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33 terms

7th Grade Science Chapter 6 a

Words that come from the chapter based on test questions (3/6/12)
STUDY
PLAY
DNA
Molecule that carries our hereditary information, Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring. (AT and GC) in the shape of a twisted ladder called a double helix
nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
RNA
ribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein production
ribosome
a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; site of protein synthesis
cross breeding
when you take one trait from one organism and add it to a new organism, Breeding animals from different varieties to produce a breed with traits of both parents
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics; crosses parents with the same or similar sets of alleles
cloning
The process of creating a genetic duplicate of an individual organism through asexual reproduction; Genetically Identical; controversial; the first organism ever cloned was Dolly the Sheep
mutation
any change in a gene or chromosome; a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule; can cause some genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia
DNA fingerprinting
process in which the restriction enzyme cuts the DNA molecules, in order to identify individuals; used to solve crimes and for Paternity and Maternity tests; process in which the restriction enzyme cuts the DNA molecules.A dye is used to clearly see the patterns of DNA. No two people have the same DNA, except identical twins.
mutagens
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
A, T, G, C
4 nitrogen bases of DNA
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
Adenine
Nitrogen base that pairs with thymine.
Thymine
nitrogen base found ONLY in DNA that pairs with adenine
Guanine
Nitrogen base that pairs with cytosine.
Cytosine
The base that pairs with Guanine with DNA
ribonucleic acid
(RNA) part of the genetic material that organisms inherited from their parents;
Selective Breeding
humans cross organisms to obtain desirable traits; breeding plants or animals with certain traits to produce offspring with those traits (Ex: Angus cows are bred to increase muscle mass for more meat; plants that are produced to be resistant to disease)
Gene Therapy
a technique of inserting working copy of a gene directly into the cell of a person with a genetic disorder; a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome
Human Genome Project
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome; purpose to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome
Hybridization
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals, or parents, to bring together the best traits of both organisms (ex: creating disease resistant plants; crossing a donkey and a horse to make a mule)
Genetic Engineering
process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms; (example of benefit: creating human insulin to treat people with diabetes) Bacteria is the most commonly used organism for Genetic Engineering
double helix
shape or structure of DNA
pedigree
a chart or diagram that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait; used to trace the inheritance of traits over generations of families
karyotypes
a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs; genetic counselors study these to predict genetic disorders
genome
all the DNA in one cell of an organism
Electrophoresis
A process where DNA fingerprinting where fragments are separated according to size using electrical charges
Artic Flounder gene
a gene used to create a plant that can survive the cold
Stem Cell
unspecialized cell that can develop into a specialized cell under the right conditions
genetic code
the order of nitrogen bases alsong a gene
protein synthesis
the manufacture of proteins; takes place on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell
Genetically Modified Organism
GMO; a plant, animal, or microorganism in which genes have been added, rearranged, or replaced through genetic engineering
gene
a string of nucleotides that has instructions for a certain trait
amino acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules, the code for a given amino acid consists of three bases; three bases code for one.