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As industrialization spread, peasants in Europe improved their conditions by all of the following EXCEPT

forming unions

Which of the following statements could NOT be attributed to the political philosophy of Karl Marx?

In the aftermath of the victory of the proletariat, the state would emerge permanently as a powerful dictatorship

Balkan Nationalism in the 19th century initially exacerbated deteriorating relationships between what two powers with interests in the region?

Russia and Austria-Hungary

Which of the following statements concerning the peace conference at Vienna following the fall of France is most accurate?

Territorial adjustments reached at Vienna kept Europe fairly stable for almost half a century

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the relationship between science and the arts in the later 19th century?

Science continued the Western trend of traditional rationalism, but art adopted the more emotional and impressionistic theories of Romanticism

Who was responsible for managing the unification of Italy?

Count Camillo di Cavour

What German conservative was responsible for the unification of Germany in 1871?

Otto von Bismarck

Which of the following was NOT a cause of the French Revolution?

The church seeking greater power over the royal government

Protoindustrialization refers to

The employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchants.

American exceptionalism suggests that the United States

Depended exclusively for its cultural development on Europe.

Which of the following was a lasting reform passed during the initial, moderate phase of the French Revolution?

Peasants were freed from all traces of manorialism

What piece of legislation gave the vote to many members of the middle class in Great Britain?

The Reform Bill of 1832

Which of the following statements concerning the political philosophy of the Enlightenment is most accurate?

Enlightenment thinkers challenged regimes that did not grant full religious freedom or that insisted on aristocratic privilege.

Which of the following statements concerning conservative political strategies after 1850 in Europe is most accurate?

Conservatives strove to develop a new political consensus with liberals that would grant the appearance of constitutional reform but retain aristocratic privilege.

Which 19th-century European political group listed below would espouse the following statement? "As long as property is controlled by private individuals, inequality will exist. It is the role of the state to manage property for the benefit of all citizens."


Which of the following nations did NOT enter the competitive race for colonial empire and industrial supremacy after 1870?


The jingoistic press and the extension of the vote to the lower middle and working classes

made public opinion a major factor in foreign policy.

Jeremy Bentham and James Mill were leaders of what philosophical movement that supported social reform in the colonies?


Which of the following is NOT a similarity between South Africa and Australia?

Both were settled by Europeans at approximately the same time.

Which of the following was NOT a handicap faced by the Indian princes in defending their kingdoms from the British?

The success of the British in winning many converts to Christianity

What tactic led to the Dutch control of the entire island of Java?

The Dutch, using mercenary forces recruited from the people of Java, intervened in succession disputes in return for grants of land

Which of the following was NOT a result of the first contact between the Maoris and Europeans during the 1790s?

Extensive intermarriage between the Maoris and the white settlers

Who was responsible for the sweeping reforms in India in the 1790s?

Lord Cornwallis

Which of the following is an example of a "White Dominion?"


The territories controlled by the British East India Company expanded concurrently with the collapse of the

Safavid dominions

In which of the following ways was the British experience in India different than that of the Dutch in Java?

The existence of a global imperial rivalry with the French

By what time did the shift from pre-industrial to industrial imperialism clearly take place?

The middle of the 18th century

Which of the following was NOT an aspect of European expansion in the pre-industrial era?

The establishment of European colonies in the interior of Africa

How were 18th-century land empires in Asia accumulated?

By the initiative of overseas agents of the Dutch and British East India companies acting in the absence of instructions from the company directors

By 1914 all of Africa had fallen to European colonialists EXCEPT


In what way was the government of independent Brazil different from those of the other newly created Latin American nations?

Brazil was a monarchy rather than a republic

The leader of the Liberal rebellion in Mexico called La Reforma was

Benito Jaurez

Which of the following statements concerning Argentina between 1880 and 1920 is most accurate?

The immigration of European laborers led to an increasingly radical work force and the development of a Socialist Party by the 1890s.

What was the impact of the Haitian independence movement on Latin America?

Creole elites viewed it with horror as an example of general social upheaval.

In 1902 which of the following United States possessions was granted independence?


The United States expressed its attitude toward Latin American independence in 1823 with the issuance of the

Monroe Doctrine

Which of the following descriptions of the politicians who led Liberal governments in post-1860 Latin America is NOT accurate?

