Terms in this set (55)
-processing of information into the memory system
- for example, by extracting meaning
-retention of encoded information over time
-process of getting information out of memory storage
-immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short Term Memory
-activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits (of a phone # while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten
Long Term Memory
-relatively permanent & limitless storehouse of the memory system
-knowledge, skills and experiences.
-newer understanding of short-term memory
-focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
-processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously
-the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision
-Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving
-unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, & frequency, & of well-learned information, such as word meanings
-encoding that requires attention & conscious effort
-conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
-tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Serial Positioning Effect
-tendency to recall best the last & first items in a list.
-encoding of picture images.
-encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
-encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
-powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
-memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
-organizing items into familiar, manageable units
-often occurs automatically
-momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
-photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second
-momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
-if attention is elsewhere, sounds & words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Long-Term Potentiating (LTP)
-increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
-Believed to be a neural basis for learning & memory
-clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
-retention independent of conscious recollection (non-declarative or procedural memory)
-memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
-a neural centre that is located in the limbic system
-helps process explicit memories for storage
-measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
-measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
-measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
-activation, often unconsciously, of certain association, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
-eerie sense that "I've experience this before."
=Cues form the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an early experience
Mood Congruent Memory
-tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
-disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
-disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
-(psychoanalytic theory basic defense mechanism): banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
-incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
-attributing to the wrong sources and event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined (source misattribution)
-Some amnesia, along with misinformation
effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
-He & Richard Shiffrin proposed that we form memories in three stages:
1. sensory memory.
2. short-term memory
3.long-term memory for later retrieval.
-Working memory associates new and old information & solves problems
-Words heard underwater are best recalled underwater
-words heard on land are best recalled on land (Context Effects)
-serial position effect
-sometimes, rehearsal is not enough to store new information for later recall
-When learning novel information such as names, we can boost our memory through rehearsal, or conscious repetition
-pioneering researcher of verbal memory
-amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
-those who learn quickly forget quickly
-experience modifies the brain's neural networks
-given increased activity in a particular pathway, neural interconnections form or strengthen
-observed in the sending neurons of a California sea slug (Aplysia), observing the slugs' neural connections before and after conditioning, found changes
-( When learning occurs, the slug releases more of the neurotransmitter serotonin at certain synapses. These synapses then become more efficient at transmitting signals)
-the testing effect, adding, "Testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it."
-in one of their studies, students recalled the meaning of 40 previously learned Swahili words much better if tested repeatedly than if they spent the same time restudying the words
-demonstrated that memories do not reside in single, specific spots
-He trained rats to find their way out of a maze, then cut out pieces of their cortexes and retested their memory
-no matter what small brain section he removed, the rats retained at least a partial memory of how to navigate the maze.
-analyzed the vivid "memories" triggered by brain stimulation, found that the seeming flashbacks appeared to have been invented, not relived
H.M. (Henry Molaison)
had a ceasure operation, took out parts that allowed him to learn new memories, only could remember operational tasks
-psychologist given block of 10 digits from the first 30,000 or so digits of pi, Rajan, would pick up the series from there, firing numbers, He could also repeat 50 random digits—backward
-It is not a genetic gift, he said; anyone could learn to do it
-but Rajan's father memorized Shakespeare's complete works (memory capacity, biological?)
-Short-term memory is limited not only in duration but also in capacity, typically storing about seven bits of information (give or take two), he enshrined this recall capacity as the Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two,
-FALSE MEMORIES:created by suggested misinformation and misattributed sources, older adults more susceptible than young adults to false memories
-imagination inflation: repeatedly imagined simple acts such as breaking a toothpick or picking up a stapler later, testing effect
-had patient w/ no memories—thus, no sense of elapsed time,
-7 ways our memories fail us
-7 sins of memory: (Three sins of forgetting, Three sins o distortion, and one sin of intrustion)
-patients w/ memory loss can learn, but have no awareness of having learned them
-worked w/ Kandel to show how experience modifies the brain's neural networks
-He & Richard Atkinson (1968) proposed that we form memories in three stages:
1. sensory memory.
2. short-term memory
3.long-term memory for later retrieval.
-iconic memory, Momentary photographic memory experiment
-To compare visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding, Fergus Craik & he flashed a word @ people
-asked a question that required the viewers to process the words at one of 3 levels (1) visually (the appearance of the letters), (2) acoustically (the sound of the words), or (3) semantically (the meaning of the words)
-the deeper, semantic processing (Q3) yielded much better memory than the "shallow processing" elicited by Q2 & especially by Q1
-(visual, semantic, acoustic encoding),
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