39 terms

midterm vocabulary

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essenes
an ascetic and highly organized jewish group; originated in the second century b.c. and were probably identical with the qumran community
zealots
jewish freedom fighters who fought the romans at the beginning of the first century a.d. then during the war that led to the destruction of jerusalem; no reliabel evidence that they were active at the time of Jesus
pharisees
a pious jewish group formed in the second century b.c. who accepted both the oral and written law and scrupulously observed many practices; criticized Jesus for forgiving sins, breaking the sabbath and associating with sinners; Jesus objected their external legalism and self-righteousness; some defended and entertained Jesus; many became christians
sadducees
traditionally considered descendants of the priest zadok; a priestly aristocratic group from second century b.c. that exercised strong economic and political influence; based themselves on the torah, rejected oral traditions, the resurrection of the dead and the existence of angels; disappeared as a group after the fall of jerusalem
diaspora
initially applied to jews deported under the assyrian and babylonian conquests, and then applied to all jews living outside palestine; some translated the septuagint of the old testament; in the new testament, refers to christians spread around the world
apocrypha
"hidden"; old testament books or sections of books written in or translated into greek, printed in catholic bibles but often omitted in protestant bibles; examples are judith, wisdom, 1 and 2 maccabees, tobit, sirach
deuterocanonical texts
catholic name for the six books found in the greek version of the old testament but not in the canon of hebrew scriptures; judith, 1 and 2 maccabees, sirach, tobit and wisdom
hermeneutics
theory and practice of understanding and interpreting texts, biblical and otherwise; seek to establish the original meaning of a text in its historical context and express it; recognizes that a text can contain and convey meaning beyond the original author's intention; involves philology, history, literary criticism, philosophy, and sociology
tradition
the process of handing on or the living heritage that is handed on; through the Holy Spirit the church is is empowered to pass on its memory, experience, expression, and interpretation of the foundational self revelation of God that was completed with Christ and the New Testament community; involves the Church in her doctrine, life and worship; identifies and unifies the church, secures community from its origins into the future; some may need reform; must be communicated by those in the Church
doctrine
Church teaching in all its many forms; intended to communicate orthodox beliefs but also to feed Christian life and worship
dogma
a divinely revealed truth, proclaimed by the infallible teaching authority of the church; binding now and forever on all faithful; despite their important, are not ultimate norms; the Scriptures and Tradition are the supreme rule of faith and are celebrated in church worship; easter orthodox believe it to be conciliar teaching accepted by particular churches in communion with one another and nourishing the faithful in liturgy and life
pre-existence
the belief that Jesus was and is personally identical with the Son of God, who has existed from all eternity and who entered the world to be revealed in human history
immanent trinity
the ultimate mystery of the universe; the communion of three divine persons within their eternal life together
economic trinity
the revelation of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit came through the history of salvation, which culminated in the incarnation of the Son and sending of the Spirit; leads to knowledge of the immanent Trinity
processions
a theological term for the way in which the second and third persons of the Trinity originate from the Father
ineffability
"being inexpressible or indescribable"; God's being unutterably mysterious and ultimately unnamable
impassibility
"being exempt from suffering"; freedom from the possibility of pain and of being changed by an outside cause; only the all perfect and immutable God is impassible; He is not indifferent or unconcerned; the Son of God could suffer and die
eternity
"endless duration"; having neither beginning nor end, but being unchangeably full of life; a divine attribute, but through grace God lets us share in eternal life
tritheism
"three gods"; a belief in three gods that misrepresents Christian monotheism, which accepts three distinct persons in one God
schism
separation into opposed groups; prefigured in the old testament and have always harmed the life and unity of the church; it is to sin against faith by willfully rejecting revealed truths and offend against love by breaking off communion with other members of the church; not primarily provoked by doctrinal matters, but matters of authority and church order
heresy
a sectarian group or disruptive faction and opinion; came to mean a baptized person's willful and persistent dissent from orthodox doctrines of faith; at times challenges have encouraged the solemn definition of church teaching
revelation
disclosure by God of what was previously unknown; God's personal self manifestation that invites our personal response of faith; communication of divine truths; communicated through words, events of history, and the created world; Christ was the climax of self revelation as He was the revealer and revelation; we await the final revelation; salvation history and history of revelation are inseparable
salvation history
the whole story of human beings and their world seen as a drama of redemption running from creation to finding its center in Christ; marked by ever increasing expectations as divine promised point to future fulfillment
incarnation
latin for enfleshing; the belief that for the salvation of the world, the Son of God, while remaining fully divine, became truly and fully human; at a particular place and time in history he was born of the Virgin Mary, died o a cross under Pontius Pilate, and rose from the dead with a glorified humanity
ousia
greek for "substance" or "essence"; term used at nicaea 1 for one divine nature shared by God the Father and the Son; all three divine persons share the same substance and essence
homoousios
greek for "of the same substance" or "consubstantial"; referring to Christ and inserted intot he creed by the council of nicaea to combat arianism; previously used in a heretical sense by gnostics
hypostasis
greek for "substance" or "that which stands or is set under"; the substantial nature or reality underlying something; term created problems when it came to mean "concrete, individual reality" or "distinct personal existence"; church spoke of Christ using this term, as He was one person in two natures
prosopon
greek for "face," "mask," or "role"; initially for meant for a mask worn on stage, later, meant for a person; used to describe the individual person of Jesus Christ
monarchianism
greek for "of one principle"; term for the heretical belief that stressed the unity of God to the point that it was denied that the Son was truly divine with a distinct personal existence; some supporters held that Jesus was divine only in the sense of God's power coming upon Him and adopting Him; reduces the Trinity to the different ways in which God is manifested and acts
subordinationism
assigning an inferior status to teh Son with regard to the Father and the Holy Spirt with regard to the Father and Son; a common tendency before the doctrine of the Trinity had been established
docetism
greek for "appearance"; early heresy which held that the Son of God merely seemed to be a human being; Christ's bodily reality was considered heavenly or else a body only in appearance, with someone else, suffering in his place; rejected by the new testament; church taught that Christ took from Mary a genuine human body and suffered in a human way
monophysitism
greek, "one nature"; heresy attributed to those who refused to accept the teaching that in Christ there is "one person in two natures"; sometimes it was believed that the incarnation meant that Christ's human and divine natures were absorbed into a third nature, or Christ's human nature was was absorbed into the divine nature
monothelitism
greek, "one will"; heresy which maintained that Christ lacked a human will and possessed only the divine will
theotokos
greek, "God-bearer"; a title given to Our Lady to express the fact that she gave birth to the Son of God
hypostatic union
the union between full divinity and humanity in the one divine person of Jesus Christ, which occurred when the Word became Flesh
gnosticism
dualistic religious movement that clearly emerged in the second century; drew on jewish, christian and pagan sources and presented salvation as spiritual elements being freed from an evil material environment; denied Christ's real incarnation and the salvation of the flesh; modified tradition and scriptures of mainline christianity and claimed privileged knowledge from secret traditions and revelations
marcionism
dualistic, ascetic movement founded by marcion, in his antithesis he maintained that the creator and old testament law were quite incompatible with the God of love and grace preached by Jesus; rejected Hebrew scriptures and retained only the pauline letters and some of luke's gospel; remains a recurrent temptation for christians
canon of scripture
list of biblical books authoritatively recognized by the church as inspired and normative for its teaching and practice; among christian denominations the lists of old testament books differ considerably
adoptionism
an eighth century spanish heresy that held that, as God, Christ was by nature truly Son of God but, as man, only God's adopted son