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Islamic Art & Architecture Test 2
Terms in this set (20)
Decoration: Anything that is applied to the top of the surface of a building.
Ornament: The aspect of decoration which seems to have no other purpose other than to enhance its carrier.
What is the difference between ornament and decoration?
The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century and have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having one large dome at the center, there are often smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed. This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes.
Colors also become brighter (like utilizing blues) instead of being mute sand colors.
What are some of the ways the hypostyle mosque plan evolves during the middle period? Give 2 examples.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, and the Alhambra, Spain.
Breaks away from Mohammads teachings.
What types of mausoleums were developed in the middle period in the Muslim world?
Please name 2. What would the prophet Mohammad have thought about them?
The Arabic word for any type of educational institution.
An inn with a central courtyard for travelers in the desert regions of Asia or North Africa.
What are madrasas and caravanserais please give 2 examples?
Like in the Alhambra, diverse social needs were satisfied by essentially creating mini villages within city walls. Mosques and bazzars were assembled in order to create mini economic systems within the big city. This allowed for prayer, socialization. and shopping.
Please give an example of how the diverse social needs of Muslim peoples were
accommodated by developing "architectural complexes" in the middle period, Please
name some examples of such complexes.
Faces/heads on walls, animals and people on jars, paintings/decoration on walls, etc.
What kinds of ornament can you enumerate?
Because it is believed that the more abstract an image is, the less God is offended since he is the the artist of perfection unlike any mortal.
Why is ambiguity of imagery accepted in Islamic art?
In the west, forms are desired to be perfected as this proves the talent and skill of the artist, unlike in Islamic culture where abstract forms and simple geometries are praised as beautiful.
Ornament was also only seen on the frames and used as a filter.
What is the difference between the way ornament is perceived in the West and in
Calligraphy for the Muslim is a visible expression of spiritual concepts. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam.
Why is calligraphy considered the most prestigious art form?
The more abstract and geometrical the piece was (basically the more intricate) the more valuable.
What are the criteria for a successful piece of calligraphic work?
Referred to by Chinese Muslim calligraphers as simply the Chinese or Sini script. Although this word can be used for any distinctly Chinese forms of Islamic calligraphy, Sini specifically refers to a rounded, flowing script, whose letters are distinguished by the use of thick and tapered effects.
What is the difference between Asian and Islamic calligraphic work?
By whom and when were Arabic letters standardized?
It is used as means to reproduce the effects of textile rugs and silks, communicate wealth, luxury, and exuberance, and a means from contemplation.
How is geometry used in Islamic art?
Textiles and rugs.
What is the contribution of the Islamic arts to the artistic category of ornament?
They explain textiles as being the way humans could tell and spread the wisdom and power of God while not totally infringing on the fact that God was the ultimate artist.
How do some Islamic scholars explain ornament as being the manifestation of
Baghdad, and Samarra
Please name the 2 most important Muslim cities of the middle ages.
There was an invasion and conquering by the Mongols. They tore down borders and allowed a new era of trade. This also led to the Mongols converting to Muslims themselves.
What was the most devastating event that came to the Islamic world from the East in
the middle period, and what kind of an "opening" is it said to have brought?
Abstract, highly ornamented textiles carried the highest value in all regions during their peak.
What was the value of textiles in the Islamic societies world aesthetically and
economically, and what kinds of textiles were most prized?
In contrast surviving Islamic metalwork consists of practical objects mostly in brass, bronze, and steel, with simple, but often monumental, shapes, and surfaces highly decorated with dense decoration in a variety of techniques, but colour mostly restricted to inlays of gold, silver, copper or black niello.
What was the prophet Mohammad's teachings about possessing precious metals, and
how did Muslims work around this issue in their decorative arts?
What kinds of books were created as a means for artistic expression in Islamic cultures
during Middle Ages?
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