Surgical Technology - Chapters 5 & 8
Terms in this set (123)
All hazards approach
Integrated strategy for disaster management that focuses on common features of all disasters, regardless of cause or origin.
Catastrophic event that poses a large scale risk to human life and property.
A disaster does what?
Its overwhelms local resources and requires outside assistance.
A more geographically isolated event that can be handled by local emergency services, such as ambulances, fire dept., or paramedics.
(MCE) Mass casualty event
A localized emergency, such as a transportation accident, explosion, or structural collapse, in which the number of victims overwhelms local health care services.
What are the types of disasters?
Natural, Technological, Pandemic, and Terrorism.
Levels of response needed.
Level 1, Level 2, Level 3.
Level 1 response.
Local emergency teams are able to manage the consequences and after math of the event.
Level 2 response.
Requires regional assistance from surrounding communities.
Level 3 response.
State wide and federal assistance required, the effects have overwhelmed local and regional resources.
Arises from a force of nature, such as a hurricane, earthquake, and flood.
Types of natural disasters:
Blizzard, ice storm, extreme heat, drought, earthquake, flood, forest fire, hurricane, tornado, tsunami, snow avalanche, mudslide.
Unintentional events caused by human activity, combined with error or negligence.
Types of technological disasters:
Explosion, Hazardous material accident, radiation accident, transportation accident,
A wide scale, rapidly contagious infectious disease, that spreads across a large region.
A localized spread of contagious infectious disease.
Type/Example of a Pandemic:
HIV/AIDS and Flu have been the major causes of world wide pandemics in recent years.
Acts of terrorism:
Bioterrorism, Chemical terrorism, Bombing/direct attack.
Intentional release of harmful biological agents into the environment.
Most common agents w/ Bioterrorism:
Anthrax, Botulism, Plague etc.
Use of chemical agents for intentional harm in the population.
Agents included in chemical terrorism:
Agents that enter the respiratory system and nerve gas groups that cause paralysis.
direct terrorism attack such as 9/11
Key principles of NRF national response framework
1. Engaged partnership
2. Tiered response
3. Scalable, flexible, and adaptable operational capabilities.
4. Unit of effort through unified command
5. Readiness to act
Five main components in NIMS
Communications and Information Management
Command and Management
Ongoing Management and Maintenance
DMAT disaster medical assistance team
On call volunteer health assistance team for FEMA.
The disaster cycle is:
a framework for action from the start of planning until communities are able to function again following a disaster.
Phases of The Disaster Cycle:
The first phase in planning for a disaster.
Mitigation or risk reduction is a process or activity that minimizes the impact of an event.
Mitigation is sometimes placed:
first on the disaster cycle or with preparedness. Might occur as part of the response.
Many disaster response activities are to provide basic immediate human needs.
In a disaster what may be the most immediate human need?
Shelter or protection
is a way of moving people away from a disaster to protect them from catastrophic morbidity and mortality.
The alternative to evacuation is:
People remain where they are until the environment is safe or until rescue workers can reach the site.
number of patients a health care facility can manage in an emergency
process in which casualties are given emergency medical treatment according to the probability of their survival.
Common practice to differentiate patients:
Those not needing emergency care
Those with great chance of survival with care
Those for whom medical inter. will aid survival
Those whose chance of survival would not increase with medical inter.
START simple triage and rapid treatment
used when the number of casualties overwhelms the capacity to fully asses victims.
START system uses basic metabolic signs
respiration, perfusion, and mental status.
Triaged individuals are assigned :
a category and tagged using a color or other code tag that can be identified by other health care workers.
facility morgue is set up near the back of the hospital if overflow room is needed. Disaster tags necessary for all bodies, all forms must be filled at the time body is delivered.
the recovery phase of a disaster is not defined by a particular event or activity.
a complex process in which the risk of morbidity and mortality is reduced or mitigated to a level which community can cope.
Two main categories of disasers:
Natural disasters and Human made disasters
Resposible for the management of a disaster
Federal and Local agencies
Surgical technologists are :
trained in a variety of professional skills that are needed during a disaster. Specific roles may be determined at time of disaster.
NIMS national incident management system
set of guidelines that defines the management structure, objectives, and chain of command during a disaster.
A major health facility has the ability to __ using satellite or high frequency radio.
___ of a medical facility may sometimes be necessary because of structural hazards or immediate threat from fire, chemical, or bioterrorism.
Roles are assigned using a job action sheet (JAS). This is a tool used to define:
During a disaster, individual health care workers may be asked to :
perform tasks outside their scope of practice.
During a disaster, the press and other media require:
lists of the dead.