They favored expansion of the franchise to Indians and mestizos who represented the "ancient" aspects of Latin American civilization

The leader of the slave independence movement on the island of St. Domingue was

Toussaint L'Overture

Which of the following was NOT one of the beliefs that Latin America shared with the West during the 19th century?

Belief in absolute monarchy

The "dependency theory" of economic development is associated with what political group?


Simon Bolivar was responsible for the independence movement in

northern South America

Which of the following statements concerning the political organization of Latin America to 1850 is most accurate?

Most attempts at consolidation and union had failed.

In what way was Latin America different from other regions that remained outside the direct control of Western imperialism?

During the century of imperialism, Latin America cast off previous colonial controls through revolution.

Which of the following characteristics is most accurately associated with the "centralist" theory of government in Latin America?

Strong national governments with broad powers

In what way was the experience of the Napoleonic wars different for Portugal than for Spain?

The entire royal family fled from the French to Brazil and established their capital there.

Which of the following was NOT a weakness associated with the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century?

Conversion of much of the population to Christianity

In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to the Ottomans' survival?


What was the result of the reforms of Sultan Selim III (1789-1807)?

The sultan was toppled from the throne by a Janissary revolt.

Which of the following was NOT part of the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire?

Elimination of religious protection for minority religious groups

In which of the following areas did Sultan Abdul Hamid continue to press for increased westernization?

Military reform

With what European power did the Ottomans contest the control of Libya just prior to World War I?


What prevented Muhammad Ali from overthrowing the Ottoman Empire?

Opposition of European powers

Which of the following was an Islamic moderate in 19th-century Egypt who urged the adoption of Western scientific knowledge and technology?

Al- Afghani

What was the result of the rebellion by Egyptian army officers in 1882?

The Khedive called on the British to crush the rebellion, resulting in British overlordship of Egypt.

Who was responsible for the unification of the Manchu tribesmen prior to the invasion of China in the 17th century?


In what area did the Manchus attempt to take strong measures of reform?

Alleviating rural distress and unrest

All of the following signs of dynastic decline were apparent in the Qing regime by the beginning of the 19th century EXCEPT

failure of foreign commerce

What was the impact of the British opium trade on China?

The government was quickly able to halt the importation of opium, so that it did not have the disastrous impact on the Chinese population that was expected.

What was the outcome of the Opium War?

British victory in the Opium War allowed European powers to force China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges.

The semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in southern China in the 1850s and early 1860s was the

Taiping rebellion

Which of the following represents a significant difference between Russia and Japan?

Russia engaged in selective borrowing from Western models by 1700.

Which of the following reflects a significant similarity between Japan and Russia during the period of industrialization prior to 1914?

Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of imitation, Japan from China and Russia from Byzantium and the West.

What nations were linked together in the Holy Alliance that grouped conservative monarchies together in defense of religion and the status quo in 1815?

Russia, Prussia, Austria

Which of the following statements concerning Russian territorial expansion is most accurate?

No massive acquisitions marked the early 19th century, but Russia continued to be an aggressive competitor for territorial expansion.

What accounted for the West's victory over Russia in the Crimean War?

The Western nations won because of industrial advantages.

Which of the following statements concerning the emancipation of the serfs in Russia is most accurate?

In addition to personal freedom, the serfs were granted parcels of land subject to redemption payments.

What was the first step toward industrialization in Russia?

The creation of an extensive system of railways

Russian radicals who sought the abolition of all formal government were called


Which of the following statements about Russian Marxism is most accurate?

Lenin introduced important innovations in Marxist theory, including the idea that a proletarian revolution could take place without going through a middle-class phase.

What group did the imperial government appeal to in the reforms following the revolution of 1905?


The Duma was

a national parliament created in the aftermath of the 1905 revolution

Which of the following Russian developments was NOT adopted in other east European states?

Economic autonomy from the West

Which of the following statements concerning Tokugawa intellectual and cultural life is most accurate?

Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than anywhere else outside the West.

Which of the following was NOT an advantage of Japan over China in the competition to assume leadership and to establish industrialization in Asia?

Japan's leadership was less secular and bureaucratic than that of China.

One of the major similarities between Japanese and Russian industrialization was the fact that

scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new technology compelled state direction.

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