greeks; its etymology is that it comes from the Greek word for barbaros, meaning non-Greek, foreign.
eugenics
(n) the study of methods to improve the mental and physical characteristics of the human race by choosing who may become parents.

ex: the science fiction novel describes a military eugenics program designed to create a race of "super-soldiers" possessing intelligence, strength, and other qualities far in advance of the ordinary person.
eulogy
(n) a speech or piece of writing that praises something very much.
ex: a eulogy TO marriage.

(n) a speech given at a funeral praising the person who has died.
ex: Newspapers worldwide were filled with eulogies and remembrances for many days afterward.
eulogize
(v) to praise something very much.

ex: he was eulogized as a hero.
eulogistic
(adj) formally expressing praise

ex: that afternoon's paper contained a eulogistic article on his patriotic achievement.
euphemism
(n) an indirect word or phrase that people often used to refer to something embarrassing or unpleasant, sometimes to make it seem more acceptable than it really is.

ex: "pass away" is a euphemism for "die"

ex: an illustration of the tendency toward euphemism is the change (reflecting the political concerns of the day) in the accepted appellation of poor countries from the unambiguous poor, to undeveloped, to underdeveloped, to less develop, to developing.
euphemistic
(adj) substituting a mild term for a harsher or distasteful one.

ex: "We're letting you go" is a euphemistic way of saying "you're fired".
euphoria
(n) an extremely strong feeling of happiness and excitement that usually lasts only a short time.

ex: there was euphoria in the professor's house after it was learned that she had received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
euphoric
(adj) happy and excited, especially for only a short time.

ex: his parents were less than euphoric about the news of his engagement.
euthanasia
(n) MERCY KILLING, the practice (illegal in most country) of killing without pain a person who is suffering from a disease that cannot be cured.

ex: modern medicine's ability to prolong life has raised ethical questions, such as "Is euthanasia ever morally justifiable?"
euthanize
(v) to kill a sick or injured animal or person by giving them drugs so that they die without pain.

ex: they decided to euthanize those whales that were to ill to return to the sea.
evince
(v) to show clearly that you have a feeling or quality.

ex: the student's response to the teacher's question evinced his ignorance of the subject.
evoke
(v) to bring a feeling, a memory or an image to your mind.

ex: the terms "loaded language" and "charged language" are used to specify language that has so many connotations for most readers that it is difficult for a writer to use it without evoking myriad associations, which will distract attention from the topic under discussion.
evocation
(n) the act of bringing bring a feeling, a memory or an image to your mind.

ex: some literary critics believe that Charles Dickens' use of caricature makes his characters one-dimensional, but others see these characters as evocations of universal human types that resonate powerfully with readers' experiences of real people.
evocative
(adj) making you think of or remember a strong image or feeling, in a pleasant way.

ex: her new book is wonderfully evocative of village life.
resonate
(v) (of a voice, an instrument,...) to make a deep, clear sound that continues for a long time.
ex: her voice resonate through the theater.

(v) (of a place) to be filled with sound, to make a sound continue longer.
ex: the room resonated with the chatter of 100 people.
resonate
(v) to remind someone of something, to be similar to what someone thinks or believes.

ex: his speech resonated WITH the fears and suspicions of his audience.
resonator
(n) a device for making a sound louder or stronger, especially in a musical instrument.
exacerbate
(v) to AGGRAVATE, to make something worse, especially a disease or problem.

ex: the release of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels has increased the amount of this gas in the atmosphere, exacerbating the natural occurring "greenhouse effect" that has predominated in Earth's recent past.
exacerbation
(n) AGGRAVATION, the act of making something worse.

ex: Only two children in each study group had no severe asthma exacerbations over the year.
exact
(v) to demand to get something from someone, especially by authority.
ex: the conquering rulers exacted a tax of 10% from every adult male in the country.

(v) to make something bad happen to someone.
ex: he exacted a terrible revenge for their treatment of him.
exacting
(adj) extremely DEMANDING, needing a lot of effort and care about details.

ex: products designed to meet the exacting standards of today's marketplace.
exactitude
(n) the quality of being very accurate and exact.

ex: the last months payment had been made with the most scrupulous exactitude.
exculpate
(v) to prove or state officially that someone is nor guilty of something.

ex: the defendant was able to exculpate himself from liability.
exculpation
(n) the act of proving or stating officially that someone is nor guilty of something.

ex: He had actually prepared one, but his brutal judges would not listen to the patriot's exculpation.
execrable
(adj) TERRIBLE, detestable, very bad.

ex: when folk artists such as Bob Dylan began to use rock instruments, many folk music traditionalists considered it an execrable travesty.
travesty
(n) PARODY, something that does not have the qualities or values that it should have, and as a result is often shocking or offensive.

ex: the trial was a travesty of justice.
exhort
(v) to URGE, to try hard to persuade someone to do something.

ex: in 1943 the US General exhorted American troops TO invade Hitler's Europe, saying that history was assured because American soldiers were more virile and courageous than their German counterparts.
exhortation
(n) a communication intended to urge or persuade the recipients to take some action.

ex: This mistake comes back to me repeatedly because I frequently sit in on management retreats, which are punctuated by motivational speeches and team exhortation.
virile
(adj) (of men) strong and full of energy, especially sexual energy; having or showing the strength and energy that is considered typical of men.

ex: The muscular strength and virile intensity of Corelli's singing is electrifying.
virility
(n) strength and energy, especially sexual energy, that is considered typical of men.

ex: In China, products like tiger bone and bear bile are regarded as potent disease cures and virility boosters.
exigency
(n) URGE, DEMAND, an urgent need or demand that you must deal with.

ex: astronauts must be prepared for exigencies such as damage to their spacecraft's life support system.
existential
(adj) connected with human existence
ex: existential writers have argued that human being are free, but that this freedom entails a burden of responsibility that makes them anxious.

(adj) (philosophy) connected with the theory of existentialism.
existentialism
(n) (philosophy) the theory that humans are free and responsible for their own actions in a world without meaning.
exorcise
(v) to make an evil spirit leave a place or someone's body by special prayer or magic.
ex: a modern parallel to the shaman is the psychiatrist, who helps the patient exorcise personal demons and guides him toward mental wholeness.

(v) to remove something bad or painful from your mind.
ex: she had managed to exorcise these unhappy memories from her mind.
exorcism
(n) the act of getting rid of an evil spirit from a place or someone's body by special prayer or magic.
ex: a priest performed an exorcism and afterwards the ghost disappeared.

(n) the act of making yourself forget bad experience or memory.
exorcist
(n) a person who makes evil spirits leave a place or someone's body by special prayer or magic.

ex: an exorcist was called in to get rid of the ghost.
shaman
(n) a person in some religions and societies who is believed to be able to contact good and evil spirits and cure people of illnesses.

(n) a tribal healer who is believed to be able to enter the world of good and evil spirits, often enter a trance and practice divination.
expatiate
(v) to add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing.

ex: every year the book club invites a famous author to come to expatiate ON the art of writing.
expatriate
(v) to expel someone from a country, to send someone into exile.
ex: people seeking asylum in another country are sometimes expatriated.

