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Chapter 8- Cellular Energy
Terms in this set (57)
The ability to do work; cannot be created nor destroyed
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Two-phase anabolic pathway in which the sun's light energy is converted to chemial energy
Catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy-carrying biological molecule, which, when broken down, drives cellular activities
one of the stacked, flattened, pigment-containing membranes in which light-dependent reactions occur
One of the stacks of pigment-containing thylakoid in a plant's chloroplasts
Fluid-filled space outside the grana in which light-dependent reactions take place
Light-absorbing colored molecule, such as chlorophyll and cartenoid, in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
Uses the products of te light reactions to make glucose. Light-independent reactions during phase 2 of photosynthesis.
Metabolic process that does NOT require oxygen
A metabolic process that DOES require oxygen
Anaerobic proccess; first stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate
Series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide inside the mitochondria of cells; also called tricarboxylic acid cycle and the citric acid cycle
Process in which NAD+ is regenerated, allowing cells to maintain glycolysis in the absence of oxygen
What are the 3 inputs of photosynthesis?
Solar energy(light), carbon dioxide, water
What is the overview equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
What absorbs light energy and converts it to chemical energy?
Why do plants look green?
The chlorophyll REFLECTS green light
The flow of enegy in photosynthesis starts with light energy, which is converted to chemical energy in the form of?
ATP and NADPH
What do ATP and NADPH make?
What are some other names for the Calvin cycle?
Dark reactions or light independent reaction
What is the steps of the light reactions?
1) Photosystem 2
2) ATP- producing electron transport chain
3) Photosystem 1
4) NADPH- producing electron transport chain
Where are chloroplasts most concentrated?
What do plants do with the glucose they produce?
Cellular respiration, make organic molecules, and stores excess
How do plants capture light energy?
What are the 3 parts of the ATP molecule?
Adenine, ribose, phosphate group
What are the two stages of photosynthesis?
In light reactions, where does energy flow to?
ATP and NADPH
Cluster of chlorophylland other molecules built into the thylakoid membrane which can capture light energy
Where do excited electrons
Photosystem 2 to photosystem 1 in an electron transport chain
A molecule built into the membrane that produces ATP from ADP as H+ ions pass through
What are the inputs of the Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH from the light reactions and carbon dioxide from the air
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
Where does the light- dependent reactions occur?
What is the output of the Calvin Cycle?
G3P, which will be used to make glucose
Why is the Calvin cycle called a cycle?
The starting molecule, RuBP, is regenerated to be used again
What process do animals use to turn glucose into energy for the cell?
Where does cellular respiration take place?
Produce their own food; producers
Must consume food; consumers
Openings or pores on the underside of the leaf where carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits
What does photosynthesis produce?
Where do plants store glucose?
Leaves, stems, fruit, or roots
What is the primary site for photosynthesis?
Carries water and sugar to various parts of the plant
The small part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
What is ATP and NADPH used for?
To make glucose
When is energy released?
When a phosphate group is pulled away during a chemical reaction
High energy electron carrier
Harvest light energy to produce ATP and NADPH
What are the products of light reactions?
ATP, Oxygen, NADPH
What are the nicknames of the Calvin Cycle?
Light- independent reactions
What does the Calvin cycle require? What does it not require?
Requires: products of the light reactions
NOT required: light
Why is photosynthesis so important?
Photosynthesis is the ultimate source of all the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat.
What is the overview equation for Cellular Respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
the diffusion of ions through a semi-permeable membrane. This diffusion through an ATP Synthase molecule produces ATP from ADP.
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