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Placental mammals, many sharks, and a few other vertebrates nourish their young, not from an egg yolk, but through a connection with the maternal bloodstream. This kind of reproduction is called .
The human mother and developing baby are connected by a placenta which allows them to exchange blood, oxygen, nutrients, and other chemicals freely. True or false?
One of the hormones released by the placenta is __________, which maintains the mother's corpus luteum and is the hormone assayed in pregnancy tests.
A) human chorionic gonadotropin
D) follicle stimulating hormone
E) luteinizing hormone
The three primary germ layers from which the tissues later develop are called ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. True or false?
The embryos of placental mammals ___.
A) are born immediately after fertilization
B) develop inside a leathery shell
C) complete development in a pouch
D) hatch from an internal egg
E) are dependent on exchanges with mother for nutrition and waste removal
Enlargement of this gland is a very common problem in males. This enlargement may be benign or cancerous in origin and may narrow the urethra and obstruct the flow of urine. Identify the gland.
A) seminal vesicles
B) bulbourethral glands
C) prostate gland
Vertebrates that practice internal fertilization employ three strategies for embryonic and fetal development. The strategy in which the female retains the eggs within her body and the young are fully developed when they hatch inside of her is called _____.
In humans, the egg is most commonly fertilized by a sperm _____.
A) at the ovary immediately after ovulation
B) in the uterus after the egg has implanted
C) in the oviduct
D) near the cervix
E) in the uterus before the egg has implanted
Vertebrates that practice internal fertilization employ three strategies for embryonic and fetal development. The strategy in which the female packages the zygotes into the eggs which are expelled from her body and hatch outside of her body is called ______.
Histamine and prostaglandins are called _____.
C) inflammatory agents
D) allergic agents
When a person is tested for HIV, if _______ are present the test is called positive.
B) HIV virus particles
C) antibodies to HIV
D) natural killer cells
E) T cells
Immunity gained by the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is called _____ immunity.
People who lack antigens on the surfaces of their red blood cells will be classified as having type ___ blood.
Which of the following is not part of the inflammatory response?
A) Histamine and other chemicals are released, which produce redness, warmth, and edema.
B) Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages attack the invading microbes and contribute to the pus.
C) Antibodies and interferons are produced against the antigens.
D) The invading agent causes the release of pyrogens, which produce a fever.
The kidneys are important homeostatic organs, contributing to the stability of all of the following except _____.
A) blood volume
C) blood pressure
D) electrolyte concentrations
E) pH of body fluids
Body temperature and blood glucose are kept within normal limits by ____.
A) positive feedback loops
B) negative feedback loops
C) countercurrent multipliers
D) concurrent flow
E) extra secretions
You fall through the ice and expose yourself to extremely cold water. Which of the following choices is best to increase your chances of survival?
A) Stay in the water and move since exercise produces heat.
B) Make all attempts to get out of the water since water conducts heat better than air.
C) Stay in the water and remain still to conserve heat.
D) Stay in the water since air conducts heat better than water.
Insulation such as fur will have the greater effect ____.
A) in active versus inactive animals
B) in the heat compared to the cold
C) on larger animals compared to smaller animals
D) none of the above
The functional unit of a mammal's kidney, consisting of a system of tubules and associated small blood vessels is called a ____.
A) renal cortex
D) flame cell
E) collecting duct
Blood travels through a closed circulatory system in vessels, but exchange with the tissues only occurs at the _____.
Where does gas exchange occur in a vertebrate's circulatory system?
Within each lamella of a fish's gill filaments, the blood flows in the opposite direction to the flow of the water. This is called flow.
Your heart rate is regulated by a cardiac center in the ____ of your brain.
A) frontal lobe
C) adrenal gland
D) medulla oblongata
At rest, each of your breaths moves a volume of air into and out of the lungs. This is called the volume.
Positive pressure breathing, where air is gulped to force it into the lungs, is found in ___.
C) garter snakes
Except for amphibians, all terrestrial vertebrates breathe by expanding their lungs and thereby creating a _____ within the lungs.
A) negative pressure
B) positive pressure
C) neutral pressure
D) countercurrent pressure
When you inhale, your ribs are elevated and your diaphragm is depressed. This increases the volume of your lungs, thereby decreasing the gas pressure inside your lungs. Air flows from where it is at higher pressure, outside your body, into your lungs. True or false?
A goldfish or a trout swims by undulating its body up and down through the water, whereas a dolphin or a whale swims by undulating its body from side to side. True or false?
The origin of a muscle is the attachment to the bone that is not moving when the muscle contracts. True or false?
Most of the bones in your body are formed through the ossification process called ____.
A) intramembranous development
B) endochondral development
C) musculoskeletal maturation
D) chondrocyte development
In arthropods, locomotion is accomplished by muscles that pull against ____.
A) each other
B) a hydrostatic skeleton
C) the chitinous exoskeleteon
D) the pseudocoel
E) mineralized bones
The use-dependent decrease in the ability of a muscle to generate force is called ____.
