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Words that come from the chapter based on test questions (3/6/12)


Molecule that carries our hereditary information, Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring. (AT and GC) in the shape of a twisted ladder called a double helix


in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base


ribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein production


a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; site of protein synthesis

cross breeding

when you take one trait from one organism and add it to a new organism, Breeding animals from different varieties to produce a breed with traits of both parents


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics; crosses parents with the same or similar sets of alleles


The process of creating a genetic duplicate of an individual organism through asexual reproduction; Genetically Identical; controversial; the first organism ever cloned was Dolly the Sheep


any change in a gene or chromosome; a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule; can cause some genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia

DNA fingerprinting

process in which the restriction enzyme cuts the DNA molecules, in order to identify individuals; used to solve crimes and for Paternity and Maternity tests; process in which the restriction enzyme cuts the DNA molecules.A dye is used to clearly see the patterns of DNA. No two people have the same DNA, except identical twins.


A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.

A, T, G, C

4 nitrogen bases of DNA
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine


Nitrogen base that pairs with thymine.


nitrogen base found ONLY in DNA that pairs with adenine


Nitrogen base that pairs with cytosine.


The base that pairs with Guanine with DNA

ribonucleic acid

(RNA) part of the genetic material that organisms inherited from their parents;

Selective Breeding

humans cross organisms to obtain desirable traits; breeding plants or animals with certain traits to produce offspring with those traits (Ex: Angus cows are bred to increase muscle mass for more meat; plants that are produced to be resistant to disease)

Gene Therapy

a technique of inserting working copy of a gene directly into the cell of a person with a genetic disorder; a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome

Human Genome Project

An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome; purpose to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome


breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals, or parents, to bring together the best traits of both organisms (ex: creating disease resistant plants; crossing a donkey and a horse to make a mule)

Genetic Engineering

process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms; (example of benefit: creating human insulin to treat people with diabetes) Bacteria is the most commonly used organism for Genetic Engineering

double helix

shape or structure of DNA


a chart or diagram that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait; used to trace the inheritance of traits over generations of families


a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs; genetic counselors study these to predict genetic disorders


all the DNA in one cell of an organism


A process where DNA fingerprinting where fragments are separated according to size using electrical charges

Artic Flounder gene

a gene used to create a plant that can survive the cold

Stem Cell

unspecialized cell that can develop into a specialized cell under the right conditions

genetic code

the order of nitrogen bases alsong a gene

protein synthesis

the manufacture of proteins; takes place on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell

Genetically Modified Organism

GMO; a plant, animal, or microorganism in which genes have been added, rearranged, or replaced through genetic engineering


a string of nucleotides that has instructions for a certain trait

amino acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules, the code for a given amino acid consists of three bases; three bases code for one.

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