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APES Chapter 6 Review
Terms in this set (50)
The principle that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot occupy the same realized niche is called
Which is a density-independent factor that could limit the size of a population?
The accidental spill of a pesticide that causes the population to decrease
In his 1961 paper, "The Paradox of the Plankton," ecologist G.E. Hutchinson noted that several species of algae coexist, sharing the same few mineral nutrient resources in homogeneous open water systems. As there is little chance of resource partitioning and niche differentiation in such a situation, the paradox of their coexistence is an apparent violation of
the competitive exclusion principle.
A laboratory experiment followed the growth of a flour beetle population over time. At first the population increased dramatically but later growth slowed and the population size leveled off. While food (the wheat flour in which they live) was abundant, the flour beetles began to eat their own eggs when densities got high. What might we hypothesize about this behavior in the flour beetles?
It serves as a density-dependent means of population control
__________ succession begins on bare rock after glaciers have passed, or on newly formed volcanic islands.
You are on a town committee formed to determine the borders for a new local nature park. You explain that according to the theory of island biogeography, if the committee wishes to promote species richness it should
I. increase the size of the park.
II. decrease the distance between the park and a nearby protected forest.
III. isolate the park by building a wall around its borders.
I and II
Which is NOT a type of interspecific interaction?
_______is the study of factors that cause populations to increase or decrease.
The intrinsic growth rate of a population
(not: is the number of yearly births minus the number of yearly deaths in a population.)
Characteristics of an r-selected species include
I. many offspring.
II. fast population growth rate
III. short time to reproductive maturity
I, II, and III
Which endangered species has suffered inbreeding depression because of population size?
During a single Oregon winter, minimum temperatures did not get much below freezing. The following summer large mosquito populations were observed in ponds. Cold weather came early the next winter and most ponds froze for 3 months. The following summer, very low mosquito populations were observed. What best explains this pattern in the mosquito population?
A density-independent factor
Which of the following is not a K-selected species?
A certain species of animal represents just 3 percent of the biomass in its ecosystem. We might classify this as a keystone species if its elimination
caused the diversity of the plant community to sharply decrease.
When an insect eats the lettuce seedlings in your yard, it is engaging in
On the slopes of the Appalachian Mountains, ecologists have studied some closely related salamander species for decades. When these salamander species live in separate valleys they tend to have very similar food size choices. When these species co-exist in a mountain valley, their food choices tend to differ, with some species selecting small insects and others selecting larger insects. This may be an example of
Following the exponential growth stage of Paramecium in Gause's experiment, a population graph would begin to display an ________ -shaped curve as the population approaches ___________ .
(not: J: carrying capacity)
A close interaction between two different species, in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected, is called
When all vegetation is removed from a site by human activity or by natural forces such as volcanic activity, __________ species are the first to colonize the site.
A population of river otters has a population growth rate of 0.2 per year. If the population starts out with 50 individuals and there is no death and no migration, how many individuals would you expect after one year and after two years?
A brightly colored insect that is poisonous to predators is using
(not: chemical defenses only. )
Tapeworms in the human gut are an example of
A population of mushrooms is experiencing exponential growth. When graphed, this population would display an __ - shaped curve since the population _______ limited by resources.
(not: S; is not currently )
An inbreeding depression can lead to
an increase in the expression of harmful genetic mutations
Which type of population distribution can help provide organisms with protection from predators?
The first plant community that forms on bare rock often includes organisms such as
lichens and mosses
Which of the following accurately compares growth patterns in eagles and bacteria?
(not: The growth curve of bacteria is rarely limited, whereas the growth of eagles is often limited.)
Which best describes the effect of bright coloration in prey?
Predators have learned that bright-colored prey are often toxic.
A species that plays a major role in determining the structure of its ecological community is
a keystone species.
Which is most likely to lead to an inbreeding depression?
Low genetic diversity
Which might a predator use to catch its prey?
Madagascar and the Seychelles are both islands in the western Indian Ocean. Madagascar is over 1,000 times larger than the Seychelles. Using the theory of island biogeography an ecologist would predict that
(not: there is a higher species density in the Seychelles.)
Some species mimic the coloring of similar species that are toxic. The mimic species
(not: s using camouflage as a morphological defense.)
The term symbiosis includes which of the following relationships between organisms of two different species?
(not: Mutualism, commensalism, competition)
Which is NOT a reason that populations of predators increase when populations of prey are high?
(not: The prey population may be weakened by competition for resources.)
Which pattern describes a type I survivorship curve?
High survival throughout the lifespan until individuals die in old age
In his 1798 book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Malthus stated "...the power of [Earth's human] population [to increase] is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man." He explained that our population increases exponentially while we can only increase our food supply linearly. Using our modern terminology, what did Malthus mean by "the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man?"
A population of bacteria in a Petri dish is growing at an exponential rate. Assume a starting population of 200 bacterium. If the growth rate for the species increases 10 percent every hour, approximately how long will it take for the number of bacterium to reach 400?
Which would not be a benefit of higher genetic diversity within a species?
More diversity of species
Which does NOT cause rapid growth in a population?
Introduction of a new parasite
When interspecific competition occurs between two species with the same realized niche
(not: the two species will engage in resource partitioning. )
If a population of 100 birds increases to 120 birds in a year, what is its rate of growth?
Which is a density-independent factor that can limit population size?
Use Figure 6-1 to select the option that correctly labels point A and point B.
(not: A = point of slowest growth; B = carrying capacity)
The roots of many plants are infected with a specialized fungus. The plant supplies carbon to the fungus, and the fungus supplies nutrients to the plant. How can this relationship be classified?
What is one reason for a random distribution pattern among a particular species in a community?
Resources are not limiting.
Which is NOT an example of two organisms in a mutualistic relationship?
(not: Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legume plants )
The population size (N) of Kenyan lions is
(not: the estimated number of lions living within each square mile in Africa.)
A population of honeybees has 15 females and 45 males. What is the sex ratio for this population?
Which is NOT an example of two organisms in a parasitic relationship?
(not: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and a human host)