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Terms in this set (50)
Chemical Bisphenol A (BPA for short)
Associated with everything from neurological effects to miscarriages.
Used in resins in that line metal food cans and drink cans and water supply pipes and in dental seelants for our teeth.
Assesses the environmental factors that influence our health and quality of life,
Goal: Prevent adverse effects on human health/ecological systems
Come from processes that occur naturally in our enviroment and pose risks to us.
Ex: Excessive exposure to UV raditation, earthquakes,fires, ecy
Include many synthetic chemicals like pharmaceuticals, disinfectants, pesticides
Result from ecological interactions among organisms.
Get sick from an infection or other pathogen.
Ex: Cholera, tuberculosis, ect.
Monitoring and sanitation, medical treatment.
Hazards that come from her place of residence, socioeconomic status, our occupation or behavioral choices
Ex: Exposure to second hand smoke out of our control.
Forced risks are higher for poor people.
Half the worlds death . . . .
Result from noninfectious diseases like cancer and heart disease.
An organism that transfers the pathogen to the host
Greater problem in poor countries.
Can attack us directly or through vectors.
Science that examinies the effects of poisonous chemicals on humans and other things
Determine the toxicity of an organism
Small amount could not result in negative consequences.
Deals with toxic substances that comes from or are discharged into the environment.
Focus on the study of toxic substances and to see if other organisms can serve as indicators of health threats that could soon affect people.
Leading indoor Hazards/ Top 2 causes of lung cancer in developed nations
Cigarette Smoke and Radon
Polybrominated Diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
Used as fire retardants in computers, TVs, plastics, and furniture.
Act like hormone disrupters.
toxic chemicals manufactured in the tissues of living organisms.
Ex: plants use to ward off herbivores
Rachel Carson 1962 book
Brought DDT to the publics attention
Helped DDT be banned in the US
Best known toxins
Substances that can cause cancer.
Greatest cause of cancer is smoking
Cause genetic mutations in the DNA of organisms.
Can lead to cancer and other disorders
Chemicals that cause harm to unborn babies.
Cause birth defeats.
Ex: drug thalidomide
Assault the nervous system.
Included venoms produced by animals, lead, mercury, some pesticides.
Overactive the immune system, causing an immune response when one is not necessary.
Toxicants that interrupt vital biochemical processes in organisms by blockin one or more steps in important biochemical pathways.
Ex: Rat Posions.
Toxic Substances that interfere with then endocrine system by blocking the action of hormones or by accerating their breakdown.
Ex: Bisphenol A
Hormone disrupting chemicals that are used widely in children's toys, perfumes, and cosmetics.
Both a Carcinogen, Mutagen, and endocrine disrupter
First Line of defense to Toxins
Skin, Scales, feathers, and fur since they help the body resist uptake of them.
Use enzymes to detoxify harmful chemicals. Some break down or metabolize.
Others make toxic substances water soluble.
Found in liver
high exposure for short periods of time
low exposure over long period of time.
Pesicides can be carried by air currents to sites far away from agricultural fields
Rate at which Toxic degrades
Depends on its chemistry and on factors like temperature, moisture and sun exposure.
Long time: DDT, PCBS
Short time: Bt toxin
Fat and Oil Soluble toxicants get in fatty tissues which results in the animal's tissues having a greater concentration of the substance that bioaccumulate in environment.
Found in lab experiments that male frogs raised in water containing very low doses of atrazine became feminized and hermaphroditic.
Lage scale comparisons among groups of people usually contrasting a group known to have been exposed to some hazard and a group that has not.
Measure a statistical association between a health hazard and an effect, but do not confirm the that the hazard caused the effect.
Dose -Response Analysis
Standard Method of testing lab animals.
Quantify the toxicology of a substance by measuring the strength of its effects or the number of animals affected at different doses.
Amount animal receives
Is the type or magnitude of negative effects the animal exhibits as a result.
the amount of the substance it takes to kill half the population of study animals used.
High = low toxicity
Low = high toxicity
Effective Dose 50
50 percent of the population of test animals is affected in some way.
Expected if the organisms body fully metabolize a toxicant at a low dose but becomes overwhelmed at higher concentrations.
Interactive impacts that are greater than the simple sum of their constituent effects
Theo Colburn, Dianne Dumanoski, J.P. Meyers
1996 Our Stolen Future
Notes endocrine-disrupting effects decades ago
Risk can be measured. A Quantitative description of the likehood of a certain outcome.
A way to idenitfy and outline problems
Determines which substances pose health threats to people/ wildlife.
EPA, CDC, FDA
Risks are considered in light of economic, political, social values.
Innocent untill Proven Guilty Approach
Assume substances are harmful untill shown to be harmful.
Cheaper then testing every single substance out there.
Other approach is to assume that substances are harmful until shown to be harmless.
Toxic Sustance control Act
Directs the EPA to monitor the industrial chemicals manufactured in or imported into the US.
The act gives the agency power to regulate these substances and ban them if they are found to pose excessive risk.
shifts the burden of proof for testing chemical to industry and requires them chemical substances be produced or imported in amounts of over 1 metric ton be registered.
Stockholm Convention on Persistant Organic Pollutants
aims first to end the use and release of 12 POPs shown to be most dangerous --> the dirty dozen
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