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conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
(physiology) the responsive adjustment of a sense organ (as the eye) to varying conditions (as of light)
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
eye neurons that receive information from the retinal cells and distribute information to the ganglion cells
the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
additive color mixing
Formation of colors by superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself.
subtractive color mixing
Formation of colors by removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there.
Visual theory, stated by Young and Helmholtz that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue; a.k.a the Young-Helmholtz theory.
tones that result from sound waves that are multiples of the basic tone; primary determinant of timbre
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
The theory holding that groups of auditory nerve fibers fire neural impulses in rapid succession, creating volleys of impulses.
one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities
sense receptors in the tongue that respond to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and perhaps fat
theory that spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pains signals or allows them to pass. gate is opened by activity of pain going up small nerve fibers & gate is closed by act of large fibers or by info coming from brain
the theory that the interaction of biological, psychological, and cultural factors influence the intensity and duration of pain.
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