great increase in machine production that began in England in the 18th century
large, closed-in field for farming
planting a different crop in a different field each year
process of developing machine production of goods
Factors of Production
conditions needed to produce goods and services; land, labor, capital
Building where goods are made
person who organizes, manages, and takes on the financial rick of a business enterprise
invented a seed drill
What was the first country to industrialize?
What industry was the first to industrialize?
invented water frame (water powered spinning machine)
invented spinning mule (better thread)
invented power loom(sped up cloth making process)
American who invented first steam-driven boat
British engineer who set up world's first railroad line
city building and the movement of people to cities
a social class of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealth farmers
Living conditions- crowded; limiting housing, schooling, and police protection; filth, garbage, sickness; 17 year life expectancy in city, 38 year life expectancy countryside
Working conditions- 14 hours a day, 6 days a week; many workers killed or injured on the job
What were major changes in living conditions and working conditions?
right of ownership in a company called a corporation
business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not responsible for its debts
British worker who brought the secret to Britain's textile making to North America
economic theory that argues that governments should not interfere with business affairs
Philosopher who defended Iaissez faire economics; governments should not put limits on business, freedom would help a nation's economy grow; supported capitalism
economic system in which people invest money to make a profit
belief that an idea is only as good as it is useful; unfair for workers to work so hard for little pay and bad conditions; governments should work to end great differences in wealth among people
belief that businesses should be owned by society as a whole; a few people would not grow wealthy at the expense of everyone else; grown out of belief in progress and concern for justice and fairness
German economic thinker who wrote about a radical form of socialism; Marxism; factory owners and workers would struggle for power; capitalism would destroy itself; great mass of workers would rebel against the wealthy few; wrote Communist Manifesto
form of socialism in which all production is owned by the people
organized groups of workers that bargain with business owners to get better pay and working conditions
organized refusal to work
described communism; written by Karl Marx
control by a strong nation over a weaker nation
belief that one race is superior to others
use of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution to explain human societies; survival of the fittest
meeting at which Europeans agreed on rules for colonizing Africa
Zulu chief who created a large centralized state
Dutch colonist in South Africa
war between the British and the Boers
Money- Europeans wanted colonies to provide raw materials for factories and to sell their goods to new colonies
National Pride- nations wanted to gain colonies to show national strength
Racism- Europeans believed that whites were better than other races
Missionaries- support; thought that European rule would end slave trade ; wanted to convert others to Christianity
What were the 4 basic reasons for imperialism?
Gold and silver were discovered there.
Why was Europe interested in Africa?
governing in a parental way by providing for needs but not giving rights
absorbing colonized people into the culture of the imperialist nation; french
leader of Ethiopian resistance
colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, economic imperialism
What were the 4 forms of control?
area ruled by foreign government
runs own daily affairs, but is controlled by an imperialist nation
sphere of nation
area where an imperialist nation has exclusive economic rights
a situation where an independent nation is controlled by foreign business rather than foreign governments
interest in or taking or land for its location or products
conflict in which the Ottoman Empire halted Russian expansion near the Black Sea
Human- made waterway connecting the Red and Mediterranean Seas
reformed army and economy
Indian soldier under British control
"jewel in the crown"
term referring to India as the most valuable of all British colonies
uprising of Indian soldiers against the British
British rule over India from 1757 to 1947
Ram Mohun Roy
urged changes in traditional Indian practices and wanted to make Indian society more modern and to free India of foreign control
Southeast Asian mainland and islands along the rim of the Pacific Ocean
King who helped Siam modernize
leader of Filipino nationalist
adding of territory
last Hawaiian ruler of Hawaii
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