(n) a person living in a country that is not their own.
ex: American expatriates in Paris.

(adj) living in a country that is not your own.
ex: expatriate workers.
motto
(n) a short sentence or phrase that expresses the aims and beliefs of a person, a group, an institution,... and is used as a rule of behaviour.

ex: the Boy Scouts motto, "Be prepare," is a concise reminder to be ready for any exigency.
expiate
(v) to ATONE for, to accept punishment for something that you have done wrong in order to show that you're sorry.

ex: the pilgrims undertook their long journey to expiate their sins.
expiation
(n) , the act of atoning for sin or wrongdoing (especially appeasing a deity)

ex: "The offense was committed in public, and before the eyes of all men the expiation must be made."
explicate
(v) to explain, to interpret, to clarify an idea or a work of literature in a lot of detail.

ex: the literature exam requires students to explicate three poems they studied in class and one they have not studied.
explication
(n) explanation, interpretation, clarification of an idea or a work of literature in a lot of detail.

ex: Tilted more toward allegory than realism, this locked-up love story prioritizes emotion over explication.
expository
(adj) explanatory, intended to explain or describe something.

ex: there is no one model of expository prose that a student can emulate, since each piece of good writing is unique.
exposition
(n) a full explanation of a theory, plan,...
ex: Perhaps an illustration may be the best means of exposition.

(n) an EXPO, a trade fair, an event at which people, businesses,... show and sell their goods,
ex: Seven years later, in connection with the Paris Exposition of 1900, there was held another similar series of international congresses.
extant
(adj) (of something very old) still in existence, not lost.

ex: Use extant to describe things that it may be surprising to learn are still around — you wouldn't say jeans you bought last year are extant, but a pair of jeans worn by Marilyn Monroe back in the 1950s? Definitely extant.
extemporaneous
(adj) unrehearsed, impromptu, with little or no preparation or forethought.

ex: The orator's performance was impressive, but only after we learn that his speech was extemporaneous did we realize the true depth of his talent.
extirpate
(v) to destroy or get rid of something bad or unwanted.

ex: the new federal prosecutor promised voters that he would extirpate corruption in the state.
extirpation
(n) the act of destroying or getting rid of something bad or unwanted.

ex: Yet most North American bat species are in decline as a result of white nose syndrome, habitat loss and extirpation by humans.
extraneous
(adj) IRRELEVANT, not directly connected with the situation you are in or the subject you're dealing with.

ex: the encyclopedia editors work hard to cut out extraneous material so that readers could find information easily on a given subject.
extrapolate
(v) to estimate something or form an opinion about something, using the facts that you have now that are valid for one situation and supposing that they will be valid for the new one.

ex: if you travel to Canada and encounter only friendly, kind natives, you might extrapolate that all Canadians are friendly.

ex: You could extrapolate how much your antique watch is worth by finding how much similar watches sold for at recent auctions.
extrapolation
(n), an inference about the future (or about some hypothetical situation) based on known facts and observations
ex: strict determinists believe that it is possible, at least theoretically, to extrapolate the future movement of every atom in the universe based on present condition.

(n) (mathematics) calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values
ex: their age can be determined by extrapolation from their grow rate.
extrinsic
(adj) (OPP: intrinsic) not belonging naturally to something, coming from or existing outside something rather than within it.

ex: the experiment is designed to exclude factors that are extrinsic to the phenomenon.
facetious
(adj) trying to appear amusing and intelligent at a time when other people don't think it's appropriate, and when it would be better to be serious.

ex: the comedian's facetious comments about prominent politicians kept the audience amused.
penance
(n) (especially in some religions) voluntary self-punishment in order to atone for some wrongdoing.

ex: the priest advised the man to perform penance to expiate his sins.
facilitate
(v) to make an action or process possible or easier.

ex: the internet - together with the availability of relatively inexpensive personal computers - has greatly facilitated the ability of ordinary people to conveniently exchange information with one another and with large computer systems.
facilitation
(n) the act of making an action or process possible or easier.

ex: Attention is thought to amplify some signals and suppress others, two processes known as facilitation and inhibition.
factotum
(n) a person employed to do a wide variety of jobs for someone, a handyman.

ex: In the play, the character aspires to become more than merely a factotum in the house of Lady Olivia.
aspire
(v) to have a strong desire to achieve or to become something.

ex: she aspired TO a scientific career.
aspiration
(n) a strong desire to have or do something.

ex: what changes a needed to meet women's aspirations for employment?
fallacious
(adj) wrong, based on false idea.

ex: the belief of the Nazis that they could create a "master race" was based on a fallacious premise that some races are inherently superior to others.
fallacy
(n) a false idea that many people believe is true

(n) a false way of thinking about something.
ex: critics of the "strong" anthropic principle argue that its proponents are guilty of a logical fallacy: on the basis of one known case of intelligent life, they extrapolate the existence of a multitude of such cases.
fallow
(adj) (of farm land) uncultivated, not used for growing crops, especially so that the quality of the land will improve.
ex: at the beginning of each school year the teacher look at the new students and think of a fallow field, ready to be cultivated.

(adj) (of a period of time) not successful, when nothing is created or produced.
ex: contemporary dance is coming onto the arts scene again after a long fallow period.
fatuous
(adj) foolish, stupid, devoid of intelligence.

ex: the student could not understand why no one took seriously his fatuous comments.
fauna
(n) all the animals living in an area or in a particular period of history.

ex: when human introduce fauna or flora (plants) from one habitat into another, the ecological balance is upset.
fawn
(v) (disapproving) to try to please someone by praising them or paying them too much attention.
ex: he seemed unaware of the girl's fawning admiration.

(n) a light yellowish-brown color.

(adj) light yellowish-brown in color.
fawning
(adj) seeking flavor by flattering, attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery.

ex: the boss has a reputation for hiring fawning employees.
felicitous
(adj) (especially of words) chosen well, very suitable, giving a good result.

ex: the Gettyburg Address is full of felicitous phrases such as "government of the people, by the people, and for the people."
felicity
(n) the quality of being well chosen or suitable.
ex: the story is told with great felicity of style.

(n) great happiness
felicities
(n) well-chosen or successful features, especially in a speech or piece of writing.

ex: the pianist's performance contained no shortage of felicities.
feral
(adj) (of animals) living wild, especially after escaping from life as a pet or on a farm.

ex: feral dogs returning to an untamed state after domestication sometimes form packs, becoming a threat to human.
fervor
(n) (from fervid/ fervent) ENTHUSIASM, very strong feeling about something.

ex: American soldiers were welcomed back to the US with fervor after the end of WWII.
predicate
(v) to base something on a particular belief, idea or principle.
ex: Carbon-14 dating is predicated on the assumption that the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere remains constant, but recently this has been proved fallacious.