A) oxygen debt
C) isotonic contraction
The two hormones that interact to maintain the level of blood glucose are ___.
A) epinephrine and norepinephrine
B) glucagon and insulin
C) oxytocin and prolactin
D) cortisol and aldosterone
The hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which constitute the "alarm" response of the body to stress, are secreted by the ____.
B) thyroid gland
C) adrenal glands
D) pineal gland
E) anterior pituitary
The hormone ________ sets the body's basal metabolic rate.
In a vertebrate, the signals of the endocrine system are transmitted to the appropriate target organ via ____.
A) the lymph
C) the peripheral nervous system
E) intercellular fluid
Rattlesnakes and other pit vipers can sense heat, also called _____ radiation.
D) visible light
All of the animal phyla listed except ____ have a network of nerve cells for gathering information from the environment.
The vertebrate brain is composed of the _____.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Electroreceptors are found in all of the following animals except ____.
A) bony fish
C) pit viper snakes
E) duck-billed platypus
Which of the following is not one of the levels in the hierarchy of organization in the vertebrate body?
E) organ systems
Which connective tissue has a matrix that is fluid?
D) dense connective tissue
E) loose connective tissue
In vertebrates, locomotion results from the contraction of muscles anchored to _____.
B) an exoskeleton
C) each other
E) the skin
If the connection between the gland and the epithelial membrane is maintained as a duct, the gland is called a(n) __ gland.
When air is forced into the lungs, not drawn into the lungs, it is called positive pressure breathing. This type of respiration is seen in which of the following terrestrial vertebrates?
In your muscles, the myofibrils consist of both thin filaments made of actin proteins, and thick filaments composed of ___.
A) myosin proteins
B) contractile protein subunits
C) Z line proteins
D) sarcoplasmic proteins
E) isometric proteins
The autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of all of the following except ___.
A) skeletal muscles
B) cardiac muscles
C) glands of the body
D) smooth muscles
Oxygen diffuses to the tissues of terrestrial arthropods through the ___.
B) cells of the cortex
C) circulatory system
E) tracheae and tracheoles
Snakes known as pit vipers are the only vertebrates known with the ability to sense ___.
A) infrared radiation
B) ultraviolet radiation
C) electromagnetic radiation
D) visible light radiation
E) magnetic fields
In arthropods, locomotion is accomplished by muscles that work by pulling against ___.
A) each other
B) the exoskeleton
C) a hydrostatic skeleton
D) mineralized bones
E) the pseudocoel
The cell-mediated immune response is brought about by ___.
A) B cells
B) T cells
Air passage into the tracheae of most insects is controlled by the closing and opening of valves, which operate special openings called ___.
D) book lungs
E) Malpighian tubules
Most animals undergo the following patterns of embryonic development: ___.
A) zygote to morula to blastula to gastrula
B) zygote to blastula to morula to gastrula
C) zygote to gastrula to morula to blastula
D) zygote to morula to gastrula to blastopore
The electroreceptors of sharks, rays, and skates can detect electrical fields or disturbances in electrical fields. These receptors are called ___.
A) Organ of Corti
B) Malpighian tubules
C) Fallopian tubes
D) Organ of Krebs
E) Ampullae of Lorenzini
Epithelial cells with a flattened, irregular shape and tapered edges are known as ___.
A) columnar cells
B) protoderm cells
C) squamous cells
D) stratified cells
E) tile cells
If the connection between the gland and the epithelial membrane is maintained as a duct, the gland is called a(n) ___.
A) exocrine gland
B) endocrine gland
C) lymph gland
D) gonadal gland
E) muscular gland
A human skeleton is an example of a vertebrate _____,
C) hydraulic skeleton
D) axial skeleton
E) appendicular skeleton
The two hormones that interact to maintain the level of blood glucose are ___.
A) cortisone and testosterone
B) epinephrine and norepinephrine
C) glucagon and insulin
D) luteneizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone
E) oxytocin and vasopressin
The pattern of flow of blood in a fish's gills and the flow of water over those gills is called ____.
A) concurrent flow
B) reduced current flow
C) countercurrent flow
D) laminar flow
E) surface tension diffusional flow
The flexor muscles that let you bend your leg at the knee are located ___.
A) on the anterior portion of the thigh
B) on the medial portion of the thigh
C) on the posterior portion of the thigh
D) on the lateral portion of the thigh
E) inside the knee
All of the following occur within the mammalian placenta, except ______.
A) the bloods of the mother and the embryo come in close contact without mixing
B) oxygen can diffuse from the mother to the embryo
C) carbon dioxide can diffuse from the embryo to the mother
D) the placenta provides nourishment, hormones, and detoxifying functions to the embryo
E) the antibodies made in the embryo protect the mother from infections
The hormone that is tested for in all human pregnancy tests is ____.
A) estrogen hormone
B) luteinizing hormone
C) follicle stimulation hormone
D) progesterone hormone
E) human chorionic gonadotropin hormone
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