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Chapter 13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy

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Monroe
last president of the Virginia Dynasty
Henry Clay
candidate in the Election of 1824; eliminated first, but was the Speaker of the House; basically got to choose who the president would be
Corrupt Bargain of 1824
as Speaker of the House Clay chose Adams as president because he was also a nationalist and supporter of the American System; Adams made him Secretary of State
Adams
irritable, sarcastic, and tactless; unpopular; accused of corruption, refused to oust officeholders to fill positions with his supporters
increase infrastructure, astronomical observatory, attempt to deal fairly with Indians
Adams' actions in office
Election of 1828
election between Adams (National Republican) and Jackson (Democratic Republican)
Adams
during the Election of 1828: portrayed as oak, corrupt, accused of gambling and big pimpin', supporters from the Northeast and New England
Jackson
during the Election of 1828: portrayed as Hickory, frontiersman, common man, western and southern support
Jackson
winner of the election of 1828 by a landslide in the Electoral College
Spoils System
system of rewarding political supporters with public office; rampant under Jackson
Tariff of 1828
Jacksonites proposed a huge tariff expecting to be defeated; would look really bad for Adams; it passed and Jackson was stuck with the hot potato
South
most angered over the Tariff of 1828; felt discriminated against because they were having tough economic times while the north's manufacturing flourished; not protected by their own tariff
The Exposition
pamphlet by Calhoun; called the tariff of 1828 unconstitutional; called on states to nullify the tariff
Tariff of 1832
response to the Nullies in South Carolina; pared away the worst abominations, but still protective; did not quite meet Southern demands
Compromise Tariff of 1833
reduced the tariff of 1832 by 10% over 8 years; favored by Calhoun and the South
Force Bill
authorized the president to use the army and navy if necessary to collect federal tariff duties
The Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians
sent missionaries to the Native Americans in attempts to assimilate them into White society
Cherokees
Georgia tribe which adopted white customs such as alphabet, schools, three branches of government, and slavery
1828
year that Georgia declared the Indian government illegal and exacted their control over the Indian nations
Indian Removal Act
transplanting of all indian tribes east of the Mississippi (under Jackson); forced migration
Bureau of Indian Affairs
administered relations with Native Americans; Government's promises went up in smoke as settlers continued to push west
Black Hawk's Rebellion
Indians led by Black Hawk resisted eviction, but were crushed by American troops
Seminole
tribe that rebelled against eviction under their leader Osceola, until he was captured
Nicholas Biddle
president of the Bank of the United States; Jackson felt he had too much power over the nation's finances
Clay and Webster
pushed for a renewal of the Bank's charter 4 years early to make it an election issue; if the president vetoed it, it would alienate the wealthy, if he passed it, it would alienate his western followers
McCulloch vs. Marylans
Marshall court case in which the Bank of the United States was deemed constitutional
Election of 1832
`Clay vs. Jackson; Anti-Masonic party emerges
Anti-Masonic Party
opposed the influence and secrecy of orders such as the masons; appealed to evangelical protestants who wanted religion at the forefront of everyday life; influence in Mid-Atlantic and New England States
1833
year that Jackson decides to exterminate the bank by withdrawing all federal deposits; Jackson's Cabinet opposed
Biddle's Panic
Biddle called in all the loans for the bank; collapsed it along with several other smaller banks; smaller wildcat banks got federal funding and started printing paper money like crazy
Specie Circular
issued by Jackson; required all public lands to be purchased with metallic money
Whigs
Recalled British and Revolutionary American opposition to monarchy;l united under hatred of Jackson; supporters of the American System, states' rights, northern industrialists and merchants, evangelical protestants; conservative
Election of 1836
Martin Van Buren vs. William Henry Harrison; Van Buren squeaked by into presidency
Van Buren
accomplished strategist and spoilsman, statesman of wide experience, intelligent and educated, mild-mannered
conflict with Britain along northern frontier, anti-slavery movement, annexation of Texas, prelude to economic depression
problems faced by Van Buren
Panic of 1837
caused by rampant overspeculation of Western lands and failure of wheat crops, economic failures in Britain as well; caused many American banks and factories to close; high unemployment rate
Divorce Bill
divorced the government from the Bank forever
Independent Treasury Bill
created an independent government treasury; went through a cycle of being approved and declined until it merged with the Federal Reserve System in the next century
Stephen Austin
granted land by Mexican government in exchange for bringing in 300 Roman Catholic Families; went to Santa Anna to negotiate slavery and was put in prison
slavery, immigration, local rights
issues between the Americans and the Texans
Lone Star Rebellion
Texans declared their independence under Sam Houston
1836
year that Texans declared their independence
Alamo
site where the Mexican forces trapped and slaughtered the American forces including Bowie and Crockett
San Jacinto
site where American forces led the Mexicans and attacked during their siesta; captured Santa Anna and got him to sign two treaties
withdraw mexican troops, recognize rio grande as Texan border
agreements of Santa Anna to the Texan forces
Election of 1840
demonstrated how aristocracy was looked down upon and the common man was revered; demonstrated the emergence of a two-party system; Van Buren vs. William Henry Harrison
Whigs
□ Harmony of society and community
□ Use government to realize objectives
□ Renewed national bank
□ Protective tariff
□ Internal improvements
□ Moral reforms
Democrats
□ Liberty of the individual
□ Hated inroads of privilege into government
□ States' rights and federal restraint
Cherokee vs. Georgia
Marshall rules that Indians have no standing in court because they are not a foreign nation
Worcester vs. Georgia
§ NA community was a distinct political community in which the laws of Georgia could not apply
§ Their land could only be entered with permission
§ Essentially saying that you cannot move Native Americans
§ Certain degree of sovereignty there