(v) to state that something is true.
ex: the article predicates that the market collapse was caused by weakness of the dollar.
fetid
(adj) stinking, smelling very unpleasant.

ex: many people find the smell of Limburger cheese fetid.
fetter
(v) to restrict someone's freedom to do what they want.
ex: the poet believed that each person creates "mind-forged manacles," fettering his or her natural instincts and spirit.

(v) to shackle, to put chain around a person's feet.
ex: a man lay fettered on the ground of the prison cell.
fetter
(n) something that stops someone from doing what they want.
ex: they were at last freed from the fetters of ignorance.

(n) fetters: shackles, chains that are put around a person's feet.
ex: his feet are bound with fetters of iron.
manacle
(n) one of two metal bands joined by a chain, used for fastening a prisoner's ankles or wrists together.

(v) to put manacles on someone's wrists or ankles to stop them from escaping.
fiat
(n) an official order given by someone in authority.

ex: the dictator rules almost entirely by fiat.
filibuster
(n) the use of obstructive tactics in a legislature to block passage of a law, a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches.

ex: the senator threatened that his filibuster would include a full reading of his eight-volume autobiography.
filibuster
(v) to obstruct deliberately the passage of a law by delaying or making long speeches.

ex: Mr Reid accused the Republicans of seeking to filibuster, or delay, proceedings.
finesse
(v) to deal with something in a way that is clever but slightly dishonest, to handle something with a deceptive or evasive strategy.

ex: engineers decided that the problem could be finessed by using lighter materials.

(v) to do something with a lot of skill or style.
finesse
(n) great skill in dealing with people or situations, especially in a delicate way.
fissure
(n) a CREVICE, a long deep crack in something, especially in rock or in the earth.

ex: geologists measure the width of the fissure regularly to monitor movement of the Earth's plates in the area.
fission
(n) (OPP: FUSION) the act or process of splitting the nucleus of an atom, when a large amount of energy is released.

(n) the division of cells into new cells as a method of reproducing cells.

(n) the breaking of a chemical bond between two atoms.
fusion
(n) (OPP: FISSION) the process or result of joining two or more things together to form one.
ex: the fusion of copper and zinc to produce brass.

(n) the act or process of combining the nuclei of atoms to form a heavier nucleus, with energy being released.
fusion
(n) music that is a mixture of different styles, especially jazz and rock.

(n) cooking that is a mixture of different styles.
ex: French-Vietnamese fusion.
fissile
(adj) (physics) capable of nuclear fission.

ex: The United Nations has already sanctioned Iran for refusing to stop uranium enrichment — which can produce both nuclear fuel and fissile warhead material.
sanction
(n) an official order that limits trade, contact,... with a particular country, in order to make it do something, such as obeying international law.
ex: Before invading Iraq, the US and its allies first imposed sanctions on the country, refusing to supply the country with much-needed trade items.

(n) authorization, official permission or approval for an action or change.
ex: by trading with China at the same time, the US quietly sanctioned that nation's known instances of human rights abuses.
sanction
(v) to give permission for something to take place.
ex: the government refused to sanction a further cut in interest rates.

(v) to punish something or someone by imposing an official order that limits trade, contact,... with them.
ex: Getting Sudanese supply back on the market is even more imperative due to intensifying U.S. efforts to sanction Iran's oil exports.
flag
(v) to become tired, weaker or less enthusiastic.
ex: noticing that the students' attention was flagging, the professor gave them a short break.
fledgling
(n) a young bird that has just learnt to fly.

(n) beginner, novice, a person, an organization or a system that is new and without experience.
ex: the coach said that some of the team's fledgling would play in Saturday's game.
fledgling
(adj) young, immature, inexperience,

ex: For fledgling scientists in the field, the economic climate means that success can hinge on finding multiple funding sources.
consensus
(n) an opinion that all members of a group agree with.

ex: she is skilled at achieving consensus ABOUT/ON sensitive issues.
consensual
(adj) existing by consent, which people in general agree with.
ex: You and your neighbor could have a consensual agreement to share the cost of putting up a fence between your houses.

(adj) (of an activity) which the people taking part have agreed to.
ex: In modern English, consensual is often used when discussing sex, particularly whether the act was consensual, agreed on by both people, or non-consensual, if one person was unwilling or too young to legally give consent.
consent
(v) to agree to something or give your permission for something.

ex: he reluctantly consented TO his daughter's marriage.
consent
(n) permission to do something, especially given by someone in authority.
ex: Children under 16 cannot give consent TO medical treatment.

(n) agreement about something.
ex: she was chosen as leader by common consent.
mundane
(adj) DULL, ORDINARY, not interesting or exciting.

ex: the fledgling reporter was assigned to cover mundane events such as school board meetings.
rally
(v) to come together or bring people together to help or support something.
ex: many national newspapers rally AROUND/BEHIND/TO his support.

(v) to RECOVER, to become healthier, stronger,... after a period of illness, weakness,...
ex: he never really rallied after the operation.
rally
(n) a large public meeting, especially one held to support an idea or a political party.

(n) RECOVERY, the act or returning to a strong position after a period of difficulty or weakness.
ex: after a furious late rally, they finally scored.

(n) a race for cars, motorcycles,... over public roads.
ex: the Monte Carlo rally
florid
(adj) (of a person face) red
ex: after a mountain vacation, you'll be florid with the reddish color that comes from exercise and living well.

(adj) (disapproving) having too much decoration or detail.
ex: as he grew older, the novelist eschewed the florid, ostentatious style of his youth in favor of a more direct and sparse style.
eschew
(v) to deliberately avoid or keep away from something.

ex: he had eschewed politics in favor a life practicing law.
ostentatious
(adj) (disapproving) SHOWY expensive or noticeable in a way intended to impress people.
ex: No one wants to be described as ostentatious, a word whose cousins include pretentious, flamboyant, and gaudy.

(adj) (disapproving) behaving in a way intended to impress people by showing how rich, important,... you are.
ex: A rapper's diamond-encrusted teeth might be an ostentatious display of "bling," and someone wailing especially loudly at a funeral of a distant acquaintance might be making an ostentatious show of sorrow.
sparse
(adj) not dense, few and scattered, only presence in small amounts or numbers and often spread over a large area.

ex: The productions switch between sparse and deliberately cluttered, sometimes both at once,
interminable
(adj) ENDLESS, can't be terminated, lasting a very long time and therefore boring or annoying.

ex: the Sophists often gave interminable speeches full of rhetorical flourishes (embellishment/ornamentation).
flout
(v) to treat with contemptuous disregard
ex: in his book Poetic Meter and Poetic Form the distinguished literary critic discussed the danger poets face when they flout poetic conversations.

