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World History: Chapter 11
Terms in this set (47)
In China, a group of people who controlled much of the land and produced most of the candidates for civil service.
A gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride's parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife
An interval of time.
The state of being complex or of having many intricate parts.
(581-618) did not last long, but it unified China once again under the authority of the emperor. Their cruel ruler used forced labor to build the Grand Canal, which he used to keep an eye on his empire. This practice, together with high taxes, and military failures, caused a rebellion. The emperor was murdered, and the dynasty came to an end.
Was a cruel ruler. He used forced labor to build the Grand Canal, which he used to keep an eye on his empire.the second emperor of the dynasty, completed the Grand Canal, built to link the two great rivers of China, the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). He used forced labor to build the Grand Canal, which he used to keep an eye on his empire. He was murdered.
Lasted for nearly three hundred years, from 618 until 907. The early rulers created a more stable economy by giving land to the peasants and breaking up the large estates to reduce the power of their owners. Restored the civil service examination to serve as the chief method of recruiting officials for the civilian bureaucracy. They brought peace to northwestern China and expanded China's control into Tibet. Tang dynasty weakened and became prey to rebellions. Tang rulers hired Uighurs to fight for them. Continued unrest, however, led to the collapse of Tang rule in 907.
a northern tribal group of Turkic-speaking people
Emperor Tang Xuanzong
One of the rulers in the Tang dynasty. He is remembered for his devotion to a commoner's daughter, Yang Guifei. To entertain her, he kept hundreds of dancers and musicians at court. His favorite the emperor's favorite general led a bloody revolt. The army demanded that someone be held accountable for the war and strife in the country. For this reason, the emperor invited his true love to hang herself from a nearby tree.
new dynasty rose to power. They had the first use of paper currency and a large increase in farm production, and increase in population. Its astronomers developed new instruments, while its inventors applied new technologies to warfare, navigation, and printing. They ruled during a period of prosperity and cultural achievement, from 960 to 1279. From the start, political developments included trouble from northern neighbors. These groups crossed into northern China and occupied large parts of Chinese territory. Because of this threat,they were forced to move the imperial court south to Hangzhou. They also lost control over Tibet.
One of several separate territories into which Genghis Khan's empire was split, each under the rule of one of his sons.
A revised form of Confucianism that evolved as a response to Buddhism and held sway in China from the late Tang dynasty to the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century. served as a Confucian response to Buddhism and Daoism. It teaches that the world is real, not an illusion, and that fulfillment comes from participation in the world.
A revised form of Confucianism that evolved as a response to Buddhism and held sway in China from the late Tang dynasty to the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century.
Came into possession or control of.
Ready for immediate use; accessible.
The way of seeing or believing.
Due largely to their military prowess, they rose to power in Asia with stunning speed. The Mongols were a pastoral people from the region of modern-day Mongolia who were organized loosely into clans. Genghis Khans army that he unleashed on the world was not unusually large; it totaled fewer than 130,000 in 1227. It was the Mongols' military tactics, which were devastatingly effective, that allowed them to invade and conquer so many foreign lands. Mongol armies were almost entirely made up of archers mounted on horseback. Their ability to move quickly around a battlefield set them apart from their enemies.
The Mongols 2
Mongol forces attached the Song dynasty in the 1260s. In their attack on the Chinese, the Mongols encountered the use of gunpowder and the fire-lance. These inventions came too late to save China from the Mongols. In 1279 one of Genghis Khan's grandsons, named Kublai Khan gained control of the Song and set up a new Chinese dynasty, the Yuan. Under the leadership of the talented Kublai Khan, the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty continued to expand the empire. Mongol armies advanced into Vietnam, and Mongol fleets were launched against Java and Sumatra and twice against the islands of Japan.
The Mongols 3
Only parts of Vietnam were conquered, however, and then only for a while. The other campaigns failed. On one occasion, a massive storm destroyed the Mongol fleet that attacked Japan, killing thousands. The Mongols had more success in ruling China. Mongol rulers adapted to the Chinese political system and made use of Chinese bureaucrats. Culturally, the Mongols were quite different from the Chinese and became a separate class with their own laws. The Mongols overthrew the Song dynasty, leaving China ruled by a foreign power for the first time. They ended civil service exams. Mongols and Chinese lived by different laws. The Mongols welcomed merchants into court, and trade flourished.
Buddhism and Daoism
was brought to China in the first century by merchants and missionaries from India. At first, only merchants and intellectuals were intrigued by the new ideas. However, as a result of the insecurity that prevailed after the collapse of the Han dynasty, they both became more attractive to many people. Both beliefs gained support among the ruling classes.
Became the basis for Chinese government during the Han dynasty.
Temüjin/ Genghis Khan
born during the 1160s, gradually unified the Mongols. In 1206, he was elected at a massive meeting somewhere in the Gobi. From that time on, he devoted himself to conquest. The army that he unleashed on the world was not unusually large; it totaled fewer than 130,000 in 1227.
Completed the conquest of the Song and set up a new Chinese dynasty, the Yuan. ruled China until his death in 1294, established his capital at Khanbalik—the city of the Khan—later known by the Chinese name Beijing.
A chain of islands'
"those who serve"; Japanese warriors similar to the knights of medieval Europe.
"the way of the warrior"; the strict code by which Japanese samurai were supposed to live.
"general"; a powerful military leader in Japan.
