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20 terms

Traditional East Asian Civilization Midterm

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Classic of Documents
Narratives of ancient sage kings in classic Confucian texts, that examination systems were based off of in Han era.
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Buddhism
This religion was founded by Siddhartha Gautama and explained the way to salvation through self-discipline and poverty. It evolved from Hinduism in northern India and Nepal.
Confucianism
the system of political and ethical ideas formulated by the Chinese philosopher Confucius toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it was intended to help restore order to a society that was in a state of confusion
Dong Zhongshu
(179-104 BC) a philosopher who spoke of the ruler in terms that echo the Daoist and Legalist conceptions, describing him as ruling through non-action and keeping away from everyday affairs to maintain his exalted status.
-he used Confucian moral concepts, saying that if an emperor did not fill his role properly, it would upset the balance of heaven and earth, causing natural disasters
-Emperor Wu (very successful), under the influence of Dong Zhongshu, adopted Confucianism as the state ideology and established a National University and began systematic recruitment of civil servants through recommendations and written examinations
-this is an important turning point in Chinese history because for the first time, Confucianism is made the state ideology and the basis for the school curriculum and the examination system.
Kongzi
551-479 B.C.E. (Confucious) His doctrine of duty and public service had great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.
Siddartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism. Hindu prince. ultimately became Buddha (Buddha means "enlightened one"). he sat under a tree for 5 years and gave people advice. he then establish buddhis. he didnt like the caste system so in Buddhism all are equal at birth.
Chan Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
The mind is not adequate enough to understand everything in the Universe.
Use intuition to go beyond scientific and logical reasoning.
Empress Wu
Convinced Emperor Gaozong to demote his empress and promote her. After Gaozong suffered a stroke, she began making decisions in his place. She essentially got rid of anyone who opposed her or threatened her authority. Though she was a ruthless ruler, she made some positive government reforms such as allowing new people into court through civil service examinations. This gave many people the opportunity to become officials.
Neo Confucianism
The Confucian response to Buddhism by taking Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and combining them into this. However, it is still very much Confucian in belief. Became Popular in Tang period.
Han Yu
Confucian scholar who, during the Tang, spoke highly of the return to Confucianism after seeing Buddhism (Daoism flourished a little too) corrupting China.
Song Dynasty
WHAT: Tang dynasty fell and establishing many services (education, irrigation, land taxes, etc). Moved farther south to avoid nomadic invasions. Wealthy goods = big. Inventions utilized by the world = economy boost.
WHEN: 960 ACE
The Great Learning
To govern well thier states they must Regulate their families Cultivate their persons Obtain sincerity Rectify their minds. Confucian thought-used for political philosophy in Song.
Zhu Xi
Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action. Wrote Commentaries on the four books that became the bases of civil service exams.
Ming Dynasty
Political Philosophy of Mandate of Heaven. Leader must be center of virtue as an example to his citizens. Had secrete censurers that would make sure no uprising where happening locally. military rotation of generals with five regional garrisons. Also had officialdom as path from rags to riches through civil service exams.
Wang Yangming
Spoke out to emperor to save two generals who had surrendered. Flogged till unconscious then exiled to take care of horses. Made school were he was exiled. Public schools for peasants to find the innate goodness in all humans.
Qin Dynasty
The dynasty that replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country.
Han Dynasty
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang (peasant upriser); a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
Tang Dynasty
(618-907 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was much like the Han, who used Confucianism. This dynasty had the equal-field system, a bureaucracy based on merit, and a Confucian education system. Had some Zen/Chan Buddhist values.