(v) laugh at with contempt and derision

(v) to defy, to show no respect for a law,... by openly not obeying it.
foment
(v) to INCITE, to create trouble or violence or make it worse.

ex: the government accused the newspaper of fomenting political unrest in the country.
incite
(v) to encourage someone to do something violent, illegal or unpleasant, especially by making them angry or excited.

ex: he incited the workforce TO come out on strike.
incitement
(n) the act of encouraging someone to do something violent, illegal or unpleasant, especially by making them angry or excited.

ex: He was released in 1991, but was soon back behind bars, serving five more years for "counter-revolutionary propaganda and incitement."
forbear
(v) to refrain from or to stop yourself from saying or doing something that you could or would like to say or do.

ex: The German raised his eyebrows, but forbore to elicit further information concerning Jaures' motives.
forbearance
(n) the quality of being patient and sympathetic towards other people, especially when they have done something wrong.

ex: the president warned that great courage and forbearance would be required to see the world through to a successful conclusion.
forbearing
(adj) PATIENT, showing the quality of being patient and sympathetic towards other people, especially when they have done something wrong.

ex: I have always noticed that the bravest and best fighting officers are the kindest and most forbearing toward their men.
forestall
(v) to prevent something from happening or someone from doing something by doing something first.

ex: any plan for a peaceful settlement were forestall by the intervention of the army.
stall
(v) (of a vehicle or engine) to stop suddenly because of a lack of power or speed; to make a vehicle or engine do this.
ex: I stalled the car three times during my driving test.

(v) to try to avoid doing something so that you have more time.
ex: "what do you mean?" she asked, stalling for time.
stall
(v) to make someone wait so that you have more time to do something.
ex: see if you can stall her while I finish searching her office.

(v) to stop something from happening until a later date, to stop making progress.
ex: discussions have once again stalled.
stall
(n) small area set off by walls for special use

(n) a tactic used to mislead or delay

(n) a malfunction in the flight of an aircraft in which there is a sudden loss of lift that results in a downward plunge.
formidable
(adj) extremely difficult or impressive in strength or excellence, and therefore, inspiring fear and/or respect.

ex: by the middle of the nineteenth century the United States had become a formidable economic and military power.
forswear
(v) to RENOUNCE, to stop doing or using something, to formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure.

ex: when she became a US citizen, Julia forswore allegiance to all other countries and pledged to defend the United States if called upon to do so.
founder
(v) to fail because of a problem or difficulty.
ex: the peace talks foundered ON a basic lack of trust.

(v) (of a ship) to fill with water and sink.
ex: our boat foundered ON a reef.
repudiate
(v) to REJECT, to refuse to accept something.
ex: Socialism has been repudiated at the polls.

(v) to DENY, to say officially that something is not true.

(v) to refuse to be connected with someone any longer.
ex: he repudiated his wife and married her sister.
repudiation
(n) the act of rejecting, denying something or the act of disowning someone.

ex: The young man listened, gloomy and scowling, now and then muttering in angry repudiation
frown
(v) to make a serious, angry or worry expression by bringing your eyebrows closer together so that lines appear on your forehead.
ex: she frowned with concentration.

(PhrV) to frown ON/UPON something = to disapprove of something.
ex: rhetorical flourishes are generally frowned UPON under the canons of modern English.
frown
(n) a serious, angry or worry expression on a person's face that causes lines on their forehead.

ex: she looked up with a puzzle frown on her face.
frantic
(adj) done quickly and lot a lot of activity, but in a way that is nor very well organized.
ex: they worked with frantic haste

(adj) unable to control yourself because you're extremely frightened or worried about something.
ex: the children were driving me frantic.
frantically
(adv) in quick but nor very well-organized or well-controlled manner.

ex: negotiators worked frantically to forestall the outbreak of hostilities.
fracas
(n) a loud quarrel, a noisy argument or fight, usually involving several people.

ex: the police were called in to break up the fracas that had erupted in the bar.
fractious
(adj) quarrelsome, irritable, bad-tempered and easily upset, especially by small things.
ex: in an effort to unify their divided party, the leaders decided to first placate the party's most fractious elements.

(adj) complaining and making trouble.
ex: the six fractious republics are demanding autonomy.
fresco
(n) a picture painted on a wall while the plaster is still wet, the method of painting this way.

ex: the Italian Renaissance was the greatest period of fresco painting, as seen in the work of artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael, and Giotto.
frieze
(n) ornamental band on a wall, a border that goes around the top of a room or building with pictures or carvings on it.
ex: one of the best-known friezes, on the outer walls the Parthenon in Athens, is a 525-foot depiction of the Panathenaic procession honoring Athena.

(n) a long narrow picture, usually put up in a school, that children have made or that teaches them something.
ex: the children made a frieze showing traders and their camels crossing the desert.
froward
(adj) headstrong, self-willed, disobedient, habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition.

ex: the teacher had no choice but to send the froward child to the vice-principle for disciplining.
fulminate
(v) to denounce, to condemn, to criticize someone or something angrily.

ex: the senator fulminated AGAINST what he termed "foreign meddling in American's business."
fulmination
(n) thunderous verbal attack, the act of denouncing, condemning or criticizing something severely.

ex: You may chuckle at his fulminations and sympathize with his impatience.
meddle
(v) to INTERFERE, to become involve in something that does not concern you.
ex: he had no right to meddle IN her affairs.

(v) to touch something in a careless way, especially when it's not yours or when you don't know how to use it correctly.
ex: somebody had been meddling with her computer.
meddling
(n) the act of interfering/altering something secretly or improperly, especially when it's not yours or when you don't know how to use it correctly.

ex: She said making "Cabaret" was a joyful "secret," filmed in Munich and far away from meddling Los Angeles studio bosses.
meddler
(n) (disapproving) busybody, a person who tries to get involve in something that does not concern them; an officious annoying person who interferes with others.

ex: Her cold stare made it evident that she disliked Penny and regarded her as a meddler.
meddlesome
(adj) (disapproving) (of people) INTERFERING, enjoy getting involve in situations that do not concern them.

ex: Each wants free enterprise unfettered by a meddlesome government, which means promoting lower taxes, less regulation and privatizing public services.
thrift
(n) FRUGALITY, the habit of saving money and spending it carefully so that none is wasted.
ex: He praised Frederick's Prussian virtues, like hard work, honesty and thrift.

(n) a wild plant with bright pink flower that grows by the sea/ ocean.
thrifty
(adj) FRUGAL, careful about spending money and not wasting things.

ex: he was brought up to be thrifty and never to get into debt.
fulsome
(adj) (disapproving) too generous in praising or thanking someone, or in saying sorry, so that you don't sound sincere.

ex: the actor was embarrassed by the fulsome praise he received after winning the Academy Award for best actor.
detonate
(v) to explode, to burst with a violent release of energy as through a violent chemical or physical reaction, or to make a bomb or other device explode.

ex: The first bomb was hidden inside a motorcycle parked near a shopping area and detonated by a mobile phone at about noon.
detonation
(n) an explosion, a violent release of energy caused by a chemical or nuclear reaction, the act of making something explode.

ex: Could a missile strike on Iran cause an accidental nuclear detonation?
detonator
(n) a device for making something, especially a bomb, explode.

ex: Another suspect's house was found to contain detonators, wires, homemade bomb casings and large quantities of explosives, including gun powder and ammonium nitrate.
futile
(adj) useless, fruitless, vain, pointless, producing no result or effect, having no purpose because there is no chance of success.

ex: to some non-philosopher, the discipline seems frivolous and futile because it produces no tangible benefits.
futility
(n) uselessness as a consequence of having no practical result, the sense that no matter how much you work at it, nothing good will happen, so you might as well give up.

ex: trying to come up with a definitive ranking of effective corporate tax rates between countries is an exercise in futility.
frivolous
(adj) (disapproving) (of people or their behavior) not serious in content or attitude or behavior, silly or amusing, especially when such behavior is not suitable.
ex: Frivolous things are goofy, useless, or just plain dumb. The word is often used to describe lawsuits. A frivolous lawsuit has no value and will be a waste of the court's time, like someone suing McDonald's for making the coffee too hot

(adj) having no useful or serious purpose.
ex: Frivolous is pretty much the opposite of essential.
frivolity
(n) (disapproving) behavior that is silly and amusing, especially when this is not suitable.

ex: I used to love those films because they showed the best side of being madly rich: the frivolity and romance.
heap
(n) an untidy pile of something.
ex: worn-out car tires were stacked in heaps.