"great names"; the head of noble families in Japan who controlled vast landed estates and relied on samurai for protection.
(Vocab and Religion)
"the Sacred Way" or "the way of the Gods"; the Japanese state religion; among its doctrines are the divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation. Early Japanese people worshiped spirits, called kami, whom they believed resided in trees, rivers, and mountains. The Japanese also believed that the spirits of their ancestors were present in the air around them.
(Vocab and Religion)
a sect of Buddhism that became popular with Japanese aristocrats and became part of the samurai's code of behavior; under Zen Buddhism, there are different paths to enlightenment.
The yield of sources of income that a nation or state collects and deposits into its treasury for public use.
A system of principles or rules.
After Shōtoku Taishi's death in 622, political power fell into the hands of the Fujiwara clan. A Yamato ruler was still emperor. He was, however, strongly influenced by the Fujiwara family. The emperor now used the title "Son of Heaven." Though the reforms begun by Prince Shōtoku continued during this period, Japan's central government could not overcome the power of the aristocrats. These powerful families were able to keep the taxes from the lands for themselves. Unable to gain tax revenues, the central government steadily lost power and influence.
A Yamato prince. In the early seventh century, he tried to unify the various clans so that the Japanese could more effectively resist invasion from China. To do this, he sent representatives to the Tang capital of China to learn how the Chinese organized their government. He then began to create a centralized system of government, based roughly on the Chinese political model. His objective was to limit the powers of the aristocrats and enhance the his own authority. Thus, the ruler was portrayed as a divine figure and the symbol of the Japanese nation.
In 794 the emperor moved the capital from Nara to nearby Heian-kyo, on the site of present-day Kyōto. The emperor continued to rule in name, but actual power remained in the hands of the Fujiwara clan. In fact, the government was returning to the decentralized system that had existed before the time of Shōtoku Taishi. Powerful families whose wealth was based on the ownership of tax-exempt farmland dominated the rural areas. With the decline of central power, local aristocrats took justice into their own hands. They turned to military force, and a new class of military servants emerged whose purpose was to protect the security and property of their employers, they were Samurai.
By the end of the twelfth century, rivalries among Japanese aristocratic families had led to almost constant civil war. Minamoto Yoritomo created a more centralized government under a military leader known as the shogun. In this new system --called the shogunate-- the emperor remained ruler in name only, and the shogun exercised the actual power. The Kamakura shogunate, founded by Yoritomo, lasted from 1192 to 1333. They were unprepared when Mongol ruler Kublai Khan sent 23,000 troops to invade Japan in 1274. In 1333, several powerful families overthrew them.
A powerful noble defeated several rivals and set up his power near the modern city of Tokyo.
"the teachings of the elders"; ancient Buddhist school stressing moral conduct, and championing the monkish lifestyle.
To keep in possession or use.
retained widespread acceptance among the Indian people. The teachings of the Buddha came to be interpreted in different ways, however. People did not always agree on the meaning of the Buddha's teachings, resulting in a split.
Were one of the first peoples in Southeast Asia to develop their own state and their own culture. After the Chinese finally conquered them in 111 b.c. , they tried for centuries to make themselves a part of China. However, Chinese officials were often frustrated by them. They clung to their own identity. In the tenth century, they finally overthrew Chinese rule. The Rulers realized the advantages of taking over the Chinese model of centralized government. Following the Chinese model, the rulers called themselves emperors and adopted Chinese court rituals. They also introduced the civil service examination as a means of recruiting government officials on the basis of merit instead of heredity.
Rose in the region that is present-day Cambodia. The kingdom was formed when a powerful figure named Jayavarman united the Khmer people. In 802, Jayavarman was crowned as god-king of his people. For several hundred years,it was the most powerful state in mainland Southeast Asia. They faced enemies on all sides. the Vietnamese, the kingdom of Champa, and the Burmese kingdom of Pagan. In 1432, the Thai from the north destroyed the capital. The ruling class fled to the southeast, where they set up a new capital near Phnom Penh, the capital of present-day Cambodia.
united the Khmer people and established a capital at Angkor Thom
First appeared in the 500s as a frontier people in China. Beginning in the eleventh or twelfth century, their groups began moving southward. This process was encouraged by the Mongol invasion of China in the mid-1200s. After destroying the Angkor capital, they set up their capital at Ayutthaya, where they remained as a major force in the region for the next 400 years. Although they converted to Buddhism and borrowed Indian political practices, they created a unique blend that evolved into the modern-day culture of Thailand.
They were pastoral peoples, but they adopted farming soon after their arrival in Southeast Asia. In the eleventh century, they founded the first great Burmese state, the kingdom of Pagan. Like the Thai, they converted to Buddhism and adopted Indian political institutions and culture. During the next two centuries, Pagan became a major force in the western part of Southeast Asia. It played an active role in regional sea trade. Attacks by the Mongols in the late 1200s helped cause its decline.
It was not until the late 1200s that a strong state, the new kingdom of Majapahit, emerged in the region. Majapahit did not have long to enjoy its status, however. By the 1400s, a new state was beginning to emerge in the region. Muslim conquest of northern India, Muslim merchants settled in port cities in the region and began to convert the local population. Around 1400, an Islamic state began to form in Melaka, a small town on the western coast of the Malay Peninsula. Melaka soon became the major trading port in the region and a chief rival to Majapahit.
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