87 terms

Sport Psychology Midterm

Applied Sport Psychology
psychology factors that influence performance in sport. it is used when preparing, engaging, or reflecting in sport
Why use sport psychology
learn, way to manage competitive stress, control concentration, improve confidence, increase communication, team harmony
Motor Skill Learning
a set of internal processes, associated with practice or experience, leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for skilled movement behavior.
"muscle memory"
3 Phases of Motor Skill Learning
Cognitive Phase
development of basic movement pattern
visual learning (video,demonstrations)
COACH-motivate,keep focused,teach,encourage
Associative Phase
skill refinement
improve and get better
COACH-design practices
Autonomous Phase
skill mastery/elite performance
skill becomes second nature
performance is automatic
COACH-motivate,work on level of skills, dont just go through the motions
Open Skills
environment changing and unpredictable
Closed Skills
performed in stable environment, no distractions
Part-Whole Practice
doing each skill individually, the combining all
Progressive Part Practice
learn first two (separately), combine, learn 3rd(separate), combine, learn 4th(separate) combine
Repetitive Part Practice
learn first (separate), then add second with first, then add 3rd with 1&2
Intrinsic Feedback
information athletes receive as a natural consequence of moving, provided by the athletes' own sensory system.
EX. feeling shooting the ball, hear hitting rim, see into the basket
Augmented Feedback
information athletes receive that is not a natural consequence of executing a response. provided by external source (coach,teammate,judges score, videotape replay)
Functions of Feedback
error correction
ABC's of Behavior Control
if antecedents (environmental stimuli) (A) are present AND behavior (B) is enacted, THEN a particular consequence (C) will occur.
Operant Conditioning
considers in part the manner in which our behaviors are influenced by their consequences.
EX pavlov, ring bell then feed dog, salivation
Discriminative Stimuli
antecedents that signal the likely consequences of particular behaviors in given situation
Reinforcement Contingencies
relations between behaviors and their consequences
start with what is capable of being done, then gradually more skillful level. (demands must be realistic) encourage and guide to desired outcome
Schedules of Reinforcement
pattern and frequency with which reinforcement is administered
person's judgment about her or his capability to successfully person a particular task
6 Elements of Self-Efficacy
performance accomplishment
vicarious experiences
verbal persuasion
physiological states
emotional states
imaginal states
performance accomplishment
working for something better than what you've already achieved
vicarious experiences
watching someone. 'if they can i can'
professionals. EX children watching, wanting to be like them
verbal persuasion
motivational statements, positive
physiological states
'rise of the occasion', look at pressure and be able to handle it. perform or let pressure get you
emotional states
mood prior to performance. decide on level of confidence
imaginal experiences
visualize before performance so demands don't seem so unfamiliar
task-involved athletes
gain knowledge
exhibit effort
perform at one's best
how to accomplish task
compare to task
ego-involved athletes
preoccupied with adequacy oh their ability
being content
exceed others
comparison to others
intrinsic motivation
internal. participation is self-determined and is inspired by personal pleasure from activity
extrinsic motivation
external. driven by desire for external rewards
expectation-performance process
1. coach forms expectation
2. coaches' expectation affects their behavior
3. coaches' behavior affects athlete's performance/behavior
4. athlethe's performance conforms to the coach's expectations
pygmalion-prone coach
good athletes are born good, don't have a choice or chance
(entity theorist)
non-pygmalion-prone coach
belief you can improve talent and develop through practice and training
(incremental theorist)
self-fulfilling prophecy
a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true.
EX (biased coaching) preason judgements (underestimate athletes ability) lead to their expectations to become reality
path-goal theory
leader is viewed as a facilitator who helps others achieve their goals by providing a path by which the followers can reach their goals
team (sport groups)
2 of more individuals
common identity, fate, goals
structured pattern of interaction/modes of communication
sommon perception about group structure
personally/instrumentally interdependent
reciprocate interpersonal attraction
consider themselves to be a group
group cohesion
tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs
group integration
individual's perception about the closeness, similarity, and bonding within the group as a total unit, set, or collection. ('we' and 'us' evaluations)
individual attractions to the group
individual's person attraction to the group, and what personal motivations act to retain an individual in the group
factors to consider when examining cohesion in sport teams
environmental factors
leadership factors
team factors
personal factors
team factors
roles - set of behaviors that are expected from people with specific positions within a group
formal roles
set out by the group or organization. EX coach, team captain, manager
informal roles
evolve as a result of the interactions that take place amoung group members. EX enforcer, comedian, team player, distracter
role ambiguity
degree to which athletes understand or do not understand what constitues their role.
lack clear, consistent info reguarding one's role
standard for behavior that is expected of members of the group
getting by, by doing the minimum
peak performance
behavior which exceeds one's average performance OR an episode of superior functioning
state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter
characteristics of peak performance
feelings of success
regulate arousal
in control
focus on present task
view difficult tasks as exciting/challenging
productive perfectionism(expectations but learn)
positive attitudes/thoughts
self determination/commitment
first step to gaining control in pressure situation. focus on task at hand, not end result (anxiety) [focus of attention]
positive reinforcement
has positive stimuli (rewarding)
*strengthens behavior
negative reinforcement
removal of adverse stimuli (avoid bad things)
EX abusive coach
*strengthens behavior
***not punishment
previous reinforced behaviors are no longer recognized, likely to stop occurring
EX athlete stop getting attention for inappropriate behavior, likely to stop that behavior
aversive punishment
presents aversive stimuli with the effect of weakening the behavior
response cost punishment
removal of a positive event
EX benching a player who played bad
performance edge
monitors athletes performance
positive stress
too much stress
arousal level
aware of experience + optimal level, control and monitor excitement and channel that energy into performance.
adjust as needed
balancing important to max performance
goal staircase
series of short term goals leads to long term goals
objective or aim of action by attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually has a time limit
subjective goal
your opinion
EX having fun
general objective goal
broad goal
EX win a championship
specific objective goal
EX increase batting average
outcome goal
EX beating specific team
performance goal
improvements on past performance. what to do for next performance
process goal
focus on specifics during the performance
EX keeping hands up when hitting
relationship between goal setting and performance
set goals, perform, adjust.
1. direct athletes attention/action into important parts of task
2. help athlete mobilize effort
3. help prolong effort, increase persistence
4. develop new learning strategies
goals should be...
short/long term
have target date
how to measure arousal
psychological measures
biochemical measures
trait anxiety
negative, general
state anxiety
negative, specific
drive theory
performance (P) is a multiplicative function of habit (H) and P=HxD
inverted U relationship
after meet arousal level, start to decrease
autogentic training
self-hypnonsis, focus attention on senses
relaxation response
sit comfortable
close eyes
relax muscles
concentrate on breathing
3 types of progressive relaxation techniques
active, passivem differential
progressive relaxation
contracting muscles for 5-7 seconds then relaxing
muscle to mind
focus on bodily aspects
EX breathing exercises, progressive relaxation
mind to muscle
mediation, imagery, autogenic training
enhances sport performance by using senses to create or re-create an experience in the mind.
*is a supplement not a replacement
more than 1 sense working together
evidence imagery works
enhances performance learning
enhances thoughts and emotions
successful athletes use it
3 components of imagery