Anti-infectives - Pharm Test 3
This drug is given IV b/c it is destroyed by stomach acid when given PO. Includes potential SE of seizures. What is another SE with IM admin?
Penicillin G; pain at injection site
What drug class may be included in a cross allergy with PCN?
What are the two main indications for Penicillin G benzathine?
syphilis and strep pharyngitis
A beta lactam that is the DOC for OM? what is another indication?
amoxicillin; H. pylori
What component of Augmentin binds irreversibly to bacterial beta lactamases?
piperacillin is indicated in the Tx of gram ___ and _________ bacteria.
antipseudomonal PCNs are always combo with ...
Important SE fo cephalosporins include...
hypersensitivity rxns, pseudomembranous colitis and disulfuram-like rxn with EtOH
A 1st gen cephalosporin that is a good narrow spectrum drug for Tx of gram +, proteus, and E. coli bacteria.
This exhibits the best activity against P. aeruginsoa.
ceftriaxone is the DOC for what condition?
Name the typical dose and half-life of cefriaxone.
This cephalosporin is eliminated in the bile and is therefore good for us in RF pts.
what beat lactam is given for bact meningitis in children?
A characteristic SE of vancomycin?
red neck syndrome
What MAO inhibiting drug is the DOC for MRSA as an alternative to vancomycin and is also indicated for VRE?
Name two unique SE of linezolid.
myelosupression and optic neuropathy
What should you tell pts to avoid while taking linezolid?
foods or beverages with high tyramine content
What class of drugs have a concentration killing effect and are indicated in Tx of gram (-) aerobes (especially sepsis)?
Name two drugs that are known for being ototoxic and nephrotoxic.
vancomycin and gentamycin (aminoglycosides)
What dosing schedule is ideal for aminoglycosides?
A unique SE of gentamycin?
this drug chelates minerals such as calcium and may stain teeth brown when given to PG or < 8 yo.
this broad spectrum drug is eliminated in the feces and does not need renal dosing.
Doxy is the DOC for what infection?
what is a unique SE of doxy?
What is a administration requirement of tetracycline?
taken on an empty stomach
Used to Tx respiratory infections, chlamydial infections and pharyngitis, this macrolide has a very long T/2.
What is a administration requirement of azithromycin?
taken 1h AC or 2 hr PC (inactivated by gastric juice)
This protein synthesis inhibitor is a 1st line drug in the Tx of anaerobic bacteria and is the DOC for paronychias.
what drug should not be combined with clindamycin?
complications of clindamycin Tx includes...
pseudomembranous colitis and agranulocytosis
Pt's taking clindamycin should be told to RTC for _________
What fluoroquinolone is indicated for Tx of gram (-) GI diarrhea, UTI's and GC?
What are two important SE of cipro Tx?
photoxicity and tendonitis
What is the MOA of FQ?
inhibition of DNA gyrase
Other than 1st line Tx for UTIs what are other indications for TMP-SMZ?
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and OM
What complication of co-trimoxazole can occur if given to children < 2yo?
This class of Abx may cause severe GI upset.
This drug is a alternative Tx for C. diff. and is the DOC for trichomaniasis.
Name a weird SE of Flagyl. what substance should be avoided that may cause violent emesis?
orange-brown urine; EtOH
SE of amphoteracin B include...
impaired renal fxn, seizures, and thrombocytopenia
amphoteracin B combines with what component of fungal cell walls in order to alter permeability?
what antifungal requires an acidic environment in order to be dissolved?
What are two important SE of ketaconazole?
hepatotoxicity and gynecomastia (interferes with adrenal/gonadal steroids)
What is inhibited by azoles?
CYP 450 system
What is an important warning for terbinafine?
What are the main indications for terbinafine?
onychomycosis and tinea
Two strange SE of terbinafine to know about are...
pruritic rash and taste disturbance
This tuberculostatic drug's absoprtion is impaired by food and has SE of peripheral neuropathy, liver damage, and psychosis.
This wide spectrum Abx is known for turning secretions red.
What drug may cause hepatorenal syndrome.
A drug known to cause optic neuritis with sx of eye pain, blurred vision, and red-green colorblindness.
This TB drug is the most likely to cause liver damage.
A tx for genital herpes and vericella zoster
A SE of zidovudine
anemia (also neutropneia and unusual bleeding)
an HIV drug know to have a SE of SJS.
the preferred drug for HIV?
This drug is used in Tx CMV in AIDS and may cause thrombocytopenia.
TOC for giardiasis?
TOC for pinworms?
mebendazole (cat D)
TOC for Haemophilus influenzae meningitis?
DOC for tapeworms?
Two drugs that may have a disulfuram-like effect? what pt ed should be given?
metronidazole and cephalosporins; don't drink EtOH