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Terms in this set (38)
How big is Hinduism?
900 million - 1 billion people
Where did it come from?
The British in the 18/19th century
Is it missionary?
3000 - 2750 BCE. Known by archeological record, goddess worship predominant. They had elaborate cities, amulets with stylized carvings, and they declined/transformed in 1750 BCE.
Most widely revered text
The Vedas ("wisdom texts")
Few Hindus can read them, Brahmins are unable to explain what they mean.
The Vedas: Sruti "what is heard"
Hymns, ritual guides, counsel for religious retreats, incarnations, spells. Fire and offerings of nectar were important
The Vedas: Smrti "what is remembered" Epic Literature
"The story of Rama", "Mahabharata, the Great Epic of India". Religious poems are central part of Hindu historical traditions
To yoke control or harness
Yoga is designed to...
Purify the soul from the body
Avoiding stealing, lying, and set aggression
Cleanliness, diet, and calm peacefulness
The first Bhakti movement
6th CE in south India. Holy men went temple to temple in praise of deities like Vishnu and Shiva
Second Bhakti movement
11 CE in North India.
Square. Mountains, then the ocean, hen the temple. To get to the top is to get Moksha and unity with Brahman
Cause and effect
Hinduism believes that life is _______.
The universal system of birth and rebirth
Liberation from samsara
The root source of all possible existence. Sometimes characterized as personal deity, impersonal absolute energy, or cosmic principle. Brahman is the power source for gods/goddesses.
An individual indestructible core passing through from incarnation to incarnation through samsara. (Aka, one's soul)
Matter. The first consciousness to arise, he sacrifices himself through himself to create the material universe. Raw materials of Purusha's body becomes the moons, suns, win, sky and earth. Other parts of him become the social changes
The caste system
Hindus are born into system. Each segment has a different role. Cannot shift caste system within a lifetime. Affects schooling, jobs, food, kinship network
Large Epic works
Enters human world to save it from danger. Grants merit and salvation to followers. Followers are known as "Vaishnavas". Playfulness, erotic, agricultural, musical
1) Rg Vedia: Composed of stanzas
2) Sama Veda: Hymns
3) Yajur Veda: Yajus; ritual prayers
4) Atharva Veda: Rutual texts named after the sage Atharvan
Prayer to Agni
God of fire, transmutes sacrificial offerings into smoke, which is consumed by the gods. Intermediary between divine and human.
To the fire altar
Hymn used to help the priest mentally prepare for a sacrifice. Visualizes the fire altar as the whole universe. Sacrifice is a way to attain spiritual knowledge.
The meaning of yoga is...
Disciplining the mind and the body.
Five states of the mind
Wandering, deluded, distracted, one-pointed, cut off
The mind flows towards the ____ and flows towards ____
The path to liberation is a
Solitary one. Must win salvation alone
Magic or illusion. Power by which Brahman hides the truth from ordinary human beings.
Praise of the Goddess and prayer for identity with the goddess
The goddess is the real source of creation. All deities of hinduism as well as all that exists owe their origins to her
How should the goddess be worshiped?
With all one's heart
Burning dead bodies
Agni is asked to burn the corpse of a dead man to ensure he is brought to the land of the dead. The concept of afterlife is vague in the early Vedas, but references to a world of the dead ruled by Yama, who was the first human to die. At the end of the ritual, the pyre is soaked with water to allow new growth of life from the ashes of death.
Mahadevi: the Goddess
Has her own Puranas. Often worshiped in one of several forms. Shaktism. Goddess births all Gods; beginning and end. Source of God-Power. Has varied appearances
Shiva: the Goddess
Expresses simultaneous complementary powers in tension. The originator of Yoga. Supremacy of Shiva: Both Brahma and Vishnu were born from Shiva, therefore Shiva is the superior God
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