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35 terms

NASM Chapter 4 Human Movement

Biomechanics
STUDY
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biomechanics
a study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body
superior
positioned above a point of reference
inferior
positioned below a point of reference
proximal
positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference
distal
positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference
anterior (or ventral)
on the front of the body
posterior (or dorsal)
on the back of the body
medial
positioned near the middle of the body
lateral
toward the outside of the body
contralateral
positioned on the opposite side of the body
ipsilateral
positioned on the same side of the body
sagittal
an imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves
extension
the bending of a joint, causing the angles to the joint to increase
frontal plane
divides body into front and back
abduction
movement of a body part away the middle of the body
adduction
movement of a body part toward the middle of the body
transverse plane
divides the body top and bottom
internal rotation
rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
eccentric contraction
the lengthening of a muscle
isometric contraction
a muscle maintaining a certain length
concentric contraction
the shortening of a muscle
force
an influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object
length-tension relationship
the length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force
force-couple
muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
rotary motion
movement of the bones around the joints
torque
a force that produces rotation
motor behavior
the process of the body responding to internal and external stimuli
motor control
the study of posture and movement and the involved structures and mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate sensory information with previous experience
synergies
groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement
proprioception
the cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movement
sensorimotor integration
the cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing movement
motor learning
repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements
feedback
the use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning
external feedback
information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart monitor to supplement the internal environment
internal feedback
the process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment