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Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE)

includes REE (60-75%), TEF(5-10%), and TEE(15-30%).

Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)

all energy requiring processes at rest (breathing) (60%-75% of TDEE). lean males have higher REE than fat females (muscle v. fat), declines with age.

Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

the energy require to metabolize nutrients (5%-10% of TDEE). generally not manipulated in dietary planning, snacking may help increase metabolism. the more kcal in meal the greater the TEF.

Thermic Effect of Exercise (TEE)

energy required for physical activity (15%-30% of TDEE). depends on activity, duration, and intensity.

factors that raise REE

-cold exposure (shivering)
-hot environments

convert pounds into kilograms

divide weight by 2.2 (i.e. 150lbs / 2.2 = 68kg

convert inches into centimeters

multiply height by 2.54 (i.e. 67inches * 2.54 = 170cm)

contributions to calorie needs

-body fat
-weight gain
-heavy pack
-heavy gear
-extra winter clothing
-pulling a sled with food or gear

macronutrient proportions

-increase CHO (carbohydrates) at altitude
-increase fat in cold
-adequate protein for muscle maintenance

factors in food planning

-nutrient dense
-light weight
-easy preparation
-great taste

backcountry nutrition pinnacle

#1 - exercise & water
#2 - grains & starchy veggies
#3 - beans, nuts, seeds, veggies, fruit
#4 - meat, poultry, eggs, fish, dairy
#5 - fats & sweets (use sparingly)

bulk rationing system

-based on pounds per person per day
-allows for flexibility in meal planning
-can supplement with fresh fish & wild edibles
-add spices for taste

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