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23 terms

Chapter 7:Life Histories and Evolutionary Fitness

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Life History
The schedule of an individual's life-age at maturiy, number of offspring, life span
Trade-offs
A consequence of devoting limited time, energy, or materials to one structure, function, or behavior at the expence of another
Allocation
The division of limited time, energy, or materials among competing functions or requiremtnts
maturity
Acquisition of reproductive function, or the age at which this occurs
parity
The number of episodes of reproduction in an individual's
fecundity
The number of offspring produced per reproductive episodes
longevity
The life span of an individual
determinate growth
A growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow only until it reaches maturity
indeterminate growth
A growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow, usually at a decreasign rate, after maturity.
programmed death
Death as part of a semelparous life history
semelparity
A life history characterized by a single, terminal reproductive episode.
iteroparity
A life history characterized by multiple reproductive episodes
bet heding
Reducing the risk of mortality or reproductive failure in a variable environment by adopting an intermediate strategy or several alternative strategies simultaneously, or by spreading on's risk over time and space
senescence
Gradual deterioration of physiological function with age, leading to increased probability of death, aging.
dormancy
A physiologically inactive state, such as hibernation, diapause or seed dormany, usually assuemd when conditions do not allow the organism to function normally
hibernate
A state of winer dormancy involvign lowered body temperature and metabolism
diapause
Temporary interruption of development or physiological function, usually associated with a period of unfavorable environmental conditions
proximate factors
An aspected of the environment that the organism uses as a cue for behavior, but which does not directly affect the organism's fitness
ultimate factors
An aspect of the environment that directly affects the fitness of an organism
photoperiod
the length of the daylight period in a 24 hour day
optimal foraging
A theoretical concept that seeks to explain foraging behavior in terms of the fitness costs and benefits of each possible alternatvie behavior
central place foraging
foraging behavior in which acquired food is brought to a central place, such as a nest with young
risk-sensitive foraging
foraging behavior that is influenced by the presence of predators or risk of predation