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Lipid
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Carbohydrate
Broken down to glucose to provide energy.
Glucose
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
Alpha Glucose
The OH group at c1 is below the plane of the ring
Beta Glucose
forms the polymer cellulose; OH above the plane of the ring on C1; cannot be digested (broken down) by most organisms
Protein
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Amino Acid
Building blocks of protein
Nucleotides
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
PUFA
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega 3 + omega 6)
MUFA
Fatty Acid with one double bond
Phospholipids
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Enzymes
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
What Make Up Enzymes?
Proteins
Hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Dehydration Synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Cellulose
Carbohydrate component of plant cell walls.
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Anabolism
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
Catabolism
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
Inhibition
An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity
Competitive Inhibition
Inhibition of an enzyme's ability to catalyze a chemical reaction via a non-reactant molecule that competes with the substrate(s) for access to the active site.
Non-Competitive Inhibition
Non-competitive inhibitors are most likely not similar to the substrate.
inhibitor does not directly compete for the enzyme's active site
They bind at a location other than the active site.
This results in a change of shape in the enzyme.
substrate can no longer bond with the active site
Non-competitive inhibitors are considered allosteric because they cause a change in shape that leads to a nonfunctional enzyme.
End Product Inhibition
prevents a large build-up of products
Saves energy!
Usually, the final product acts as an inhibitor to the first enzyme in the metabolic pathway.
When the end product is used up by the cell, the enzyme becomes reactivated.
The enzyme that is inhibited and reactivated is an allosteric enzyme.
Active Site
The part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs.
Substrate
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
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