(n) a lot of something.
ex: I've got a heap of things to do.

(n) (informal) a car that is old and in bad condition.
heap
(v) to put things in an untidy pile.
ex: rocks were heaped up on the side of the road.

(v) to put a lot of something in a pile on something else.
ex: she heaped food ON my plate/ she heaped my plate WITH food.

(v) to give a lot of something such as praise or criticism to someone.
ex: he heaped his team with praise.
heaped
(adj) used to describe something that has as much in it or on it as it can hold.

ex: a heaped teaspoon of sugar.
gainsay
(v) to DENY, to dispute, to oppose, to say that something is not true, to disagree with or deny something.

ex: My one sentiment of love and sympathy, repressed until that moment, now demanded expression with a power which I was unable to gainsay.
gambol
(v) to jump or run about in a lively way.

ex: the children gamboled on the lawn while their parents ate lunch
garrulous
(adj) talkative, taking a lot, especially about unimportant things.

ex: the garrulous houseguest made it difficult for us to get much work done.
gauche
(adj) awkward when dealing with people and often saying or doing the wrong thing.

ex: What's considered chic by one tribe may be deemed unforgivably gauche by another.
nuisance
(n) a thing, person or situation that is annoying or causes trouble or problems.
ex: I hope you're not making a nuisance of yourself.

(n) (law) behavior by someone that annoys other people and that a court can order the person to stop.
ex: he was charged with causing a public nuisance
genial
(adj) AFFABLE, friendly and cheerful.

ex: The genial May sunshine flashed gaily, lighting up the whole street, making both ladies blink their eyes as the carriage rolled away.
geniality
(n) a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to).

ex: hosts of television talk shows are generally people who possess a great deal of geniality.
disposition
(n) temperament, the natural qualities of a person's character.
ex: he has a happy disposition

(n) a tendency to behave in a particular way.
ex: he shows a disposition TOWARDS violence.

(n) arrangement, the way something is placed or arranged.
dispose
(v) to arrange things or people in a particular way or position.

(v) to make someone behave in a particular way.
ex: a drug that disposes the patient TOWARDS sleep.
gerrymander
(v) to change the size and borders of an area for voting in order to give an unfair advantage to one party in an election.

ex: the surviving members have only strengthened their hold on power with carefully designed, gerrymandered districts.
gerrymandering
the act of changing the size and borders of an area for voting in order to give an unfair advantage to one party in an election.

ex: an argument against the practice of gerrymandering is that it tends to make it difficult for the party that is out of power to regain power.
glib
(adj) (disapproving) (of speakers and speech) fluent in an insincere way; using words that are clever, but are not sincere, and don't show much thought.

ex: Ms. Paul herself noted that "glib talk about appreciating dyslexia as a 'gift' is unhelpful at best and patronizing at worst."
goad
(v) to keep irritating or annoying someone until they react.
ex: goaded by his friend INTO trying for the football team as a walk-on, Jeff went on to become an all-American linebacker.

(n) something that makes someone do something, especially by annoying them.
ex: the offer of economic help is intended to act as a goad to political reform.

(n) a pointed stick used for making cows,... move forwards.
gossamer
(n) the very fine threads made by spiders.

(n) any very light delicate material,
ex: the gossamer wings of a dragonfly.
gossamer
(adj) characterized by unusual lightness and delicacy, so thin as to transmit light, like spider-webs.

ex: some experts in NASA believe that what they call a gigantic "gossamer spacecraft" could be constructed in space using extremely lightweight materials.
gouge
(v) to make a hole or cut in something with a sharp object in a rough or violent way.
ex: the lion's claws had gouged a wound in the horse's side.

(v) to overcharge, to force someone to pay an unfairly high price for something; to raise prices unfairly.
ex: housing shortages permit landlords to gouge their renters.
gouge
(n) a sharp tool for making hollows areas in wood.
ex: The gouge trough should lie nearly horizontal lengthwise, the cutting edge being slightly elevated.

(n) a deep, narrow hole or cut in a surface.
ex: the massive wheels were digging great gouges in the road's surface.
glider
(n) a light aircraft that flies without an engine.
fluster
(v) to make someone nervous or confused, especially by giving them a lot to do or by making them hurry.
ex: he was flustered by all the attention.

(n) a state of being nervous and confused.
flustered
(adj) nervous and/or confused, especially someone gives you a lot to do or makes you hurry.

ex: Blatche may have been noticeably fatigued but he wasn't flustered.
grandiloquent
(adj) POMPOUS, BOMBASTIC, using long and complicated words to impress people.

ex: the orator abandoned grandiloquent phrases and instead uses simple and direct language.
grandiloquence
(n) POMPOSITY, BOMBAST, the act of using long and complicated words to impress people; excessive use of verbal ornamentation

ex: Here lies the distinction between grandiloquence and genuine fancy or bold imaginativeness.
orator
(n) public speaker, a person who makes formal speeches in public or is good at public speaking.

ex: He was a natural orator and had improved his gift by practice and extensive reading.
oration
(n) a formal speech made on a public occasion, especially as part of a ceremony.

ex: The oration ended, service at the high altar proceeded, while at intervals gay, almost jocund, music burst forth from the grand organ.
oratorical
(adj) connected with the art of public speaking.

ex: The Doctor was awakened out of his oratorical trance by another shout of laughter.
oratory
(n) RHETORIC, the skill of making powerful and effective speeches in public.
gregarious
(adj) SOCIABLE, liking to be with other people.
ex: a recent anthropological theory is that human are gregarious creatures that are comfortable living in group of around 150 individuals.

(adj) (of animals) living in group.
grouse
(v) (informal) to GRUMBLE, to complain in an annoying way.
ex: Instead of grousing ABOUT the policy, do something about it: write to your congressional representative.

(n) (informal) a complain
ex: the lieutenant told his men "If you have any grouses, take them to the captain."

