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Anth 204 Exam 2 Ante Neanderthals and Early Middle Paleolithic and Neanderthals/Middle Paleolithic and Theories of Anatomically Modern Human Origins Lecture
Terms in this set (34)
Who are the Ante-Neanderthals?
-first to hunt
-first to use controlled fire
Locations of Homo Heidelbergensis Fossils
1. Arago, France (250 ka).
2. Atapuerca, Spain (>300 ka).
3. Petralona, Greece (240-160 ka).
4. Swanscombe, England (225 ka).
5. Steinheim, Germany (240-200 ka).
6. Mauer, Germany (<450 ka).
Anatomy of Homo Heidelbergensis
-Larger cranial capacities (1100-1400cc) than earlier H. erectus.
-Large faces, including eyes andnoses.
-Supraorbital tori arched.
-Some mid-facial prognathism.
What is Levallois Prepared-Core Technology?
-Production of consistently shaped flakes
from carefully-prepared cores.
- Controlled shape and size of flakes.
Steps of production for Levallois Technology include:
1. Prepare a raw block of stone by driving flakes from edges
until core is turtle-shell shaped.
2. Prepare one end of the core to form a "striking platform."
3. Remove series of usable flakes that travel from the
platform down the face of the core.
Homo Heidelbergensis (Ante-Neanderthals)
What about unambiguous evidence for
use and control of fire and hunting?
-Fire-hardened wooden spears from Schöningen, Germany and Clacton-on-the-Sea, England.
~400 ka (both dated by biostratigraphy).
-Evidence hunting and hint at potential importance of
organic, perishable materials in ancient technologies.
What was found in Vertesszollos, Hungary, and Bilzingsleben, Germany?
-Homo heidelbergensis occipital fragments with cranial capacity 1200 cc
-dating back to 200,000 yr ago in Vertesszollos, 200,000-240,000 yrs ago in Steinheim, and 228,000 yrs ago in Bilzingsleben
-compared to 800cc cranial capacity of Homo erectus found in Olorgesailie, Kenya
When and where did Homo Neanderthalensis (Mousterian) live?
1) Emerged in Europe about 150 ka, prevalent there for about 100 kyr:
2) Spread to SW Asia as far as central Asia 80-65 ka.
3) Disappeared by 40-35 ka.
Which of the following paleoanthropologists is the chief proponent of the Replacement Model for the origins of anatomically modern Homo sapiens?
Christopher B. Stringer
-Cranial Capacity: 1300-1600 cc
-Skull Shape: Low and long
-Frontal: Brow ridges, low frontal
-Occipital: Thick bun
-Postcranium: Stocky, robust
-Teeth: Very large, taurodont
-Mandible: No chin, retromolar gap
What do these morphological characteristics
tell us about Neanderthal behavior?
-Large Teeth, Prognathic Mid-face, Retromolar Gap, Oblique Tooth Wear:
Related to mastication and use of teeth as tools.
-Short, Stocky, Robust Skeleton (often with many broken bones):
Life in cold, northern environments of the Pleistocene.
Care for infirm and wounded.
Both men and women possessed injuries, suggesting...
No real sexual division of labor
Tool technology of the Neanderthals
-Classic Levallois: oval shaped
-Parallel Levallois: pointed
-unifacial tool assemblage, major forms
-Explained lithic variability of neanderthals by 3 major Mousterian
-Different "tribes" of the
A. Lewis Binford and Lawrence
-Explained lithic variability of neanderthals by functional differences
1) Scrapers for butchery.
2) Denticulates for woodworking.
-Explained lithic variability of neanderthals
-Different technologies through time in response to climate change
-Explained lithic variability of neanderthals reflected different levels of resharpening
What did Neanderthals hunt?
H. Bocherens found that they ate:
-Forrest dwelling carnivores
This suggest they were at the top of the food chain
Name the archaeological tradition that some archaeologists think represents a
cultural blending of Neanderthal-based and AMHS-based technologies?
