Kin 143 - SFU
Exercise: health and performance
Terms in this set (53)
Genotype + environment =
do you: participate in everyday activities without feeling undue fatigue? become exhausted from unexpected, demanding physical exertion? "Fit for what?!"
changes in gene expression/phenotype caused by changes other than underlying DNA sequence
components, physical fitness
Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance
performance related components can impact health, but are generally more specialized. However, example of elderly given exercise of repeatedly getting up and down is a specialized performance components which impacts health.
Movements which have am everyday application. eg. squat/press - lifting. marathon runners upper body fitness very low - not functional for everyday use, etc.
General physical skills (10)
2. cardiovascular/respiratory endurance
5. Stamina (muscular endurance)
10. Power (max force, min time)
Cardiovascular Disease (part - metabolic syndrome: elevated blood pressure, obesity, elevated blood fat, resistance to insulin) Chronic disease (from lifestyle components rather than infection) biggest killers in N. America.
The activity of natural killer cells is reduced after periods of intense exercise, increasing chances of infection during recovery.
Specific (what, where when etc)
Acceptable (feel good about doing it?)
Realistic (money, current fitness etc)
Timely (set short and long-term goals)
Physical activity Vs Exercise
Physical Activity—Any activity above resting levels, such as going for a walk or gardening.
Exercise—A subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, such as swimming for 30 minutes three times per week.
Physiologic conditioning (principles)
Overload principle - adapting to stress, super-compensation.
Specificity principle - adapting to type of training
Reversibility principle - adapting to training reduction (use it or lose it)
Individual differences principle - limits to adaptability
F is for frequency or "How often?"
I is for intensity or "How hard?" (60-90% age-predicted max)
T is for time or "How long?"
T is for type or "Which activities?"
Heart rate reserve (HRR)
Maximal heart rate = 220 - 22 = 198 bpm
Maximal heart rate minus resting heart rate = 198 - 60 = 138 bpm
Lower level of target heart rate range
Resting heart rate plus 50% of HRR = 60 + (0.50´ x 138) = 129 bpm
Upper level of target heart rate range
Resting heart rate plus 85% of HRR = 60 + (0.85´ x 138) = 177 bpm
Target heart rate range = 129 - 177 bpm
10-second target heart rate ˜ 22 - 30 beats
Energy Vs Power
Energy - capacity to perform work
Power - rate of change/production of energy, how quickly we perform work.
cervical flexion - neck
left - rotation right, flexion left
right - rotation left, flexion left
flex and horizontally adduct arm
shoulder abduction - when shoulder is internally rotated
shoulder flexion - when shoulder is internally rotated
shoulder transverse abduction - when shoulder externally rotated)
extend and horizontally abduct the arm
Extension and adduction at the shoulder joint.
Flexion, horizontal adduction and adduction at the shoulder joint. When the shoulder is flexed the pectoralis major will also act as an extensor.
Flexion at the elbow joint; also a weak flexor of the shoulder.
flexion of the elbow
flexion of the elbow
Extension of the elbow joint
Adduction and downward rotation of the scapula
Rectus Abdominus (abdominals)
Internal/external obliques (abdominals)
Both work together to help produce trunk flexion. The left external oblique and right internal oblique would cause rotation to the right.
Extension of the spine
Extension of the spine (two muscles)
Extension at the hip
Extension at the knee (all fur muscles). Rectus femoris - only one which crosses hip joint too, hip flexion as well as knee extension.
Flexion at the knee and extension at the hip (three muscles)
adduction of the thigh (toward midline)(five muscles)
abduction of the thigh (away from midline) (three muscles)
Dorsiflexion of ankle (toes towards knee)http://www.exrx.net/Graphics/TibialisAnterior.gif
Planter flexion at ankle (toe away from knee) and flexion at the knee - biarticulate.
Plantar flexion (toe pointing away from knee) at the ankle.
muscle that causes the motion of the exercise. So the biceps is an agonist in the biceps curl.
muscle that can move the joint opposite to the movement produced by the agonist. The triceps is the antagonist for the biceps curl.
The primary muscle intended for exercise
muscle that assists another muscle to accomplish a movement.
Resistance training terms
Repetitions - # times exercise consecutively performed
Rep Max (RM) - max number of times an exercise can be performed.
sets - number of groups of reps
intensity - amount of weight used
the end segment of the exercised limb is not fixed, or the end is not supporting the weight. knee extension is an isolated open-chain exercise, as the body is fixed and the knee extends to push a lever upwards.
the end segment of the exercised limb is fixed or the end is supporting the weight. Most compound exercises (exercises that involve two or more joint movements). back squat is a compound closed-chain exercise
Resistance training (benefits, negatives etc)
Strength of bones
Tensile strength of ligaments and tendons
Thickness of cartilage
Muscle mass (hypertrophy)
Stamina (duration of effort before exhaustion)
Flexibility (assuming full range of movement during training)
Speed and power
Blood volume and haemoglobin (with endurance/circuit training)
Muscle enzyme levels
Skill (free weight programs)
Maximal work capacity
Equalization of muscle development
Capillary density in the muscle (from muscular endurance programs only; programs that focus solely on strength may result in capillary dilution)
Stress and tension
Resting heart rate (with endurance/circuit training)
Improve cardio-respiratory function (with endurance/circuit training)
Alter metabolism to improve caloric utilization
Facilitate quicker recovery from workouts and competitions
Increase self-image and confidence
Increase feeling of well-being
Induce fatigue and relaxation (help sleep patterns)
Muscular strength, endurance, power
Strength - greatest amount of force in single maximal effort
Endurance - ability to perform repeated contractions, extended period.
power - ability to produce force quickly force X speed of contraction.
muscular contraction with no change in length of the muscle
muscular contraction where the tension (force) in the muscle is constant
a contraction where the muscle shortens or lengthens at a constant velocity
the muscle is contracting and shortening
he muscle is not only contracting but also lengthening
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