AP Bio - Introduction to Animal Systems - Structure and Function
What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism.
Physiology is the study of the functions an organism performs.
What are tissues?
Groups of cells with a common structure and function.
What are the four types of tissues?
Structure of epithelial tissue:
Free surface - Exposed to air or fluid
Basement membrane - Dense mat of extracellular matrix
Closely joined cells and in many epithelia, the cells are riveted together by tight junctions
Function of epithelial tissue:
1. Line organs/body cavities
2. Provide protection (from microbes, mechanical injury, and fluid loss)
3. Absorption (small intestine)
4. Secretion (glandular epithelia, absorb or secrete chemical solutions)
What are the two criteria used to classify epithelial tissue?
The number of cell layers and the shape of the cells on the free surface
Types of epithelial tissue:
Simple - 1 cell layer
Stratified - Multiple cell layers
Pseudostratified - 1 layer varying length
Cuboidal - Cubes
Columnar - Bricks
Squamous - Flat
Structure of connective tissue:
Small number of cells within extracellular matrix
Function of connective tissue:
Binds other tissues together
Supports other tissues
Types of connective tissue:
Loose connective tissue - Mesh
Adipose - Fat storage
Fibrous - ex. tendons and ligaments
Cartilage - Strong and flexible support material
Structure of nervous tissue:
Neuroun/nerve cell: Cell body, dendrites, axons
Function of nervous tissue:
Sense stimuli, transmit signals
Structure of muscular tissue:
Long excitable cells in parallel
Function of muscular tissue:
Types of muscular tissue:
What are organs?
Tissues working together
What are mesenteries?
Connective tissues that suspend vertebrate organs in body cavities moistened or filled with fluid.
Organs working together are __________