Shanidar Cave, Iraq
-A man's skeleton found showed several healed bone fractures
-to survive he would've needed help of companions
-This shows Neanderthals cared for the sick and wounded
Kebara Cave, Israel
-found evidence of gazelle and fallow deer in Neanderthal diet
-evidence of burning and cut marks on their bones
-abundance of carbonized seeds of wild peas show Neanderthals also ate locally avaiable vegetable food
Mousterian site organization and habitation
-Most Mousterian sites are in caves and rockshelters.
A. Features rare.
B. Large numbers of lithic and faunal debris.
C. Some hearths.
A. Lithic workshops.
B. Short-term camps.
C. Kill sites (rare).
A. Pech de I'Aze, France
B. Ariendoft, Germany
Neanderthal burial sites
A. Teshik-Tash, Uzbekistan.
B. Shanidar Cave, Iraq.
C. Kebara Cave, Israel.
D. La Chappelle-aux-Saints, France.
E. La Ferrassie, France (8).
F. Amud Cave, Israel.
Evidence of Neanderthals with grave goods
- No unequivocal evidence of grave goods.
Positioning of Neanderthals at burial sites
-Most Neanderthal burials are in semi-flexed or twisted position.
Neanderthals Spoken language
-Some linguistic communication, but limited speech sounds (especially vowels)
1) Neanderthals existed from at least 150 ka to about 40 ka.
2) Physically distinct hominid population, perhaps a
separate species from H. sapiens.
3) Neanderthal Levallois technology with wellprepared
cores and removal of specially designed flakes.
4) Neanderthal Mousterian tool assemblage
variability resulted from behavioral variation.
5) Neanderthals were expert hunters relying
primarily on large-bodied game.
6) Neanderthals buried their dead to dispose of
corpses; no clear evidence for symbolic behavior in
7) Neanderthals had language, but a limited range of
Theories of Modern Human Origins
A. Multiregional Hypothesis: traditional view of
the evolution of Homo
B. "Out-of-Africa" or "Spread and Replacement"
view of modern human origins
C. Spread and Replacement Modified with
1) Homo evolved in three successive stages or
three successive species:
H. Habilis — H. erectus — H. sapiens
(2.5-1.8 mya) (1.9mya-300 kya) (<300 kya)
2) Darwinian (gradual evolution from one form to
3) "Regional Continuity" (Multiregional Model)
Multiregional Model or "Regional Continuity"
-proposed by Milford Wolpoff
-evolution of modern human beings was a geographically broad process not restricted to one region
-enough contact between groups in Africa, Europe, and Asia allow gene flow
Expectations of Multiregional Model
1) Early AMHS found in dispersed
2) No one region with earliest
3) Intermediate forms (advanced
pre-moderns) in each region.
4) No chronological overlap
between pre-modern and modern
forms in each region.
5) Regional anatomical continuity
between pre-modern and AMHS.
6) Archaeological record evidence
7) aDNA of pre-moderns should be
as similar to DNA of living humans
as aDNA of early AMHS is.
"Out-of-Africa" or "Spread and Replacement"
view of modern human origins
1) Homo erectus emerged in Africa, and spread
to southwest Asia, east and southeast Asia, and
2) Local variations emerged and new adaptations
led to evolution of local populations.
•late Homo erectus?
•These local forms included H. neanderthalensis in
3) Anatomically Modern Humans evolved in Africa and
spread to replace archaic forms across Eurasia.
Spread and Replacement Modified with
1) Same as Out of Africa.
2) But as AMHS spread across the Old World,
they admixed with Neanderthals in western
-in Siberian region
-DNA of a finger bone showed that it didn't belong to the Neanderthals or AMHS but similar enough to suggest that they were "cousin" species to Neanderthals
-mixed Mousterian and EUP technology
-DNA is present in modern Melaneasians (4.5%)
-significant elements of immune system were inheirted from Denisovans
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