(n) a fat bird with feathers on its legs which people shoot for sport and food.
guile
(n) DECEIT, DECEPTION, TRICKERY, the use of clever but dishonest behavior to trick people.

ex: playing poker well requires guile as well as skill.
guileless
(adj) ARTLESS, behaving in a very honest way, not knowing how to trick people.

ex: one of the charm of the novel is that the guileless hero manages to defeat the scheming villain.
guise
(n) PRETENSE, a way in which something appears, often in a different way from usual or a way that hides the truth about it.\

ex: in Greek mythology, the god Zeus often appeared to mortal women to whom he was attracted in strange guises.
liaison
(n) a relationship between two groups that involves the exchange of information or ideas.
ex: our role is to ensure liaison BETWEEN schools and parents.

(n) a person whose job is to make sure there is a good relationship between two groups.
liaison
(n) AFFAIR, a secret sexual relationship, especially if one or both partners are married.

ex: an amorous god, Zeus' liaison WITH goddesses, nymphs, and mortal women produced many offspring.
gustation
(n) sense of taste, the faculty of distinguishing sweet, sour, bitter, and salty properties in the mouth.

ex: The original five are vision, audition, olfaction, gustation and touch.
gustatory
(adj) of or relating to the faculty of distinguishing sweet, sour, bitter, and salty properties in the mouth.

ex: It was a singular thing, but at that first bite his sudden confidence in his gustatory ability almost overwhelmed him.
nymph
(n) (in ancient Greek or Roman stories) a spirit of nature in the form of a young woman that lives in rivers, woods,...; a minor nature goddess usually depicted as a beautiful maiden.
ex: the ancient Greeks believed that nymphs inhabited forests and bodies of water

(n) (biology) a young insect that has a body form which compares with that of the adult; a larva of an insect with incomplete metamorphosis
ex: Most of these insects are still white, immature nymphs, but there are a few darker, winged adults.
nymphet
(n) a young girl who is very sexually attractive.
nymphomaniac
(n) (disapproving) a woman who has, or wants to have, sex very often.
solstice
(n) either of the two times of the year at which the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at midday, marked by the longest (summer solstice) and shortest day (winter solstice).

ex: If you are on the part of the earth that is pointed towards the sun on the solstice, you are probably enjoying the longest day of summer. If you're pointed away, it is the shortest day of winter.
equinox
(n) one of the two times in the year (the spring equinox and the autumn equinox) when the sun is above the equator and day and night are of equal length.

ex: There are two equinoxes every year, one in the spring (the vernal equinox) and one in the fall (the autumnal equinox), each usually on the first day of spring and the first day of fall.
hallowed
(adj) holy, sacred, respected and important.

ex: the questioning of scientific and religious orthodoxy by scientists such as Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin led to stupendous advances in both geology and biology, as these fields freed themselves from the fetter of hallowed, but fallacious, assumptions about the age and development of the Earth and life.
stupendous
(adj) staggering, extremely large or impressive, greater or better than expected; so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe.

ex: Bear with me; there's a good chance I'll run out of superlatives to describe Apple's tremendous, astonishing, stupendous, unbelievable emerging position in the tablet market.
harangue
(n) a long loud angry speech that criticizes something or tries to persuade people to do something.
ex: the football team sat silently listening to their coach's half-time harangue about poor tackling, dropped passes, and lost opportunities to score.

(v) to speak loudly and angrily in a way that criticizes something or tries to persuade people to do something.
ex: First of all, people don't like being harangued.
orangutan
(n) a large ape (an animal like a large monkey with no tail) with long arms and reddish hair.
electorate
(n) the people in a country or an area who have the right to vote, thought of as a group.

ex: only 60% of the electorate voted in the last election.
retrospect
(n) contemplation of past event or situation, often with a different opinion of it from the one you had at the time.

ex: IN retrospect, I think that I was wrong.
retrospection
(n) thinking about past event or situation, often with a different opinion of it from the one you had at the time.

ex: It is hardly surprising that thinking and writing about photography tend frequently toward retrospection, melancholy and anxiety.
retrospective
(adj) thinking about or connected with something happened in the past.
ex: she felt a pang of retrospective sympathy for Mel.

(n) a public exhibition of the work that an artist has done in the past.
tardy
(adj) slow to act, move, or happen; late in the happening or arriving.

ex: the law is often tardy in reacting to changing attitudes.
tardiness
(n) the quality of being slow or late, the habit of not adhering to a correct or usual or expected time.

ex: the professor finished his harangue about student tardiness with the words, "The next time any of you are late, don't bother coming to my class."
harrowing
(adj) terrifying, extremely distressing, very shocking or frightening and making you feel very upset.

ex: the journey "inward" to explore the unconscious mind has been described as more harrowing than the most dangerous voyage to explore the Earth.
hermetic
(adj) (technical) AIRTIGHT, tightly closed so that no air can escape or enter.
ex: Researchers solved this by using compression welding to create a hermetic seal around the well's metallic membrane.

(adj) (disapproving) closed and difficult to become a part of.
ex: Scholars have traced many of the hermetic traditions of ancient Greece to Egypt.
heterodox
(adj) UNORTHODOX, not following the usual or accepted beliefs and opinions.

ex: the orthodox view among scientists is that ancestors of the great apes and humans evolved solely in Africa; however, recently a competing, heterodox view has arisen theorizing that they also may have evolved in Euroasia.
heterodoxy
(n) the quality of being unorthodox
ex: Yet, in questions where the difference between orthodoxy and heterodoxy is concerned, his ethics sometimes exhibit the most singular distortion.

(n) any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position
hieroglyph
(n) a picture or symbol of an object, representing a word, syllable or sound, especially as used in ancient Egyptian and other writing systems.

ex: The three vertical lines indicating plurality may refer both to offering and succeeding hieroglyph.
hieroglyphic
(adj) written in or belonging to a writing system using pictorial symbols.

ex: The inscriptions are hieroglyphic or sacred writing, which have been unintelligible till within the last few years.
hieroglyphics
(n) a writing system using picture symbols; used in ancient Egypt.

ex: Before archaeologists discovered the meaning of ancient Mayan hieroglyphics, no one could write in Mayan — it was an uncracked code.
hirsute
(adj) (especially of a man) HAIRY, having a lot of hair on the face or body.

ex: one of the most obvious differences between humans and closely related species such as chimpanzees is that the latter are hirsute, while the former have relatively little hair.
histrionic
(adj) (disapproving) (of behavior) very emotional and is intended to attract attention in an insincere way; characteristic of acting or a stage performance; often affected

ex: Onstage, Mr. Beal performed plainly emotional and densely written songs without much emotion, though with a great deal of movement and histrionics.
histrionics
(n) emotional behavior done for effect; often affected/insincere.

ex: "cut the histrionics and tell me how you really feel," the woman said to her angry husband.
homeostasis
(n) (biology) metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes. The process by which the body reacts to changes in order to keep conditions inside the body, for example temperature, the same.

ex: an example of homeostasis in mammals is the regulation of glucose levels in the blood, which is done mainly by the liver and insulin secreted by the pancreas.
pancreas
(n) an organ near the stomach that produces insulin and a liquid that helps the body to digest food.

ex: Insulin promotes cancer growth, he said, and also acts directly on the pancreas.
pancreatic
(adj) of or involving the pancreas.

ex: He and his colleagues had studied a patient with pancreatic cancer.
homily
(n) (often disapproving) PLATITUDE, a speech or piece of writing giving advice on the correct way to behave.

ex: After his homily, no applause rang out over the square.
animosity
(n) HOSTILITY, a strong feeling of opposition, anger or hatred.

ex: he felt no animosity TOWARDS his citics
ex: there was personal animosity BETWEEN members of the two groups.
parable
(n) a short story that teaches a moral or spiritual lesson, especially one of those told by Jesus recorded in the Bible.

ex: When you hear a parable, you're meant to use the comparison to learn how to act--the fox's "sour grapes" are compared to your own downgrading of the thing you cannot have.
sermon
(n) a talk on a moral or religious subject, usually given by a religious leader during a service.
ex: Mohammad, as may well be surmised, continued his sermons with unfailing ardour.

