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biol 1208 test 3 lsu
Terms in this set (74)
What does photosynthesis create?
Glucose and oxygen
What type of reaction is photosynthesis?
Energy that comes from chemicals, also another way glucose is made. and in the absence of sunlight chemical compounds can be broken down as a source of energy to eventually make glucose
plant cells have dozens in them. each has an outer membrane, inner membrane, and some specialized membranes inside the cell.
Do all photosynthetic organisms have chloroplast?
Can bacteria do photosynthesis and not have chloroplast? and what are they called?
yes, prokaryotes and lack membrane orgenelles
CO2 + H2O + energy supplied =
C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2
How is the CO2 concentration in the air?
Low: .34% oxygen 20%
What is the most basic form of a carbohydrate?
CH2O (carbon and water)
Can plants digest all carbs?
no, broken down into sugars and fiber
H c-------O H
l / \ l
l\ / l
OH C-------C OH
CH2OH O H
l / \ l
\ / l
C ----------C CH2OH
what are carbs used for?
energy and structural usage
What is the most synthetic product of all organisms that do photosythesis?
what is glucose?
a monosaccharide (immediate energy) produced in all photosynthetic organisms
What does glucose go directly into?
cellular respiration to be broken down liberating free carbon molecules of CO2
What are disaccharides?
2 sugars. long term energy storage. takes longer to break these down. Enzymatic needed to break them down into their mono or disaccaride forms. thus used to store sugars
what are polysacc?
different by the way glucose are connected together
repeating unit of glucose forming a polysacc. energy. digestible.
repeating unit of glucose. fiber. structure. used for cell walls. non digestable. gives cell shape and final size.
storage form of sugar. when body tries to reduce the sugar concentration in your blood one of the things it will make is a poly. digestible.
protein used by both. grabs CO2 from the atmosphere. and connect it to a chain of carbon atoms. eventually producing glucose.
What actually became the first chloroplast?
bacteria that do photosynthesis
can chloroplast live on its own?
where does the majority of photosynthesis on the planet happen?
aquatic environment (60-70%)
what are the parts on a flower that are photosynthetic?
the green parts
These cells become different types of cells. terminal and basal cell. they became different by which gene turned on for when and how long.
become the shoot part of the plant
become the root
are undifferentiated cells
first leaves. Seed leaves. Come up as soon as teh seed begins to grow to immediately make sugar upon opening. so it can make more cells and elongating those cells to make itself bigger.
has two seed leaves
has one seed leaf
upper and lower epidermis of the leaf
found on the lower epidermis only and consist of two guard clls. allows for CO2 to get into the leaf and water to leave the leaf. thus if it too dry plant will close them to prevent water loss. This can be a problem during droughts because the stomata stay closed then CO2 cannot enter and glucose cannot be made.
can be actively filled with water making them turgid and open. Or indirectly removed of water content and they close.
responsible for storing the carbs produced by the plant. Comprises the majority of a young plant and lies between the vascular and dermal tissues.
Veins of plants. Made of two types. Xylem and phloem.
moves mostly water though out the plant. it dies after it matures.
What are two organelles that are found in almost all leaf cells?
Mitochondria and Chloroplast
Do all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria in them?
what are some unicellular eukaryotes that do photosynthesis
algae (green, brown, golden, red) diatoms, dinoflagellates.
waxy substance found on the epidermal of the shoot part of a plant. Helps prevent water loss. Also stops CO2 from entering. Made from dermal tissue.
Cells in the middle of the plants. Have chlorophyll
Transport that requires energy. Looking at a membrane if something has to be moved from low concentration to high that is against its concentration gradient.
Moves from high to low and is more or less free (needing close to no energy) . Also know as diffusion
Water has a hard time going through a biological membrane. Because the center of the membrane is hydrophobic. Cells make proteins that spane throuhg membrane assisting in its movement. Facilitated osmosis.
has membranes. Like the solar panels of the plant. Often found in stacks in high plants. Responsible for harvesting energy and converting it into stored energy. Takes ADP and makes ATP Also takes an electron carrier and charges it during that process. (NADPH) Inside of thylakoid reffered to as interior or lumen
the stacks of thylakoid
solution side of the chloroplast. mostly water. has a lot of stuff dissolved in it. lots of chemical substances and soluble proteins. and those proteins are responsible for the synthesis part of photosynthesis like making glucose
(Thylakoid) takes sunlight to take depleted carriers of ADP and NADP+ and create energized arriers of ATP and NADPH. That is doen using the membrane of the thylakoid. H2O is also needed to creat ATP and NADPH; in the process gives off O2. Responsible for photo in photosynthesis.
light dependent reactions
ATP to ADP is what kind of reaction
primary pigment present in greatest quantity. absorbs violet, blue, and red light. Reflecs green light so appears green. if it was perfectly absorbing as much enery as possible it would be black. to make up for this non perfect absorption it has two other pigments
absorb blue and green light. reflect yellow, orange, and red. we see this in the fall. this is because when the chlorophyll die during the fall we can see the carotenoids that were outnumbered before.
absorb green, and yellow. Reflect blue and purple. like purple onions
funtional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis. They are responsible for the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons. Found in the thylakoid membranes. 2 kinds
oxidizes water and transfers electrons to photosystem l. In the middle of photosystem ll is the reaction center. within which is something called P680
consist of a glycerol compent and then 3 fatty acid tails. Our membrane is made of a portion of it. To make this particular fat 2 enzymes are required. And take one of these fatty acids off and add a phospholipid. hydrophobic tail. and head is hydrophillic.
hate water. thus when its in your bloodstream it forms globs.
modify the fluidity of your cells. more present less fluid. Omega -3 fatty acid can make your membranes more fluid.
What is our membrane made of?
a phospholipid bilayer so we have two sheets of sheets of phospholipids with tails facing each other. making membranes both haters and lovers of water.
why cant water pass through the hydrophobic part?
because its polar
a bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have different electonegativities and therefore have unequal sharing of the bonding of electron pair
a bond between 2 nonmental atoms that have the same electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair.
the overal direction of the movement of a substance. is measured by the force cacity on one side against the force capacity on the other.
what are the three characteristics needed to move across the membrane without help?
1. has to be small enough (no bigger than a dissacharide of sugar) like water, oxygen
2. has to be nonpolar
Form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into cell by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
why is endocytosis used?
because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.
what does endocytosis inlcude?
pinocytosis (cell drinking) and phagocytosis (cell eating). Psuedopods (fake feet) form off the cell and surround a particle and then internalize it. Digesting it later.
what is an example of endocytosis?
white blood cells
a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) out of the cell by expelling them in an energy-using process. Used by all cells because most chemical substance important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means . expel them outside the cell.
formation of ATP. All living things on the planet use a basic 2 step process to make ATP. Two organelles that make ATP are the mitochondria and the thylakoid of the chloroplast.
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