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Industrial Revolution

great increase in machine production that began in England in the 18th century


large, closed-in field for farming

Crop Rotation

planting a different crop in a different field each year


process of developing machine production of goods

Factors of Production

conditions needed to produce goods and services; land, labor, capital


Building where goods are made


person who organizes, manages, and takes on the financial rick of a business enterprise

Jethro Tull

invented a seed drill


What was the first country to industrialize?


What industry was the first to industrialize?

Richard Arkwright

invented water frame (water powered spinning machine)

Samuel Compton

invented spinning mule (better thread)

Edmund Cartwright

invented power loom(sped up cloth making process)

Robert Fulton

American who invented first steam-driven boat

George Stephenson

British engineer who set up world's first railroad line


city building and the movement of people to cities

middle class

a social class of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealth farmers

Living conditions- crowded; limiting housing, schooling, and police protection; filth, garbage, sickness; 17 year life expectancy in city, 38 year life expectancy countryside
Working conditions- 14 hours a day, 6 days a week; many workers killed or injured on the job

What were major changes in living conditions and working conditions?


right of ownership in a company called a corporation


business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not responsible for its debts

Samuel Slater

British worker who brought the secret to Britain's textile making to North America

Laissez Faire

economic theory that argues that governments should not interfere with business affairs

Adam Smith

Philosopher who defended Iaissez faire economics; governments should not put limits on business, freedom would help a nation's economy grow; supported capitalism


economic system in which people invest money to make a profit


belief that an idea is only as good as it is useful; unfair for workers to work so hard for little pay and bad conditions; governments should work to end great differences in wealth among people


belief that businesses should be owned by society as a whole; a few people would not grow wealthy at the expense of everyone else; grown out of belief in progress and concern for justice and fairness

Karl Marx

German economic thinker who wrote about a radical form of socialism; Marxism; factory owners and workers would struggle for power; capitalism would destroy itself; great mass of workers would rebel against the wealthy few; wrote Communist Manifesto


form of socialism in which all production is owned by the people


organized groups of workers that bargain with business owners to get better pay and working conditions


organized refusal to work

Communist Manifesto

described communism; written by Karl Marx


control by a strong nation over a weaker nation


belief that one race is superior to others

Social Darwinism

use of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution to explain human societies; survival of the fittest

Berlin Conference

meeting at which Europeans agreed on rules for colonizing Africa


Zulu chief who created a large centralized state


Dutch colonist in South Africa

Boer War

war between the British and the Boers

Money- Europeans wanted colonies to provide raw materials for factories and to sell their goods to new colonies
National Pride- nations wanted to gain colonies to show national strength
Racism- Europeans believed that whites were better than other races
Missionaries- support; thought that European rule would end slave trade ; wanted to convert others to Christianity

What were the 4 basic reasons for imperialism?

Gold and silver were discovered there.

Why was Europe interested in Africa?


governing in a parental way by providing for needs but not giving rights


absorbing colonized people into the culture of the imperialist nation; french

Menelik II

leader of Ethiopian resistance

colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, economic imperialism

What were the 4 forms of control?


area ruled by foreign government


runs own daily affairs, but is controlled by an imperialist nation

sphere of nation

area where an imperialist nation has exclusive economic rights

economic imperialism

a situation where an independent nation is controlled by foreign business rather than foreign governments


interest in or taking or land for its location or products

Crimean War

conflict in which the Ottoman Empire halted Russian expansion near the Black Sea

Suez Canal

Human- made waterway connecting the Red and Mediterranean Seas

Muhammad Ali

reformed army and economy


Indian soldier under British control

"jewel in the crown"

term referring to India as the most valuable of all British colonies

Sepoy Mutiny

uprising of Indian soldiers against the British


British rule over India from 1757 to 1947

Ram Mohun Roy

urged changes in traditional Indian practices and wanted to make Indian society more modern and to free India of foreign control

Pacific Rim

Southeast Asian mainland and islands along the rim of the Pacific Ocean

King Mongkut

King who helped Siam modernize

Emilio Aguinaldo

leader of Filipino nationalist


adding of territory

Queen Liliuokalani

last Hawaiian ruler of Hawaii

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