(n) (informal, disapproving) moral advice that someone tries to give you in a long talk.
ex: we had to listen to long sermon on the evils of wasting time.
sermonize
(v) (disapproving) MORALIZE, to give moral advice, especially when it is boring and not wanted.

ex: He used the spare moments before going onstage to sermonize into the camera of yet another liberal blogger.
excrete
(v) (biology) to eliminate solid or liquid waste matter from the body.

ex: Because they are living organisms, the cells also cannot neglect their basic functions like harvesting energy, excreting waste and making copies of themselves.
excretion
(n) , the bodily process of discharging waste matter.
ex: the excretion of toxic substances through the skin.

(n), waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body.
excretory
(adj) (biology) of or relating to the process of eliminating solid or liquid waste matter from the body.

ex: the removal of waste products by excretory organs such as the lungs and kidneys is an important hoemostatic process in mammals.
pastor
(n) a person authorized to conduct religious worship.

ex: We have no pastor at present: the church is run by five deacons.
pastoral
(adj) relating to the work of a priest or teacher in giving help and advice on personal matters, not just those connected with religion or education.
pastoral
(adj) showing country life or the countryside, especially in a romantic way.
ex: His paintings are chiefly pastoral scenes, treated in an ideal manner, and display imaginative and poetic genius of a high order.

(adj) relating to the farming of animals.
ex: It seemed as if the bottom had fallen out of the pastoral industry, and hope had gone, but relief came sooner than was expected.
hyperbole
(n) EXAGGERATION, purposeful exaggeration for effect, a way of speaking or writing that makes something sound better, more exciting, dangerous,... than it really is.
hyperbola
(n) an open curve formed by a plane that cuts the base of a right circular cone.
hyperbolic
(adj) (mathematics) of or related to hyperbola.
ex: hyperbolic functions.

(adj) (of language) deliberately exaggerated, using hyperbole.
ex: the American tradition of the tall tale uses hyperbole to depict a world in which the inhabitants and their deeds are larger than life, as befitting a people inhabiting a vast landscape.
iconoclast
(n) a person who criticize popular beliefs or established customs or ideas.

ex: Middle-aged Academicians shot suspicious glances at youths whom they suspected, only too correctly, of being iconoclasts, organisers of Post-Impressionist Exhibitions.
iconoclastic
(adj) criticizing popular beliefs or established customs or ideas, attacking cherished traditions.

ex: the linguist and political commentator Noam Chomsky has been described as gleefully iconoclastic because of the zeal with which he attacks many of the central beliefs of American society.
iconoclasm
(n) the orientation of an iconoclast.

ex: The two composers were friends, drawn together by a shared sense of high Romantic iconoclasm.
befit
(v) to be suitable and good enough for something.

ex: it was a lavish reception as befitted a visitor of her status.
glee
(n) DELIGHT, great merriment or malicious satisfaction, a feeling of happiness, usually because something good has happened to you, or something bad has happened to someone else.

ex: she couldn't disguise her glee at their embarrassment.
gleeful
(adj) full of high-spirited delight, happy because of something good has happened to you, or something bad has happened to someone else.

ex: They are wicked and gleeful, defiant and pitiless, those little, twinkling eyes.
idolatry
(n) deification, blind or excessive devotion, too much love or admiration for something.

ex: during the Protestant Reformation images in churches were felt to be a form of idolatry and were banned and destroyed.
idolatrous
(adj) blindly or excessively devoted or adoring

ex: In idolatrous times holly was planted, according to Pliny, in the neighbourhood of dwelling-houses, to keep away spirits and all manner of enchantments.
idolize
(v) to worship, to admire or love someone very much.

ex: Fire is idolized by the Tartars, and various African tribes.
imbroglio
(n) an entanglement, a complicated situation that causes confusion or embarrassment, especially one that is political.

ex: the plot of many Somerset Maugham's stories consists of an unraveling of an imbroglio in which the main character finds himself.
immutable
(adj) UNCHANGEABLE, that will never changed.

ex: If humanity colonizes Mars, it will become a tabula rasa on which we will inscribe our immutable values and beliefs in a new environment.
immutability
(n) the quality of being incapable of mutation.

ex: the dogma of creation and the immutability of species was endorsed virtually unanimously by the leading anatomist, botanists, and zoologists of Charles Darwin's day.
mutation
(n) a change in the form or structure of something.
ex: the mutation of ethnic politics into rationalist politics.

(n) (biology) a process in which the genetic material of a person, a plant or animal changes in structure when it is passed on to children,... causing different physical characteristics to develop.
mutate
(v) to change INTO a new form.
ex: rhythm and blues mutated INTO rock and roll.

(n) to develop or make something develop a new form or structure, because of a genetic change.
ex: the ability of the virus to mutate into new forms.
impair
(v) to damage something or make something worse.

ex: alcohol has been shown to seriously impair the functioning of the brain.
impairment
(n) the state of having a mental or physical condition which means part of your brain or body does not work correctly; a particular condition of this sort.

ex: There are many things that could confound how much cognitive impairment cancer patients experience.
impassive
(adj) EMOTIONLESS, having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited.

ex: the judge sat, impassive, listening to the man's emotional account of the crime.
impecunious
(adj) poor, penniless, having little or no money.

ex: the businessman's biography tells how he went from being an impecunious student in the 1980s to one of the richest people in America.
impede
(v) to HINDER, to delay or stop the progress of something.

ex: the development of the western region of Japan has been impeded by a lack of trained workers.
impediment
(n) OBSTACLE, something that delays or stops the progress of something else.
ex: the level of inflation is a serious impediment to the economic recovery.

