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great increase in machine production that began in England in the 18th century
person who organizes, manages, and takes on the financial rick of a business enterprise
Living conditions- crowded; limiting housing, schooling, and police protection; filth, garbage, sickness; 17 year life expectancy in city, 38 year life expectancy countryside
Working conditions- 14 hours a day, 6 days a week; many workers killed or injured on the job
What were major changes in living conditions and working conditions?
business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not responsible for its debts
economic theory that argues that governments should not interfere with business affairs
Philosopher who defended Iaissez faire economics; governments should not put limits on business, freedom would help a nation's economy grow; supported capitalism
belief that an idea is only as good as it is useful; unfair for workers to work so hard for little pay and bad conditions; governments should work to end great differences in wealth among people
belief that businesses should be owned by society as a whole; a few people would not grow wealthy at the expense of everyone else; grown out of belief in progress and concern for justice and fairness
German economic thinker who wrote about a radical form of socialism; Marxism; factory owners and workers would struggle for power; capitalism would destroy itself; great mass of workers would rebel against the wealthy few; wrote Communist Manifesto
organized groups of workers that bargain with business owners to get better pay and working conditions
use of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution to explain human societies; survival of the fittest
Money- Europeans wanted colonies to provide raw materials for factories and to sell their goods to new colonies
National Pride- nations wanted to gain colonies to show national strength
Racism- Europeans believed that whites were better than other races
Missionaries- support; thought that European rule would end slave trade ; wanted to convert others to Christianity
What were the 4 basic reasons for imperialism?
a situation where an independent nation is controlled by foreign business rather than foreign governments
Ram Mohun Roy
urged changes in traditional Indian practices and wanted to make Indian society more modern and to free India of foreign control
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