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white privilege

Rights or immunities granted as a particular benefit or favor for being White.

principle of third-generation interest

Marcus Hansen's contention that ethnic interest and awareness increase in the 3rd generation, among grandchildren of immigrants

symbolic ethnicity

Herbert Gan's term for an ethnic identity that emphasizes concerns such as ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ties to one's ethnic heritage.


A large, organized religion not officially linked with the state or government.

civil religion

the religious dimension in American life that merges the state with sacred beliefs


United Church of Christ (Congregationalists) and Episcopalians


Disciples of Christ, Methodists, Presbyterians


American Lutherans, American Baptists


Missouri Synod Lutherans, Southern Baptists, Assembly of God

secessionist minority

Groups that reject assimilation and promote coexistence and pluralism.


People who support a literal interpretation of the biblical book of genesis on the origins of the universe and argue that evolution should not be presented as established scientific thought

intelligent design

Theory which suggests all life is complex and best explained by an intelligent cause

ethnicity paradox

The maintenance of one's ethnic ties in a way that can assist with assimilation in larger society

world systems theory

A view of the global economic system as divided between nations that control wealth and those that provide natural resources and labor

internal colonialism

The treatment of subordinate peoples as colonial subjects by those in power.

millenarian movements

Movements, such as the Ghost Dance, that prophesy a cataclysm in the immediate future, to be followed by collective salvation


Intertribal social movements in which several tribes, joined by political goals but not by kinship, unite in a common identity


Tribes' protest over government interference with their traditional rights to fish as they like


Native American gatherings of dancing, singing, music playing, visiting which is accompanied by competitions


Tribal self-rule

kickouts or pushouts

Native American school dropouts who leave behind an unproductive academic environment

crossover effect

an effect that appears as previously high scoring Native American children score as below average in intelligence when tests are given in English rather than their native languages

environmental justice

Efforts to ensure that hazardous substances are controlled so that all communities receive protection regardless of race or socioeconomic circumstances

slave codes

Laws that defined the low position held by slaves in the United States.

Afrocentric perspective

An emphasis on the customs of African cultures and how they have pervaded the history, culture, and behavior of Blacks in the United States and around the world


distinctive dialect with a complex language structure found among many Black Americans


whites and free Blacks who favored the end of slavery

Jim Crow

Southern laws passed in the late 19th century that kept Blacks in their subordinate position

White primary

Legal provisions forbidding Black voting in election primaries, which in one-party areas of the south effectively denied blacks their right to select elected officials

slavery reparation

The act of making amends for the injustices of slavery.

sundown towns

communities where non-whites were systematically excluded from living

restrictive covenant

a private contract or agreement that discourages or prevents minority group members from purchasing housing in a neighborhood

de jure segregation

Children assigned to schools specifically to maintain racially separated schools

civil disobedience

A tactic promoted by MLK Jr. based on the belief that people have the right to disobey unjust laws under certain circumstances

riff-raff theory

Also called the rotten-apple theory; the belief that the riots of the 1960's were caused by discontented youths rather than by social and economic problems facing all African Americans

relative deprivation

the conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities

rising expectations

the increasing sense of frustration that legitimate needs are being blocked

de facto segregation

segregation that is the result of residential patterns

apartheid schools

All-Black Schools


The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria

acting White

taking school seriously and accepting the authority of teachers and administrators


salaries, wages, and other money received


An inclusive term encompassing all of a person's material assets, including land and other types of property


working at a job for which the worker is overqualified, involuntary working part time instead of full time, or being intermittently employed


as defined by Max Weber, people who share similar levels of wealth


The pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods

zoning laws

legal provisions stipulating land use and the architectural design of housing, often used to keep racial minorities and low-income people out of suburban areas

victimization surveys

Annual attempts to measure crime rates by interviewing ordinary citizens who may or may not have been crime victims

differential justice

Whites being dealt with more leniently than Blacks, whether at the time of arrest, indictment, conviction, sentencing, or parole

victim discounting

tendency to view crime as less socially significant if the victim is viewed as less worthy


drawing district boundaries for political advantage

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