75 terms

Post Mortem Changes

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Systems Necessary For Life
respiratory
circulatory
nervous
Clinical Definition of Death
Not breathing, no heartbeat, and no neurological function
Cellular Definition of Death
Cells remain alive after clinical death
Legal Definition of Death
Absence of neurological function will be declared dead even though heart may still be beating
Anthropologist
Studies bones
Difference between maggot and pupa
Maggot comes first (larva)
Pupa is the case maggots make before they become an adult
Age of Skeletons
Size of bones
Where bones fuse
Race of Skeletons
Characteristics of the skull
Sex of Skeletons
Use pelvis (up to ~80 is a male)
Races
Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid
Nonhuman Skulls
Big face, tiny brain, small feet, upper limbs are stronger
Short Bones
squareish
(ex: wrist bones)
Long Bones
longer than wide
(ex: femur)
Flat Bones
flat and normally for protection
(ex: sternum)
Irregular Bones
Don't fit into other categories
(ex: pelvis)
Livor Mortis
settling of blood
starts immediately, fixed after 12 hours (can't see until about 2 hours after death)
Rigor Mortis
body stiffening
starts 1-2 hours after death
Algor Mortis
body cooling
starts immediately (1.4 degrees decrease for first 12 hours, slower after)
Mummification
Dry environments, too dry to decompose
Putrefaction
Decomposing leading to liquification of the organs, bacteria causes it
Aidpocere
Body becomes waxy
damp, warm environments
Skeletonization
Removal of soft tissue so just the bones are left, one of the final stages of decomposition
Thoracic
Chest
Ventral
Front
Dorsal
Back
Diatom
Microbes found in water, used for water identification
Abdominal
Stomach
Maggots
Tell us time of death
Primary Cause of Death
immediately caused death (heart/nervous system failure)
Secondary Cause of Death
what led to the primary cause (manner)
Mechanical Death
force
Thermal
Heat
Sharp Force
incisions
Electrical
electrocution, lightning
Chemical
drugs/poison
First Step of Autopsy
Examine outside of body for evidence
GSW
Gun shot wound
Natural Death
natural causes (cancer, stroke, etc.)
Entomologist
studies bugs
Last Step of Autopsy
Incision is sewn shut and body is washed
Petechial Hemorrhages
evidence of strangulation
Second Step of Autopsy
Make y-shaped incision
Time of Death Determined with Eye Fluids?
vitreous potassium levels increase (amount of it can determine)
Which sex has fusion of the sutures first?
Males
How many bones found in an adult?
206
How many bones in a newborn?
450
Body temp is taken in _______ after death
liver
What is the ventral arc of a female?
more than 90
What does it mean when diatoms are found in bone marrow?
The victim drowned
What does it mean when diatoms are ONLY found in the lungs?
Water entered the lungs after death
Superior
toward the head
Inferior
toward the feet
Posterior
back (dorsal)
Medial
Middle
Lateral
Side
Anterior
front (ventral)
Proximal
part of the body closer to the trunk
Distal
part of the body farther away from the trunk
Axial
head, neck, trunk
Appendicular
limbs, attached to axis
Sagittal
divides the body into left and right planes
Median (Midsagittal)
divides the body into equal halves at the midline
Coronal
divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
Transverse
divides the body into superior and inferior sections
Cause of Death Determined by Eye Fluids?
can be tested for drugs
Superficial
outer (more for skin and other things on the outside)
Deep
inner (more for organs)
Autopsy
surgical operation performed on a dead body
Why Perform an Autopsy?
when there's suspicion of foul play, or public health concern
Where are Autopsies Performed?
hospital, coroner's office, or medical examiner's office
Who Performs Autopsies?
Pathologists & medical examiners
Sesamoid Bones
develop in tendons
(ex: patella)
Best Bone to Determine Race
skull
Best Bone to Determine Sex
Pelvis
Best Bones to Determine Height
Femur and Radius (femur is the best overall)