Lab 1st Exam - Parts of the Cell

Cell terminology that will be present in the 1st Lab exam and the 2nd Lecture exam for Dr. Kendall's class. FUNCTION OF THE ORGANELLE WILL BE IN BOLD!
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Plasma Membrane (Cell)
The outermembrane of the cell. Regulates the transport of certain materials into and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm
A fluid-like environment between the nucleus and the cell membrane in which organelles are found. (Made up of Cytosol and Cytoskeleton)
Cytosol
Liquid substance of the cytoplasm which acts like a cushion for organelles.
Cytoskeleton
Support and framework for cells. Made up of microfilament, intermediate filament and microtubules.
Nucleus
Surrounded by its own membrane. Contains celluar DNA/genetic info.
Nuclear Membrane (Envelope)
Two lipid bi-layers that surround nuclear contents. Has pores that permit and regulate passage of materials between cytoplasm and nucleus.
Nucleolus
Dark staining granule found within the nucleus. It is involved with the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
Chromatin
Thread like material within the nucleus that packages DNA.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A series of channels associated with storage, synthesis, and the transport of substances within the cell.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Contains ribosomes and synthesizes proteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
Does NOT contain ribosomes; Synthesizes lipids.
Ribosomes
Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or as free bodies. Sites of protein synthesis.
Mitochondria
Powerhouses of the cell. Sites of the production of ATP (energy) in the cell.
Golgi Apparatus (Complex)
Synthesizes, packages, and secretes cellular products out of the cell.
Lysosomes
Small sac-like structures that contain powerful digestive enzymes. Digests macromolecules, microorganisms, and old or damaged organelles.
Vacuole
Large storage site in a cell surrounded by a membrane which may contain water or other materials. has many different functions.
Vesicle
Small storage site. Involved in transportation of materials into and out of the cell. Also transports proteins from the RER to the Golgi Apparatus.
Centrioles
Cylindrical structures assisted in mitosis. (cell division)
Microtubules and Filaments
Provides cellular support, transport, and maintains cell shape. Microtubles form spindle during mitosis.
Peroxisomes
Small sac-like structures that contain oxidative enzymes. Detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, and other harmful substances.
Cilia
Hair like projectiles. Oscillates mucous, cells, and debris over cell surface. (ex. trachea)
Microvilli
Finger-like projectiles. Facilates transport and absorption (nutrients) across membrane and increases surface area. (ex. digestive tract)
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
The 3 parts of most cells that can be viewed by a light microscope.
Electron Microscope
A very powerful microscope that can be used to view organelles within the cytoplasm.
Actin Filament
Contractile protein fibers; play a role in movement of cell and organelles. (found in microvilli)
Intermediate Filament
A component of the cytoskeleton that includes filaments intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments. Support
Centrosome
Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center and has two centrioles.
Pericentriolar material
A diffuse fibrous network surrounding a centrosome.
Glycogen Granules
Present in the cytoplasm; providing energy and storage of glucose.
Nuclear Pores
Openings in the nuclear membrane that allow certain materials into and out of the nucleus.
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