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62 terms

World History Unit 6

STUDY
PLAY
Industrial Revolution
great increase in machine production that began in England in the 18th century
Enclosure
large, closed-in field for farming
Crop Rotation
planting a different crop in a different field each year
Industrialization
process of developing machine production of goods
Factors of Production
conditions needed to produce goods and services; land, labor, capital
Factory
Building where goods are made
Entrepreneur
person who organizes, manages, and takes on the financial rick of a business enterprise
Jethro Tull
invented a seed drill
Britain
What was the first country to industrialize?
Textile
What industry was the first to industrialize?
Richard Arkwright
invented water frame (water powered spinning machine)
Samuel Compton
invented spinning mule (better thread)
Edmund Cartwright
invented power loom(sped up cloth making process)
Robert Fulton
American who invented first steam-driven boat
George Stephenson
British engineer who set up world's first railroad line
urbanization
city building and the movement of people to cities
middle class
a social class of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealth farmers
Living conditions- crowded; limiting housing, schooling, and police protection; filth, garbage, sickness; 17 year life expectancy in city, 38 year life expectancy countryside
Working conditions- 14 hours a day, 6 days a week; many workers killed or injured on the job
What were major changes in living conditions and working conditions?
stock
right of ownership in a company called a corporation
corporation
business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not responsible for its debts
Samuel Slater
British worker who brought the secret to Britain's textile making to North America
Laissez Faire
economic theory that argues that governments should not interfere with business affairs
Adam Smith
Philosopher who defended Iaissez faire economics; governments should not put limits on business, freedom would help a nation's economy grow; supported capitalism
Capitalism
economic system in which people invest money to make a profit
Utilitarianism
belief that an idea is only as good as it is useful; unfair for workers to work so hard for little pay and bad conditions; governments should work to end great differences in wealth among people
Socialism
belief that businesses should be owned by society as a whole; a few people would not grow wealthy at the expense of everyone else; grown out of belief in progress and concern for justice and fairness
Karl Marx
German economic thinker who wrote about a radical form of socialism; Marxism; factory owners and workers would struggle for power; capitalism would destroy itself; great mass of workers would rebel against the wealthy few; wrote Communist Manifesto
Communism
form of socialism in which all production is owned by the people
Union
organized groups of workers that bargain with business owners to get better pay and working conditions
Strike
organized refusal to work
Communist Manifesto
described communism; written by Karl Marx
Imperialism
control by a strong nation over a weaker nation
Racism
belief that one race is superior to others
Social Darwinism
use of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution to explain human societies; survival of the fittest
Berlin Conference
meeting at which Europeans agreed on rules for colonizing Africa
Shaka
Zulu chief who created a large centralized state
Boer
Dutch colonist in South Africa
Boer War
war between the British and the Boers
Money- Europeans wanted colonies to provide raw materials for factories and to sell their goods to new colonies
National Pride- nations wanted to gain colonies to show national strength
Racism- Europeans believed that whites were better than other races
Missionaries- support; thought that European rule would end slave trade ; wanted to convert others to Christianity
What were the 4 basic reasons for imperialism?
Gold and silver were discovered there.
Why was Europe interested in Africa?
Paternalism
governing in a parental way by providing for needs but not giving rights
Assimilation
absorbing colonized people into the culture of the imperialist nation; french
Menelik II
leader of Ethiopian resistance
colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, economic imperialism
What were the 4 forms of control?
colony
area ruled by foreign government
protectorate
runs own daily affairs, but is controlled by an imperialist nation
sphere of nation
area where an imperialist nation has exclusive economic rights
economic imperialism
a situation where an independent nation is controlled by foreign business rather than foreign governments
geopolitics
interest in or taking or land for its location or products
Crimean War
conflict in which the Ottoman Empire halted Russian expansion near the Black Sea
Suez Canal
Human- made waterway connecting the Red and Mediterranean Seas
Muhammad Ali
reformed army and economy
sepoy
Indian soldier under British control
"jewel in the crown"
term referring to India as the most valuable of all British colonies
Sepoy Mutiny
uprising of Indian soldiers against the British
Raj
British rule over India from 1757 to 1947
Ram Mohun Roy
urged changes in traditional Indian practices and wanted to make Indian society more modern and to free India of foreign control
Pacific Rim
Southeast Asian mainland and islands along the rim of the Pacific Ocean
King Mongkut
King who helped Siam modernize
Emilio Aguinaldo
leader of Filipino nationalist
annexation
adding of territory
Queen Liliuokalani
last Hawaiian ruler of Hawaii