(n) a physical problem that makes it difficult to speak normally.
debunk
(v) to show that an idea, a belief,... is false; to show that something is not as good as people think it is.

ex: The idea that music education is frivolous and should be the first item cut from the budget was long ago debunked: in schools with strong music programs, students always do better.
impermeable
(adj) impossible to penetrate, not allowing liquid or gas to pass through.

ex: the virus protection software is said to be impermeable to attacks by malicious software sent over the Internet.
imperturbable
(adj) calm, not easily upset or worried by a difficult situation.

ex: Buddha counseled that one should try to remain imperturbable through life's vicissitudes.
imperturbability
(n) the state of being calm and not easily upset or worried by a difficult situation.

ex: Kenyon disguised his annoyance under an air of characteristic imperturbability.
impervious
(adj) not affected or influenced by something.
ex: we were amazed how Laura could sit at the noisy party studying organic chemistry, impervious TO the noise around her.

(adj) (technical) impermeable, not allowing a liquid or gas to pass through.
ex: Once broken through, the water will quickly pass away below the impervious stratum and useless land will become valuable.
vicissitude
(n) one of the many changes and problems in a situation or in your life, that you have to deal with.

ex: When you talk of the vicissitudes of life, you're referring to the difficult times that we all go through: sickness, job loss, and other unwelcome episodes. No one can escape the vicissitudes of life.
impinge
(v) to ENCROACH, to INFRINGE, to have a noticeable effect on something, especially a bad one.

ex: scientists have found chimpanzees to be a territorial species; individuals that are not members of a group impinging on the territory of that group are normally met with aggression.
encroach
(v) to IMPINGE or INFRINGE upon, to begin to affect or use up too much of someone's time, rights, personal life,...
ex: He never allows work to encroach UPON his family life.

(v) to advance beyond the usual limit, to slowly begin to cover more and more of an area.
ex: the growing town soon encroached ON the surrounding countryside.
encroachment
(n) INFRINGEMENT, intrusion, trespass, violation, entry to another's property without right or permission.

ex: The regime's many encroachments ON human rights
implacable
(adj) (of strong negative opinions or feelings) incapable of being placated, that cannot not be mollified, soothed or changed.
ex: If you really offended your best friend and tried every kind of apology but she refused to speak to you again, you could describe her as implacable.

(adj) (of a person) unwilling to stop opposing something.
ex: Once an implacable foe of capitalism, the People's Republic of China in recent years seems, in practice if not in principle, to have embraced it.
plausible
(adj) (of an excuse or explanation) reasonable and likely to be true, apparently reasonable, valid, and truthful.
ex: Others find the mirage explanation plausible — but only in limited scenarios.

(adj) (of a person) (disapproving) good at sounding honest and sincere, especially when trying to trick people.
ex: she was a plausible liar.
plausibility
(n) (of an excuse or explanation) apparent validity, the quality of being reasonable and likely to be true.

ex: this new evidence lends plausibility to the theory that she was murdered.
implausible
(adj) (of an excuse or explanation) not seeming reasonable or likely to be true.

ex: to say that Napoleon Bonaparte achieved what he did merely because he was compensating for his shortness is simplistic, reductionistic, and implausible.
implicit
(adj) (OPP: Explicit) implied, suggested without being directly expressed.
ex: Implicit in his speech was the assumption that they were guilty.

(adj) ABSOLUTE, complete and not doubted.
ex: she had the implicit trust of her staff.
implode
(v) to collapse inward violently, to burst or explode into the center.
ex: the building was imploded in order to make way for the construction of a new apartment complex.

(v) (of an organization, a system,...) to fail suddenly and completely.
implosion
(n) a sudden inward collapse/ burst/ explosion.

ex: Kelly said that by increasing the number of floors rigged with explosives, demolishers can better control implosions.
imprecate
(v) to CURSE, wish harm upon; invoke evil upon.

ex: He imprecated bitter curses on the palace where she died, and he ordered it to be destroyed.
imprecation
(n) a CURSE, an offensive word used to express extreme anger.

ex: the convicted man was taken away by court officers, uttering imprecations against the jury that had found him guilty.
impute
(v) to attribute or credit to, to name the cause of something that has happened,
ex: you might impute your ability to sing well to the thousands of dollars your parents spent in voice lessons. In other words, you name the source.

(v) to attribute the fault to; to say, often unfairly, that someone is responsible for something.
ex: The teacher imputed the student's failure to his nervousness.
imputation
(n) the attribution to a source or cause
ex: the imputation that my success was due to nepotism meant that I was not taken seriously.

(n) a statement attributing something dishonest (especially a criminal offense).
ex: he denied the imputation
retina
(n) a layer of tissue at the back of the eye that is sensitive to light and sends signals to the brain about what is seen.
imminent
(adj) (especially of something unpleasant) likely to happen very soon.

ex: the first mate warned the captain of the submarine that implosion was imminent.
imminence
(n) (especially of something unpleasant) the state of being likely to happen soon.

ex: recent polls have recorded a similar drop in public alarm about the imminence of climate-triggered disaster.
inadvertently
(adv) UNINTENTIONALLY, by accident, without the intending to,

ex: the songwriter said that it is easy to inadvertently use the melody of another song when composing.
inadvertence
(n) an unintentional omission resulting from failure to notice something

ex: By some inadvertence he had exchanged two similar vials; he had given Mamma the wrong medicine.
incarnate
(v) to EMBODY, to give a definite or human form to a particular idea or quality.

(adj) in human form, having bodily form.
ex: Christians believe that Jesus Christ was God incarnate.
incarnation
(n) EMBODIMENT, a person who represents a quality, for example, in human form.
ex: The word incarnation came to life in religious contexts and is used when talking about gods and deities that take on human or animal forms.

(n) a period of life in a particular form.
ex: if you are a garbage collector in this life, you might get to be royalty in your next incarnation.
inchoate
(adj) only partly in existence; imperfectly formed, just beginning to form and therefore not clear or developed.

ex: In his book Chronicles, Bob Dylan described the process of how some of his songs went from an inchoate state to finished, well-produced songs.
incongruous
(adj) INAPPROPRIATE, strange, not suitable in a situation.

ex: the assumption underlying Jonathan Swift's definition of literary style- "The proper words in the proper order"- recognize that there are many effective styles, but that the effectiveness of each is dependent on the context within it is found: for example, the rambling, exuberant style of Walt Whitman's poem "Song of myself" would be incongruous in Alexander Pope's "The rape of the lock" with its dependence on sustained wit and irony.
incongruity
(n) the quality of being unsuitable and inappropriate.

ex: there is an incongruity BETWEEN the poem's solemn tone and its lighthearted theme.
satire
(n) witty language used to convey insults or scorn.

ex: Politicians are easy targets for satire, especially when they're acting self-righteous or hypocritical.
satirical
(adj) using witty language to convey insults or scorn, or to criticize someone.

ex: something that is satirical often looks like the real thing in order to make fun of it., like a satirical take on the glamorous world of fashion that portrays all the designers as celebrity-obsessed and unconcerned with true artistry.
satirist
(n) a humorist who uses ridicule and irony and sarcasm to convey insults or scorn, or to criticize someone.

ex: Prominent individuals, such as Prince Rupert, became marks for the satirist's wit.
satirize
(v) to ridicule with satire, to use satire to show the faults in a person, an organization, a system,...

ex: I never heard him ridicule or satirize a human being.