How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

69 terms

Microbiology Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Polyenes
Drug Description: Antifungal drug that inhibits cell membranes
Polyenes
Description and mode of action: Inhibits cell membrane by forming a pore through the fungal membrane, which leads to leakage of essential ions from the cell
Polyenes
Representative: Amphotericin B
Quinolones
Drug Description: Antiprotozoal drug that inhibits DNA synthesis
Quinolones
Description and mode of action: Inhibits metabolism of malaria parasites by one or more unknown methods
Quinolones
representative: Several such as chloroquine
Tetracycline
Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits protein synthesis
Tetracycline
Description and mode of action: Prevents tRNA molecules from binding to ribosomes @ the 30S subunits docking site
Tetracycline
Representative: Tetracycline
Trimethoprim
Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that are antimetabolites
Trimethoprim
Description and mode of action: Blocks second metabolic step in the formation of folic acid from PABA; synergistic with sulfonamides
Trimethoprim
Representative: Trimethoprim
Vancomycin
Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis
Vancomycin
Description and mode of action: Directly interferes with the formation of alanine-alanine bridges between NAM subunits
Vancomycin
Representative: Vancomycin
Macrolides
Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis
Macrolides
Description and mode of action: Binds to 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes and preventing the elongation of the nascent protein
Macrolides
Representative: Erythromycin
Beta-lactams
Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis
Beta-lactams
Representative: Methicillin
Beta-lactams
Description and mode of action: Binds to and deactivates the enzymes that cross link the NAM subunits of peptidoglycan
Ribavirin
Drug Description: Antiviral drug that inhibits nucleic acid synthesis
Ribavirin
Representative: Ribavirin
Ribavirin
Description and mode of action: Inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis; viral DNA polymerase more likely to incorporate the drugs
Polymyxin
Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that alter cytoplasmic membranes of susceptible cells
Polymyxin
Representative: Polymyxin
Polymyxin
Description and mode of action: Destroys cytoplasm membranes of susceptible cells
Sulfonamides
Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that are antimetabolites
Sulfonamides
Representative: Several such as sulfadoxine
Sulfonamides
Description and mode of action: Analogs of PABA that bind irreversibly to enzyme that produces dihydrofolic acid; synergistic with Trimethoprim
Budding
In prokaryotes and yeasts, reproductive process in which an outgrowth of the parent cell receives a copy of the genetic material, enlarges, and detaches. In virology, extrusion of enveloped virions through the host's cell membrane
Ontogenesis
Theory suggests that more than one hit to the DNA whether caused by virus or various physical or chemical agents, is required to induce cancer. In this theory, revolves around the presence of proto-oncogenes, when repressed no cancer results
Persistent Infection
Infections with enveloped viruses in which host cells shed viruses slowly and relatively steadily. A curve showing virus abundance over time during a persistent infection lacks the burst of new virions seen in lyptic cycle
Latency
The process where a virus remains dormant in cells. For example Chickenpox and Herpes
Ionizing radiation
What is used for microbial control in fresh fruits and vegetables?
UV light & HEPA filters
What can be used to disinfect air?
Autoclaving and Incineration
Effective means of sterilization
Viruses & control of microbes (destroy the membrane)
70% alcohol is effective against what?
Inhibit cell wall synthesis
What do penicillins, cephalosporins, bacitracin, and vancomycin do?
Inhibit protein synthesis
What do Chloramphenicol plus clindamycin and metronidazole, Erythromycin, Tetracyclines, and Streptomycin do?
Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
What do Quinolones & Rifamycins (rifampin) do?
Injury to plasma membrane
What do polymyxin B (Gm. Neg.)& Miconazole fungi cause?
Inhibit synthesis of essential metabolites
What do Sulfanilamide & Trimethoprim do?
Brain
Infection of the _____ would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs
They are caused by viruses
Why is it inappropriate to prescribe antibacterial agents to treat clods or flu?
Inhibiting protein synthesis
Most broad-spectrum antibiotics act by ________?
Retarding Resistance
β-lactamase production is an example of what type of resistance? (Inactivation of the drug)
Spirochete
What is a flexible, spiral-shape bacterium
Hyperthermophiles
Microbes growing in boiling hot mineral springs are generally ________?
Bacillus and Clostridium
Which bacterial genera produce endospores?
Scarce
Endospores can be produced when nutrients are ______?
Lactobacillus
________ protects areas of the body such as the intestinal tract and the vagina from invasion by pathogen
Tetanus, Gangrene, Botulism, Diarrhea
What are the diseases associated with clostridia?
Viroid
_____ are small circular pieces of RNA with no capsid that infect and cause disease in plants. Similar pathogenic RNA molecules have been found in fungi. Also, are acellular disease-causing agents that lack cell structure and cannot metabolize, grow, self-reproduce, or respond to their environment
Attachment, Entry, Synthesis, Release
What are the stages of Lytic replication cycle in order?
Lysogeny
_______ is advantageous to Bacteriophages since the genetic material of the Bacteriophages can be passed on the future generations of cells
Cytoplasm
In contrast to most dsDNA animal viruses, the poxviruses replicate solely in the ________ of the host cell
Capsid
What is the infectious particles of fungi have RNA genomes and lack a ______? (like viriods)
Symptoms
What are subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel
Signs
What are observable characteristics of a disease
Pneumocystis jiroveci
The fungus _______ _______ is found in the lungs of most people in low numbers, but in immunocompromised people it overgrows, resulting in serve respiratory problems. The fungus is best described as both resident microbiota and opportunistic pathogen
Fomites
What are objects inadvertently used to transfer pathogens to new hosts, e.g. Glass and towel?
Vibrio cholera
Write the name of the organism that causes cholera
Parasitisms
A relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other is called ________?
Reservoir
A source of microbial contamination is known as a ________?
Botulism & HPV
List two diseases due to lysogenic conversion (phage conversion)
Retrovirus
What type of virus cause AIDS?
Feline spongiform encephalopathies, Kuru in human
List two diseases caused by prions
Borrelia burgdorferi
Write the name of the organism that causes Lyme disease