The statistical probability of a given event based on the number of such events that have already occurred in a defined population.
Exposure to hazards in the workplace.
Some of the human causes of injury include:
Fatigue in workplace
Completion of tasks rather than methods used to complete safely
Rushing through to get done
Lack of knowledge about risks
Emotional strain and stress
Oxygen, Fuel, Source of ignition
Oxygen enriched atmosphere (OEA)
An environment that contains a greater concentration of oxygen.
Oxygen is heavier than air, so it:
settles under drapes and in confined areas, such as body cavities.
Capable of supporting fire. Oxygen and Nitrous Oxide are.
Any material capable of burning is a potential fuel for a fire.
Materials and substances that burn.
Flammable and inflammable mean
the same meaning
Most skin prep solutions contain__alcohol
A substance with a low boiling point such as alcohol that converts to a vapor at low temp.
Vapor from alcohol can __ under drapes.
Sources of ignition
Any heat producing device has the potential to cause a fire.
Electrosurgical unit (ESU)
uses electrical energy to coagulate and cut tissue.
Burned tissue fragments that can accumulate on the ESU tip during surgery.
22% of patient fires occur in
44% of patient fires occur on
8% of patient fires occur inside
26% of patient fires occur on
To stop the progression of the fire, the ___ must be broken
triangle of fire
Three steps taken to protect patient and stop fire.
Shut off all gases to patients airway
Remove any burning objects from surgical site
Assess the patient for injury and respond appropriately
RACE (evacuation plan)
Rescue patients in the immediate area of fire
Alert other people to the fire
Contain the fire
Evacuate personnel in areas around fire
Pass (fire extinguisher)
Pull the ring from the handle
Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire
Squeeze the handle
Sweep the fire with tank contents
Do not identify medical gases contents by the __ of the cylinder.
Contents of gas cylinders are identified by a ___ ___ on the tank itself or by a cylinder tag.
stamp or stencil
Two types of hazards are associated with compressed gas cylinders:
physical hazards and chemical hazards
Electrical malfunctions are a ___ of hospital fires in the US.
The characteristics of electricity are:
current, voltage, impedance (resistance), and grounding.
rate of electrical flow
Direct current (DC)
low voltage, originates from a battery
Alternating current (AC)
transmitted by a 220 or 110 V-line, normally found in wall outlets.
driving source behind the moving electrons (electricity)
describes the ability of a substance to stop the flow of electrons (electricity).
Severe burns, cardiac arrest, or death as a result of electrical current discharged into the body and not directed back to the source.
is the discharge of electrical current from the source to ground, where it is dispersed and rendered harmless.
Most common source of electrical injury to the surgical patient is:
Most effective method of blocking radiation
Most important parameters determining risk and protection:
Distance from the radiation source
Duration of exposure
Quality of the shielding
Lead aprons are worn:
under sterile gowns during procedures that require radiation.
Many lead aprons shield only the __ of the body; therefore workers should face the radiation source during exposure.
What must be worn during fluoroscopy?
a lead apron
How should lead aprons be stored?
Lead aprons must be stored flat or hung to prevent bending
Lead glasses should be worn during exposure to a what?
Neck shields protect
Must maintain at least how many feet from the exposure
Walls are lined with __ in the radiology dept.
measures the cumulative radiation dose for those who are often exposed to radiation.
magnetic resonance imaging
a 3-D view of the patients anatomy using radio-frequency.
Absolutely no metal objects in the environment with
PPE personal protective equipment
protects personnel against high concentrations of chemicals.
Material Safety Data Sheet
The MSDS describes
the chemical, precautions for handling chemicals, hazards associated with the chemical, and firefighting technq. and first aid for exposure.
Color coded diagram indicating hazards with a chemical
Blue- Health hazard
White- Other hazards
Score corresponding hazard level
Created during the use of a ESU or laser. Contains toxic chemicals, vapors, blood fragments, and viruses.
most important method of preventing disease transmission
Wash your hands and wear gloves when
touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, and contaminated items.
The most common means of transmission of blood borne pathogens to health care workers is
What is Postexposure prophylaxis?
A risk reduction strategy that is used after exposure to blood or other body fluids.
Transmission based precautions
implemented when a patient is know or suspected to have a highly infectious disease.
Airborne transmission precautions
Reduce the risk of transmission of airborne agents by droplet nuclei up to 5micrometers.
Airborne transmission precautions must be taken for the following diseases:
Varicella (including herpes zoster)
Infections for which droplet precautions should be implemented:
Haemophilus influenzae type B
naturally occurring sap obtained from rubber trees.
is a cell mediated response