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27 terms

Pneumonia

chapter `5 des jardins
STUDY
PLAY
Anatomic Alterations
Inflammatory process
Primarily affects gas exchange portions of lung
Effusion
Surface phagocytosis
Macrophage movement
Consolidation
Atelectasis
Etiology
8th leading cause of death in America
Bacteria
Virus
Fungi
Tuberculosis
Anaerobic organisms
Aspiration
Irritating chemicals
Classifications of pneumonia
Lobar pneumonia
Double pneumonia
Walking pneumonia
Bacterial causes
Gram-positive
Streptococcal pneumonia
Staphylococcal pneunomia
Gram-negative
Haemophilus influenzae
Klebsiella pneumonia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Escherichia coli
Gram-positive
Streptococcal pneumonia
Staphylococcal pneunomia
Bacterial causes
Gram-negative
Haemophilus influenzae
Klebsiella pneumonia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Escherichia coli
Bacterial causes
Atypical
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila
Bacterial causes
Anaerobic
Peptostreptococcus Aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions and gastric fluids are the major causes of anaerobic lung infections.Predisposing risks are impaired swallow, gastrointestinal abnormalities, and poor dental hygiene.
Viral causes
Influenza virus
Respiratory syncytial virus - RSV
Parainfluenza virus
Coronavirus
Influenza virus
Respiratory syncytial virus - RSV
Parainfluenza virus
Coronavirus
Aspiration Pneumonitis
Toxic injury to the lung
Obstruction of airway
Infection

GERD
Dysphagia
Silent aspiration
Toxic injury to the lung
Obstruction of airway
Infection

GERD
Dysphagia
Silent aspiration
Others
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Fungal infections
Thrush
Avian influenza A
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Fungal infections
Thrush
Avian influenza A
Classifications
Community-Acquired
Hospital-Acquired
Ventilator-Acquired
Nursing Home-Acquired
Community-Acquired
Hospital-Acquired
Ventilator-Acquired
Nursing Home-Acquired
Management
Based on
Specific cause
Severity of symptoms
Antibiotics (bacterial)
Bed rest
Fluids
Reduce symptoms
RT
Oxygen therapy
Bronchopulmonary hygiene
Lung expansion
thoracentesis
Based on
Specific cause
Severity of symptoms
Antibiotics (bacterial)
Bed rest
Fluids
Reduce symptoms
RT
Oxygen therapy
Bronchopulmonary hygiene
Lung expansion
thoracentesis
Gram Positive Organisms
Strep = 80% of all bacterial pnuemonia
Staph = MRSA Nosocomial
Gram Negative Organisms
Haemophilus Influenza = Pharyngeal or Epiglottitus
Klebsiella = Drunks and septicemia
Pseudomonas Aruginosa
Found in RT equipment sweet sick smell
E Coli
Hospital Acquired Pneumonia
Atypical Organisms
Mycoplasma pneumonia or walking pneumonia
Legionella = muddy water or air conditioning/middle aged men who smoke
Anaerobic Bacterial Infections
Aspiration Pneumonia
Viral Causes
Approximately half of all pneumonia are caused by viruses
Influenza Virus= come in Epidemic waves during school year and winter
RSV= infants catchy and leads to life of asthma
Parainfluenza type 1 causes croup
Sars - Corona virus
Other Causes
Aspiration Pneumonia causes
-Toxic Injury to the lung
-obstruction
-Infection
GERD
Causes vagal stimulation and can exacerbate or cause an asthma attack.
Normal Swallowing Mechanism
Oral preparation
Oral
Pharyngeal
Esophageal
Dysphagia
Result of an abnormal swallow that can involve oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases.
Silent Aspiration
Usually due to stroke or trached patients
this is caused by an inability to cough effectively
Pneumocystis Carinii
AIDS this is a fungus and not a protozoa
FUNGAL INFECTIONS
Avian Influenza
CAP /strep/48 hours prior to hospital admission
HAP/staph/48 hours after hospital admission
VAP/ vents nosocomial
NAP/ nursing homes staph and TB (latent)
General Management
Antibiotics
RT Care
Pulmonary Hygiene
Lung expansion therapy
Thoracentesis

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