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64 terms

Anti-infectives - Pharm Test 3

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This drug is given IV b/c it is destroyed by stomach acid when given PO. Includes potential SE of seizures. What is another SE with IM admin?
Penicillin G; pain at injection site
What drug class may be included in a cross allergy with PCN?
cephalosporins
What are the two main indications for Penicillin G benzathine?
syphilis and strep pharyngitis
A beta lactam that is the DOC for OM? what is another indication?
amoxicillin; H. pylori
What component of Augmentin binds irreversibly to bacterial beta lactamases?
clavulanic acid
piperacillin is indicated in the Tx of gram ___ and _________ bacteria.
negative; anaerobic
antipseudomonal PCNs are always combo with ...
aminoglycosides
Important SE fo cephalosporins include...
hypersensitivity rxns, pseudomembranous colitis and disulfuram-like rxn with EtOH
A 1st gen cephalosporin that is a good narrow spectrum drug for Tx of gram +, proteus, and E. coli bacteria.
cephalexin
This exhibits the best activity against P. aeruginsoa.
ceftazidime
ceftriaxone is the DOC for what condition?
GC
Name the typical dose and half-life of cefriaxone.
IM/IV; 8h
This cephalosporin is eliminated in the bile and is therefore good for us in RF pts.
ceftriaxone
what beat lactam is given for bact meningitis in children?
meropenem
A characteristic SE of vancomycin?
red neck syndrome
What MAO inhibiting drug is the DOC for MRSA as an alternative to vancomycin and is also indicated for VRE?
linezolid
Name two unique SE of linezolid.
myelosupression and optic neuropathy
What should you tell pts to avoid while taking linezolid?
foods or beverages with high tyramine content
What class of drugs have a concentration killing effect and are indicated in Tx of gram (-) aerobes (especially sepsis)?
aminoglycosides
Name two drugs that are known for being ototoxic and nephrotoxic.
vancomycin and gentamycin (aminoglycosides)
What dosing schedule is ideal for aminoglycosides?
once daily
A unique SE of gentamycin?
vestibular dysfunction
this drug chelates minerals such as calcium and may stain teeth brown when given to PG or < 8 yo.
tetracycline
this broad spectrum drug is eliminated in the feces and does not need renal dosing.
doxycycline
Doxy is the DOC for what infection?
chlamydia
what is a unique SE of doxy?
photosensitivity
What is a administration requirement of tetracycline?
taken on an empty stomach
Used to Tx respiratory infections, chlamydial infections and pharyngitis, this macrolide has a very long T/2.
azithromycin
What is a administration requirement of azithromycin?
taken 1h AC or 2 hr PC (inactivated by gastric juice)
This protein synthesis inhibitor is a 1st line drug in the Tx of anaerobic bacteria and is the DOC for paronychias.
clindamycin
what drug should not be combined with clindamycin?
erythromycin
complications of clindamycin Tx includes...
pseudomembranous colitis and agranulocytosis
Pt's taking clindamycin should be told to RTC for _________
diarrhea
What fluoroquinolone is indicated for Tx of gram (-) GI diarrhea, UTI's and GC?
ciprofloxacin
What are two important SE of cipro Tx?
photoxicity and tendonitis
What is the MOA of FQ?
inhibition of DNA gyrase
Other than 1st line Tx for UTIs what are other indications for TMP-SMZ?
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and OM
What complication of co-trimoxazole can occur if given to children < 2yo?
kernicterus
This class of Abx may cause severe GI upset.
macrolides
This drug is a alternative Tx for C. diff. and is the DOC for trichomaniasis.
metronidazole
Name a weird SE of Flagyl. what substance should be avoided that may cause violent emesis?
orange-brown urine; EtOH
SE of amphoteracin B include...
impaired renal fxn, seizures, and thrombocytopenia
amphoteracin B combines with what component of fungal cell walls in order to alter permeability?
ergosterols
what antifungal requires an acidic environment in order to be dissolved?
ketaconazole
What are two important SE of ketaconazole?
hepatotoxicity and gynecomastia (interferes with adrenal/gonadal steroids)
What is inhibited by azoles?
CYP 450 system
What is an important warning for terbinafine?
liver failure
What are the main indications for terbinafine?
onychomycosis and tinea
Two strange SE of terbinafine to know about are...
pruritic rash and taste disturbance
This tuberculostatic drug's absoprtion is impaired by food and has SE of peripheral neuropathy, liver damage, and psychosis.
isoniazid
This wide spectrum Abx is known for turning secretions red.
rifampin
What drug may cause hepatorenal syndrome.
rifampin
A drug known to cause optic neuritis with sx of eye pain, blurred vision, and red-green colorblindness.
ethambutol
This TB drug is the most likely to cause liver damage.
pyrazinamide
A tx for genital herpes and vericella zoster
acyclovir
A SE of zidovudine
anemia (also neutropneia and unusual bleeding)
an HIV drug know to have a SE of SJS.
nevirapine
the preferred drug for HIV?
efavirenz
This drug is used in Tx CMV in AIDS and may cause thrombocytopenia.
ganciclovir
TOC for giardiasis?
metronidazole
TOC for pinworms?
mebendazole (cat D)
TOC for Haemophilus influenzae meningitis?
PCN G
DOC for tapeworms?
praziquantel
Two drugs that may have a disulfuram-like effect? what pt ed should be given?
metronidazole and cephalosporins; don't drink EtOH